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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(12): 2565-2566, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245600

ABSTRACT

Adult vaccination is an accepted part of health care and diabetes care. In spite of evidence regarding the efficacy and utility of vaccination in preventing disease, we continue to encounter vaccine hesitancy and vaccine skepticism. As physicians, it is our duty to encourage the public to get vaccinated. In this article, we create a simple framework which helps assess the barriers to vaccine acceptance, and create bridges to overcome vaccine hesitancy and skepticism. We use an interesting mnemonic, NARCO, to remind ourselves, and our readers, of the appropriate hierarchy of interviewing related to vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
Physicians , Vaccination Hesitancy , Adult , Humans , Health Facilities , Memory , Vaccination , Primary Health Care
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1129793, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242154

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have witnessed telemedicine becoming a crucial part of health care as a method to facilitate doctor-patient interaction. Due to technological developments and the incremental acquisition of experience in its use, telemedicine's advantages and cost-effectiveness has led to it being recognised as specifically relevant to diabetology. However, the pandemic created new challenges for healthcare systems and the rate of development of digital services started to grow exponentially. It was soon discovered that COVID-19-infected patients with diabetes had an increased risk of both mortality and debilitating sequelae. In addition, it was observed that this higher risk could be attenuated primarily by maintaining optimal control of the patient's glucose metabolism. As opportunities for actual physical doctor-patient visits became restricted, telemedicine provided the most convenient opportunity to communicate with patients and maintain delivery of care. The wide range of experiences of health care provision during the pandemic has led to the development of several excellent strategies regarding the applicability of telemedicine across the whole spectrum of diabetes care. The continuation of these strategies is likely to benefit clinical practice even after the pandemic crisis is over.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
3.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 131(5): 260-267, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276753

ABSTRACT

The growing amount of evidence suggests the existence of a bidirectional relation between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as these two conditions exacerbate each other, causing a significant healthcare and socioeconomic burden. The alterations in innate and adaptive cellular immunity, adipose tissue, alveolar and endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulation, the propensity to an increased viral load, and chronic diabetic complications are all associated with glucometabolic perturbations of T2DM patients that predispose them to severe forms of COVID-19 and mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection negatively impacts glucose homeostasis due to its effects on insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function, further aggravating the preexisting glucometabolic perturbations in individuals with T2DM. Thus, the most effective ways are urgently needed for countering these glucometabolic disturbances occurring during acute COVID-19 illness in T2DM patients. The novel classes of antidiabetic medications (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) are considered candidate drugs for this purpose. This review article summarizes current knowledge regarding glucometabolic disturbances during acute COVID-19 illness in T2DM patients and the potential ways to tackle them using novel antidiabetic medications. Recent observational data suggest that preadmission use of GLP-1 RAs and SGLT-2is are associated with decreased patient mortality, while DPP-4is is associated with increased in-hospital mortality of T2DM patients with COVID-19. Although these results provide further evidence for the widespread use of these two classes of medications in this COVID-19 era, dedicated randomized controlled trials analyzing the effects of in-hospital use of novel antidiabetic agents in T2DM patients with COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/therapeutic use , Glucose
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(11): 2332-2334, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252129

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a significant risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, poor prognosis, and mortality. Uncontrolled hyperglycaemia is associated with impaired innate and adaptive immunity predisposing to severe infection. In addition, there are other mechanisms linked to diabetes such as the upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor that might aid in viral entry and spread. The chronic low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction might provide the backdrop to the development of cytokine storm and thromboembolic complications. Understanding the pathophysiology behind severe COVID-19 in diabetes will help to optimise management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Inflammation , Risk Factors
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(1): 191-192, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265460

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic drew our attention to the interplay between pulmonary health and diabetes. The impact of poorly controlled diabetes in worsening COVID-19 outcome is well-recognized. This article explores the broad spectrum of associations between the lung and diabetes. The lung can be the target of organ damage in diabetes, be the origin of a disease process affecting glycaemic status, and also contribute to metabolic complications. Diabetes can be a part of several pulmonary syndromes. Medications used for diabetes can adversely affect the lungs and vice versa. On the other hand, certain glucose-lowering drugs have the potential to improve respiratory function. The close link between diabetes and lung disease calls for a combined approach to managing these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Lung Diseases , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging
6.
Metabolites ; 13(1)2022 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232885

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is a microbially driven, host-mediated disease that leads to loss of periodontal attachment and resorption of bone. It is associated with the elevation of systemic inflammatory markers and with the presence of systemic comorbidities. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the majority of patients have mild symptoms, others experience important complications that can lead to death. After the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, several investigations demonstrating the possible relationship between periodontitis and COVID-19 have been reported. In addition, both periodontal disease and COVID-19 seem to provoke and/or impair several cardiometabolic complications such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and neurological and neuropsychiatric complications. Therefore, due to the increasing number of investigations focusing on the periodontitis-COVID-19 relationship and considering the severe complications that such an association might cause, this review aims to summarize all existing emerging evidence regarding the link between the periodontitis-COVID-19 axis and consequent cardiometabolic impairments.

7.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(11): 108336, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117652

ABSTRACT

The raging COVID-19 pandemic is in its third year of global impact. The SARS CoV 2 virus has a high rate of spread, protean manifestations, and a high morbidity and mortality in individuals with predisposing risk factors. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involve a heightened systemic inflammatory state, cardiometabolic derangements, and varying degrees of glucose intolerance. The latter can be evident as significant hyperglycemia leading to new-onset diabetes or worsening of preexisting disease. Unfortunately, the clinical course beyond the acute phase of the illness may persist in the form of a variety of symptoms that together form the so-called "Long COVID" or "Post-COVID Syndrome". It is thought that a chronic, low-grade inflammatory and immunologic state persists during this phase, which may last for weeks or months. Although numerous insights have been gained into COVID-related hyperglycemia and diabetes, its prediction, course, and management remain to be fully elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , RNA, Viral , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hyperglycemia/complications , Inflammation/complications
8.
Journal of diabetes and its complications ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058382

ABSTRACT

The raging COVID-19 pandemic is in its third year of global impact. The SARS CoV 2 virus has a high rate of spread, protean manifestations, and a high morbidity and mortality in individuals with predisposing risk factors. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involve a heightened systemic inflammatory state, cardiometabolic derangements, and varying degrees of glucose intolerance. The latter can be evident as significant hyperglycemia leading to new-onset diabetes or worsening of preexisting disease. Unfortunately, the clinical course beyond the acute phase of the illness may persist in the form of a variety of symptoms that together form the so-called “Long COVID” or “Post-COVID Syndrome”. It is thought that a chronic, low-grade inflammatory and immunologic state persists during this phase, which may last for weeks or months. Although numerous insights have been gained into COVID-related hyperglycemia and diabetes, its prediction, course, and management remain to be fully elucidated.

9.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 26(4): 376-383, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055694

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes with COVID-19, and to determine the impact of type 2 diabetes on clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Material and Methods: This single-center, retrospective, observational study enrolled patients admitted from March 2020 to June 2021 with COVID-19. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with known type 2 diabetes, newly diagnosed diabetes, type 2 diabetes with comorbidities and those who succumbed to illness were analyzed. Results: Of 4,559 patients with COVID-19, 2,090 (45.8%) had type 2 diabetes. Patients with COVID-19 with diabetes were older, more likely to receive mechanical ventilation, had higher odds of mortality from COVID-19 as compared with patients without diabetes. In addition, patients with diabetes had significantly higher levels of serum creatinine, C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer. Compared with previously diagnosed patients with diabetes, newly diagnosed patients had higher mortality (33% vs. 27%, P = 0.049). Among patients with COVID-19 and diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher levels of inflammatory markers and had severe impairment of cardiac, renal, and coagulation parameters as opposed to survivors. Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 with diabetes were more likely to have severe disease and had higher mortality. Presence of chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes with COVID-19 was associated with adverse outcome. Patients with newly diagnosed diabetes had higher odds of severe disease at presentation and had higher mortality.

10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(12): 166559, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041586

ABSTRACT

Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) often cluster together as "Cardiometabolic Disease" (CMD). Just under 50% of patients with CMD increased the risk of morbidity and mortality right from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic as it has been reported in most countries affected by the SARS-CoV2 virus. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of COVID-19 is the overactivation of the immune system with a prominent IL-6 response, resulting in severe and systemic damage involving also cytokines such as IL2, IL4, IL8, IL10, and interferon-gamma were considered strong predictors of COVID-19 severity. Thus, in this mini-review, we try to describe the inflammatory state, the alteration of the adipokine profile, and cytokine production in the obese state of infected and not infected patients by SARS-CoV2 with the final aim to find possible influences of COVID-19 on CMD and CVD. The immunological-based discussion of the molecular processes could inspire the study of promising targets for managing CMD patients and its complications during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adipokines , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Diabetes Ther ; 13(10): 1723-1736, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007290

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, has been shown to disrupt many organ systems in the human body. Though several medical disorders have been affected by this infection, a few illnesses in addition may also play a role in determining the outcome of COVID-19. Obesity is one such disease which is not only affected by the occurrence of COVID-19 but can also result in a worse clinical outcome of COVID-19 infection. This manuscript summarizes the most recent evidence supporting the bidirectional impact of COVID-19 and obesity. It highlights how the presence of obesity can be detrimental to the outcome of COVID-19 in a given patient because of the mechanical limitations in lung compliance and also by the activation of several thrombo-inflammatory pathways. The sociodemographic changes brought about by the pandemic in turn have facilitated the already increasing prevalence of obesity. This manuscript highlights the importance of recognizing these pathways which may further help in policy changes that facilitate appropriate measures to prevent the further worsening of these two pandemics.

12.
Cureus ; 14(5), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1876773

ABSTRACT

Context: The effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the endocrine system remain uncertain. Objective: Our study aimed to explore the possible effects of COVID-19 on endocrine organs and to determine the impact of glycemic status, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, calcium levels, and thyroid dysfunction on the final outcome of patients with COVID-19. Design and methods: This single-center, retrospective study evaluated endocrine function abnormalities in 102 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Of 102 patients admitted to ICU, 42 (41.2%) succumbed to illness. The most frequently observed abnormality in thyroid function tests was low free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels (56%). A thyroid profile indicating thyrotoxicosis was detected in five (4.9%) patients, and overt hypothyroidism was identified in two (1.9%) patients. New-onset diabetes was detected in five (4.9%) patients whereas diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation was found in six (5.9%) cases. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis was detected in one patient with diabetes during treatment of COVID-19 while three (2.9%) patients were diagnosed with pulmonary mucormycosis after recovery from COVID-19. Hypocalcemia was observed in 52 (51 %) patients. Out of 42 patients who died, 32 patients had low FT3, 26 patients had high glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and 33 patients had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, low FT3 and higher HbA1c levels were significantly associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: New-onset thyrotoxicosis in COVID-19 patients is mostly due to subacute thyroiditis. Hypocalcemia is also frequently encountered in patients with moderate disease and those with critical COVID-19. A high index of suspicion is required to timely diagnose mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients with diabetes. 

13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(5): 800-801, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863752
14.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 26(1): 13-16, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855984

ABSTRACT

Steroid stewardship is the systematic effort to prescribe and monitor glucocorticoids in a rational manner, while balancing benefit and potential risk, in patients who require this therapy. Steroid stewardship includes pre-prescription screening, rational prescription, medical care during corticosteroid use, and appropriate monitoring after corticosteroid use has been discontinued. The current usage of this class of drugs has highlighted the need to focus on this collective responsibility, and ensure effective prescription, while minimizing adverse events.

15.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 412-413, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753791
16.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(12): 4350-4363, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689986

ABSTRACT

The human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected overall healthcare delivery, including prenatal, antenatal and postnatal care. Hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HIP) is the most common medical condition encountered during pregnancy. There is little guidance for primary care physicians for providing delivery of optimal perinatal care while minimizing the risk of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women. This review aims to describe pragmatic modifications in the screening, detection and management of HIP during the COVID- 19 pandemic. In this review, articles published up to June 2021 were searched on multiple databases, including PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and ScienceDirect. Direct online searches were conducted to identify national and international guidelines. Search criteria included terms to extract articles describing HIP with and/or without COVID-19 between 1st March 2020 and 15th June 2021. Fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and random plasma glucose could be alternative screening strategies for gestational diabetes mellitus screening (at 24-28 weeks of gestation), instead of the traditional 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. The use of telemedicine for the management of HIP is recommended. Hospital visits should be scheduled to coincide with obstetric and ultrasound visits. COVID-19 infected pregnant women with HIP need enhanced maternal and fetal vigilance, optimal diabetes care and psychological support in addition to supportive measures. This article presents pragmatic options and approaches for primary care physicians, diabetes care providers and obstetricians for GDM screening, diagnosis and management during the pandemic, to be used in conjunction with routine antenatal care.

17.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 25(4): 261-282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595666

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in patients with COVID-19 infection and evaluate the impact of vitamin D levels on the severity of symptoms and the case fatality rate. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive literature search was performed up to December 20, 2020, using the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and preprint databases (BioRxiv and MedRxiv). Any individual observational study related to the prevalence and impact of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (VDD/VDI) on the severity of COVID-19 symptoms and mortality rates was included. No language restrictions were applied, and both published and non-published studies were included. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Two of the authors independently performed the literature search and assessed the eligibility of studies. The quality of studies included was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were analyzed using the Review Manager Software (version 5) and Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software (version 3). A total of 43 studies were included with a sample size of 254,963 patients with COVID-19. Pooled analysis showed a higher prevalence of VDD and VDI in patients with COVID-19 (59.0% and 40.1%, respectively). Moreover, a significant association was noticed between vitamin D levels and severity of symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.94-5.87, P < 0.0001), as well as the case fatality rate (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.47-3.59, P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: VDD is highly prevalent in patients with COVID-19 infection. Lower vitamin D levels correlate with disease severity and poor prognosis although most of the data have been derived from moderate-quality observational studies.

18.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18489, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497844

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has aggravated the demand for diabetes care due to restrictive measures like the lockdown affecting access to healthcare services. The current study was conducted to assess the changes in medication compliance, dietary pattern, and glucose monitoring during the lockdown period as compared to the pre-lockdown period among patients living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) attending a diabetes clinic in northern India. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between May and July 2020. Information regarding the sociodemographic and clinical profiles of the patients like age, sex, income, qualification, family history of diabetes, history of smoking and alcohol, type of treatment, co-morbidities, drug adherence for T2DM, changes in the pattern of diet, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, and drug usage during and before the lockdown was collected through telephonic interviews using a structured tool. Descriptive analysis was performed, and the chi-square and Wilcoxon sign ranks tests were used to see the association between variables. Results A total of 260 patients were enrolled in the study. A higher proportion of males reported a decrease in the consumption of cereals (13.9%), eggs (56.5%), and meat and fish (92.7%) and an increase in water intake (25.8%) while a higher proportion of females reported no change in physical activity levels (77.2%) during the lockdown against pre-COVID times. There was a significant improvement in medication adherence and glycemic control during the lockdown period as compared to the pre-lockdown times. Conclusion More time for self-care, adequate counseling about glycemic goals, and knowledge of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels helped the majority of patients in adopting a healthy lifestyle and achieve better glycemic control during the COVID-19 lockdown.

19.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 25(1): 4-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332214

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is showing no signs of abatement and result in significant morbidity and mortality in the infected patients. Many therapeutic agents ranging widely between antivirals and anti-inflammatory drugs have been used to mitigate the disease burden. In the deluge of the drugs being used for COVID-19 infection, glucocorticoids (GCs) stand out by reducing mortality amongst in-hospital severe-to-critically ill patients. Health-care practitioners have seen this as a glimmer of hope and started using these drugs more frequently than ever in clinical practice. The fear of mortality in the short term has overridden the concern of adverse long-term consequences with steroid use. The ease of availability, low cost, and apparent clinical improvement in the short term have led to the unscrupulous use of the steroids even in mild COVID-19 patients including self-medication with steroids. The use of GCs has led to the increasing incidence of hyperglycemia and consequent acute complications of diabetic ketoacidosis and mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. There is an urgent need to dissipate information about optimum management of hyperglycemia during steroid use. In view of this, the Endocrine Society of India has formulated this position statement about the diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia due to the use of GCs in patients with COVID-19 infection.

20.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(12): 2829-2844, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252260

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus affects over 463 million individuals worldwide. Religious activities such as the Hajj pilgrimage have a major impact on patients with diabetes mellitus, including increasing the risk of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia. This increased risk is due to dietary changes and intense physical activity during pilgrimage while being on antidiabetic medications. Approximately 20% of the pilgrims with underlying illnesses who visit Mecca are diabetic, and complications, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar state, and fatigue/unconsciousness due to hypoglycaemia, have been observed among these patients. Diabetic patients are also at a high risk for foot complications and infections. To avoid any aggravation of the diabetes, a complete biochemical evaluation of the patient must be conducted before Hajj, and the patients must be provided contextualized educational guidance to avert these potential health challenges. This counselling should include the importance of carrying with them at all time their relevant medical history, summaries of the current treatment regimen and emergency snacks. In addition, to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia, the dosage of insulin should be reduced in selected patients by 20% and that of sulfonylurea should be reduced as needed. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists are associated with fewer complications and can be preferentially prescribed. Those patients with type 1 diabetes can continue with the use of insulin pump with suitable education prior to Hajj. For the prevention of foot problems, the use of padded socks and well-fitting shoes is recommended along with an insistence on not walking barefoot. After Hajj, the patient must be followed up, and necessary investigations must be made along with readjustment of insulin dosage in those patients for whom it was reduced. Until the pandemic situation abates, all diabetic patients should avoid making the Hajj journey.

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