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2.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(8): e12632, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Higher D-dimer is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and venous thromboembolism. In the general population, D-dimer and other thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers are higher among Black individuals, who also have higher risk of these conditions compared to White people. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether Black individuals have an exaggerated correlation between D-dimer and thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers characteristic of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: Linear regression was used to assess correlations of 11 thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers with D-dimer in a cross-sectional study of 1068 participants of the biracial Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. RESULTS: Adverse levels of most biomarkers, especially fibrinogen, factor VIII, C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and interleukin (IL)-6, were associated with higher D-dimer. Several associations with D-dimer differed significantly by race. For example, the association of factor VIII with D-dimer was more than twice as large in Black compared to White participants. Specifically, D-dimer was 26% higher per standard deviation (SD) higher factor VIII in Black adults and was only 11% higher per SD higher factor VIII in White adults. In Black but not White adults, higher IL-10 and soluble CD14 were associated with higher D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that D-dimer might relate to Black/White differences in cardiovascular diseases and venous thromboembolism because it is a marker of amplified thrombo-inflammatory response in Black people. Better understanding of contributors to higher D-dimer in the general population is needed.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2255, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding health care experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic may provide insights into patient needs and inform policy. The objective of this study was to describe health care experiences by race and social determinants of health. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey (July 6, 2020-September 4, 2021) among 9492 Black and White participants in the longitudinal REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke cohort study, age 58-105 years, from the continental United States. Among participants with symptoms of COVID-19, outcomes were: 1. Sought care or advice for the illness; 2. Received a SARS-CoV-2 test for the illness; and 3. Tested positive. Among participants without symptoms of COVID-19, outcomes were: 1. Wanted a test; 2. Wanted and received a test; 3. Did not want but received a test; and 4. Tested positive. We examined these outcomes overall and in subgroups defined by race, household income, marital status, education, area-level poverty, rural residence, Medicaid expansion, public health infrastructure ranking, and residential segregation. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 76.8 years, 36% were Black, and 57% were female. Among participants with COVID-19 symptoms (n = 697), 74% sought care or advice for the illness, 50% received a SARS-CoV-2 test, and 25% had a positive test (50% of those tested). Among participants without potential COVID-19 symptoms (n = 8795), 29% wanted a SARS-CoV-2 test, 22% wanted and received a test, 8% did not want but received a test, and 1% tested positive; a greater percentage of participants who were Black compared to White wanted (38% vs 23%, p < 0.001) and received tests (30% vs 18%, p < 0.001) and tested positive (1.4% vs 0.8%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In this national study of older US adults, many participants with potential COVID-19 symptoms and asymptomatic participants who desired testing did not receive COVID-19 testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , United States/epidemiology
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