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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0459022, 2023 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235967

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus that causes MERS, which is endemic in the Middle East. The absence of human cases in Africa despite the presence of MERS-CoV suggests virological differences between MERS-CoVs in Africa and the Middle East. In fact, in the laboratory, recombinant MERS-CoV carrying the spike (S) protein of Ethiopian isolates exhibits attenuated properties, being more easily neutralized and replicating slower than viruses carrying the S protein of Middle Eastern isolate, EMC. In this study, to identify the amino acids that define the different virological features between Ethiopian and Middle Eastern MERS-CoVs, neutralization titers and viral replication were evaluated using recombinant MERS-CoVs carrying amino acid substitution(s) in the S protein. A single amino acid difference introduced into the receptor binding domain was sufficient to reverse the difference in the neutralizing properties of the S protein between Ethiopian and Middle Eastern MERS-CoVs. Furthermore, amino acid mutations in the S1 and S2 regions of S protein were collectively involved in slow viral replication. Since even a single amino acid difference in S protein can reverse the viral properties of MERS-CoV, it should be noted that multiple mutations may induce a significant change. Careful monitoring of genetic alterations in MERS-CoVs in Africa is therefore required to detect the emergence of virulent strains generated by a few genetic differences. IMPORTANCE There have been no reported cases of human Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Africa, despite the presence of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Previous studies have shown that recombinant MERS-CoV carrying the S protein of an Ethiopian isolate replicated slower and was more easily neutralized relative to MERS-CoV carrying the S protein of a Middle Eastern isolate. In this study, we investigated the amino acid(s) in S protein associated with the different viral characteristics between Ethiopian and Middle Eastern MERS-CoVs. The results revealed that a single amino acid difference in the receptor binding domain was sufficient to reverse the neutralization profile. This implies that slight genetic changes can alter the predominant population of MERS-CoV, similar to the transition of variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Careful genetic monitoring of isolates is important to detect the spread of possible virulent MERS-CoVs generated by mutation(s).

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20120, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133636

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Variants of concern (VOCs) such as Delta and Omicron have developed, which continue to spread the pandemic. It has been reported that these VOCs reduce vaccine efficacy and evade many neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the glycosylated spike (S) protein, which consists of the S1 and S2 subunits. Therefore, identification of optimal target regions is required to obtain neutralizing antibodies that can counter VOCs. Such regions have not been identified to date. We obtained 2 mAbs, NIBIC-71 and 7G7, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from volunteers who recovered from COVID-19. Both mAbs had neutralizing activity against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and Delta, but not Omicron. NIBIC-71 binds to the RBD, whereas 7G7 recognizes the N-terminal domain of the S1. In particular, 7G7 inhibited S1/S2 cleavage but not the interaction between the S protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; it suppressed viral entry. Thus, the efficacy of a neutralizing mAb targeting inhibition of S1/2 cleavage was demonstrated. These results suggest that neutralizing mAbs targeting blockade of S1/S2 cleavage are likely to be cross-reactive against various VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Monoclonal
3.
iScience ; 25(11): 105412, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083114

ABSTRACT

Live-attenuated vaccines are generally highly effective. Here, we aimed to develop one against SARS-CoV-2, based on the identification of three types of temperature-sensitive (TS) strains with mutations in nonstructural proteins (nsp), impaired proliferation at 37°C-39°C, and the capacity to induce protective immunity in Syrian hamsters. To develop a live-attenuated vaccine, we generated a virus that combined all these TS-associated mutations (rTS-all), which showed a robust TS phenotype in vitro and high attenuation in vivo. The vaccine induced an effective cross-reactive immune response and protected hamsters against homologous or heterologous viral challenges. Importantly, rTS-all rarely reverted to the wild-type phenotype. By combining these mutations with an Omicron spike protein to construct a recombinant virus, protection against the Omicron strain was obtained. We show that immediate and effective live-attenuated vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 variants may be developed using rTS-all as a backbone to incorporate the spike protein of the variants.

6.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0156121, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529876

ABSTRACT

Historically part of the coronavirus (CoV) family, torovirus (ToV) was recently classified in the new family Tobaniviridae. While reverse genetics systems have been established for various CoVs, none exist for ToVs. Here, we developed a reverse genetics system using an infectious full-length cDNA clone of bovine ToV (BToV) in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Recombinant BToV harboring genetic markers had the same phenotype as wild-type (wt) BToV. To generate two types of recombinant virus, the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene was edited, as cell-adapted wtBToV generally loses full-length HE (HEf), resulting in soluble HE (HEs). First, recombinant viruses with HEf and hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged HEf or HEs genes were rescued. These exhibited no significant differences in their effect on virus growth in HRT18 cells, suggesting that HE is not essential for viral replication in these cells. Thereafter, we generated a recombinant virus (rEGFP) wherein HE was replaced by the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. rEGFP expressed EGFP in infected cells but showed significantly lower levels of viral growth than wtBToV. Moreover, rEGFP readily deleted the EGFP gene after one passage. Interestingly, rEGFP variants with two mutations (C1442F and I3562T) in nonstructural proteins (NSPs) that emerged during passage exhibited improved EGFP expression, EGFP gene retention, and viral replication. An rEGFP into which both mutations were introduced displayed a phenotype similar to that of these variants, suggesting that the mutations contributed to EGFP gene acceptance. The current findings provide new insights into BToV, and reverse genetics will help advance the current understanding of this neglected pathogen. IMPORTANCE ToVs are diarrhea-causing pathogens detected in various species, including humans. Through the development of a BAC-based BToV, we introduced the first reverse genetics system for Tobaniviridae. Utilizing this system, recombinant BToVs with a full-length HE gene were generated. Remarkably, although clinical BToVs generally lose the HE gene after a few passages, some recombinant viruses generated in the current study retained the HE gene for up to 20 passages while accumulating mutations in NSPs, which suggested that these mutations may be involved in HE gene retention. The EGFP gene of recombinant viruses was unstable, but rEGFP into which two NSP mutations were introduced exhibited improved EGFP expression, gene retention, and viral replication. These data suggested the existence of an NSP-based acceptance or retention mechanism for exogenous RNA or HE genes. Recombinant BToVs and reverse genetics are powerful tools for understanding fundamental viral processes, pathogenesis, and BToV vaccine development.


Subject(s)
DNA, Complementary , Genome, Viral , Reverse Genetics , Torovirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Reporter , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Mutation , Plasmids/genetics , Torovirus/isolation & purification , Torovirus Infections , Transfection
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6791, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532053

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a receptor for cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, and recombinant soluble ACE2 protein inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection as a decoy. ACE2 is a carboxypeptidase that degrades angiotensin II, thereby improving the pathologies of cardiovascular disease or acute lung injury. Here we show that B38-CAP, an ACE2-like enzyme, is protective against SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury. Endogenous ACE2 expression is downregulated in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, leading to elevation of angiotensin II levels. Recombinant Spike also downregulates ACE2 expression and worsens the symptoms of acid-induced lung injury. B38-CAP does not neutralize cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. However, B38-CAP treatment improves the pathologies of Spike-augmented acid-induced lung injury. In SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters or human ACE2 transgenic mice, B38-CAP significantly improves lung edema and pathologies of lung injury. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that increasing ACE2-like enzymatic activity is a potential therapeutic strategy to alleviate lung pathologies in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung Injury/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Acute Lung Injury , Angiotensin II , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Carboxypeptidases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pulmonary Edema/pathology , Pulmonary Edema/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Vero Cells
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462067

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global threat to human health and life. A useful pathological animal model accurately reflecting human pathology is needed to overcome the COVID-19 crisis. In the present study, COVID-19 cynomolgus monkey models including monkeys with underlying diseases causing severe pathogenicity such as metabolic disease and elderly monkeys were examined. Cynomolgus macaques with various clinical conditions were intranasally and/or intratracheally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 was found in mucosal swab samples, and a higher level and longer period of viral RNA was detected in elderly monkeys than in young monkeys. Pneumonia was confirmed in all of the monkeys by computed tomography images. When monkeys were readministrated SARS-CoV-2 at 56 d or later after initial infection all of the animals showed inflammatory responses without virus detection in swab samples. Surprisingly, in elderly monkeys reinfection showed transient severe pneumonia with increased levels of various serum cytokines and chemokines compared with those in primary infection. The results of this study indicated that the COVID-19 cynomolgus monkey model reflects the pathophysiology of humans and would be useful for elucidating the pathophysiology and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Primate Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis/virology , Male , Primate Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Virus Shedding/immunology , Virus Shedding/physiology
9.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2926-2939, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327181

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been identified as the causative agent for the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. 3CL protease (3CLpro) plays a pivotal role in the processing of viral polyproteins. We report peptidomimetic compounds with a unique benzothiazolyl ketone as a warhead group, which display potent activity against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The most potent inhibitor YH-53 can strongly block the SARS-CoV-2 replication. X-ray structural analysis revealed that YH-53 establishes multiple hydrogen bond interactions with backbone amino acids and a covalent bond with the active site of 3CLpro. Further results from computational and experimental studies, including an in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion profile, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and metabolic analysis of YH-53 suggest that it has a high potential as a lead candidate to compete with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ketones/pharmacology , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Humans , Ketones/chemistry , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microsomes, Liver/chemistry , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Peptidomimetics/chemical synthesis , Peptidomimetics/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3726, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275922

ABSTRACT

High-throughput, high-accuracy detection of emerging viruses allows for the control of disease outbreaks. Currently, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is currently the most-widely used technology to diagnose the presence of SARS-CoV-2. However, RT-PCR requires the extraction of viral RNA from clinical specimens to obtain high sensitivity. Here, we report a method for detecting novel coronaviruses with high sensitivity by using nanopores together with artificial intelligence, a relatively simple procedure that does not require RNA extraction. Our final platform, which we call the artificially intelligent nanopore, consists of machine learning software on a server, a portable high-speed and high-precision current measuring instrument, and scalable, cost-effective semiconducting nanopore modules. We show that artificially intelligent nanopores are successful in accurately identifying four types of coronaviruses similar in size, HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva specimen is achieved with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 96% with a 5-minute measurement.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Machine Learning , Nanopores , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Equipment Design/economics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Software
11.
Sen'i Gakkaishi ; 77(6):P-274-P-277, 2021.
Article in English | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1270968
12.
Uirusu ; 70(1): 29-36, 2020.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are pathogens that infect many of animals, resulting in respiratory or enteric diseases. Coronaviruses constitute Nidovirales together with Arteriviridae. Most of human coronaviruses are known to cause mild illness and common cold. However, an epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in 2002, ten years after SARS epidemic Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) emerged in 2012. Now, we face on a novel coronavirus which emerges in end of 2019. This novel coronavirus is named as SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is spread to worldwide within one to two months and causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), respiratory illness. Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses possessing a positive-sense and large single stranded RNA genomes. The 5' two-thirds of the CoV genome consists of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs 1a and 1b) that encode non-structural proteins (nsps). The other one-third of the genome consists of ORFs encoding structural proteins, including spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins, and accessory proteins. Upon infection of CoV into host cells, the translation of two precursor polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab, occurs and these polyproteins are cleaved into 16 nsps by viral proteases. Structural proteins assemble to the vesicles located from ER to Golgi (ER Golgiintermediate compartment) and virions bud into the vesicles. Virions are released from infectedcells via exocytosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Genome, Viral/genetics , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Humans , Open Reading Frames , Polyproteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Proteases , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Structural Proteins/metabolism , Virion
13.
Cell Rep ; 35(3): 109014, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163485

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although multiple mutations have been observed in SARS-CoV-2, functional analysis of each mutation of SARS-CoV-2 has been limited by the lack of convenient mutagenesis methods. In this study, we establish a PCR-based, bacterium-free method to generate SARS-CoV-2 infectious clones. Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 could be rescued at high titer with high accuracy after assembling 10 SARS-CoV-2 cDNA fragments by circular polymerase extension reaction (CPER) and transfection of the resulting circular genome into susceptible cells. The construction of infectious clones for reporter viruses and mutant viruses could be completed in two simple steps: introduction of reporter genes or mutations into the desirable DNA fragments (∼5,000 base pairs) by PCR and assembly of the DNA fragments by CPER. This reverse genetics system may potentially advance further understanding of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Reverse Genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Cricetinae , HEK293 Cells , Humans
14.
J Virol ; 95(1)2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968111

ABSTRACT

Here, we screened steroid compounds to obtain a drug expected to block host inflammatory responses and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replication. Ciclesonide, an inhaled corticosteroid, suppressed the replication of MERS-CoV and other coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in cultured cells. The 90% effective concentration (EC90) of ciclesonide for SARS-CoV-2 in differentiated human bronchial tracheal epithelial cells was 0.55 µM. Eight consecutive passages of 43 SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the presence of ciclesonide generated 15 resistant mutants harboring single amino acid substitutions in nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) or nsp4. Of note, ciclesonide suppressed the replication of all these mutants by 90% or more, suggesting that these mutants cannot completely overcome ciclesonide blockade. Under a microscope, the viral RNA replication-transcription complex in cells, which is thought to be detectable using antibodies specific for nsp3 and double-stranded RNA, was observed to fall in the presence of ciclesonide in a concentration-dependent manner. These observations indicate that the suppressive effect of ciclesonide on viral replication is specific to coronaviruses, highlighting it as a candidate drug for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.IMPORTANCE The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, is ongoing. New and effective antiviral agents that combat the disease are needed urgently. Here, we found that an inhaled corticosteroid, ciclesonide, suppresses the replication of coronaviruses, including betacoronaviruses (murine hepatitis virus type 2 [MHV-2], MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) and an alphacoronavirus (human coronavirus 229E [HCoV-229E]), in cultured cells. Ciclesonide is safe; indeed, it can be administered to infants at high concentrations. Thus, ciclesonide is expected to be a broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is effective against many members of the coronavirus family. It could be prescribed for the treatment of MERS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Pregnenediones/pharmacology , RNA, Double-Stranded/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , HeLa Cells , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Vero Cells , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
15.
J Virol ; 95(3)2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920894

ABSTRACT

Torovirus (ToV) has recently been classified into the new family Tobaniviridae, although historically, it belonged to the Coronavirus (CoV) family. The nucleocapsid (N) proteins of CoVs are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, where the viruses replicate, but in some cases the proteins are partially located in the nucleolus. Many studies have investigated the subcellular localization and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking signals of the CoV N proteins, but little is known about ToV N proteins. Here, we studied the subcellular localization of the bovine ToV (BToV) N protein (BToN) and characterized its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking signals. Unlike other CoVs, BToN in infected cells was transported mainly to the nucleolus during early infection but was distributed predominantly in the nucleoplasm rather than in the nucleolus during late infection. Interestingly, a small quantity of BToN was detected in the cytoplasm during infection. Examination of a comprehensive set of substitution or deletion mutants of BToN fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) revealed that clusters of arginine (R) residues comprise nuclear/nucleolar localization signals (NLS/NoLS), and the C-terminal region served as a chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1)-independent nuclear export signal (NES). Moreover, recombinant viruses with mutations in the NLS/NoLS, but retaining nuclear accumulation, were successfully rescued and showed slightly reduced growth ability, while the virus that lost the NLS/NoLS-mediated nuclear accumulation of BToN was not rescued. These results indicate that BToN uniquely accumulates mainly in nuclear compartments during infection, regulated by an R-rich NLS/NoLS and a CRM1-independent NES, and that the BToN accumulation in the nuclear compartment driven by NLS/NoLS is important for virus growth.IMPORTANCE ToVs are diarrhea-causing pathogens detected in many species, including humans. BToV has spread worldwide, leading to economic loss, and there is currently no treatment or vaccine available. Positive-stranded RNA viruses, including ToVs, replicate in the cytoplasm, and their structural proteins generally accumulate in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, BToN accumulated predominantly in the nucleus/nucleolus during all infectious processes, with only a small fraction accumulating in the cytoplasm despite being a major structural protein. Furthermore, we identified unique nucleocytoplasmic trafficking signals and demonstrated the importance of NLS/NoLS for virus growth. This study is the first to undertake an in-depth investigation of the subcellular localization and intracellular trafficking signals of BToN. Our findings additionally suggest that the NLS/NoLS-mediated nuclear accumulation of BToN is important for virus replication. An understanding of the unique features of BToV may provide novel insights into the assembly mechanisms of not only ToVs but also other positive-stranded RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Torovirus/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Nucleolus/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Nuclear Export Signals , Nuclear Localization Signals , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Torovirus/growth & development , Torovirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/genetics
16.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.28.358754

ABSTRACT

Torovirus (ToV) has recently been classified in the new family Tobaniviridae, although it belonged to the Coronavirus (CoV) family historically. Reverse genetics systems for many CoVs have been established, but none exist for ToVs. Here, we describe a reverse genetics system using a full-length infectious cDNA clone of bovine ToV (BToV) in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Recombinant BToV containing genetic markers had the same phenotype as wild-type (wt) BToV. To generate two types of recombinant virus, the Hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene was manipulated, since cell-adapted wtBToV generally loses the full-length HE (HEf), resulting in soluble HE (HEs). First, recombinant viruses with HEf and HA-tagged HEf or HEs genes were rescued; these showed no significant differences in cell growth, suggesting that HE is not essential for viral growth in cells. Then, recombinant virus in which HE was replaced by the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) gene expressed EGFP in infected cells, but showed significantly reduced viral growth compared to wtBToV. Moreover, the recombinant virus readily deleted the EGFP gene after one passage. Interestingly, one variant with mutations in non-structural proteins (NSPs) showed improved EGFP expression and viral growth during serial passages, although it eventually deleted the EGFP gene, suggesting that these mutations contributed to EGFP gene acceptance. These recombinant viruses provide new insights regarding BToV and its reverse genetics will help advance understanding of this neglected pathogen. Importance ToVs are diarrhea-causing pathogens that have been detected in many species, including humans. BToV has spread worldwide, leading to economic losses. We developed the first reverse genetics system for Tobaniviridae using a BAC-based BToV. Using this system, we showed that recombinant BToVs with HEf and HEs showed no significant differences in cell growth. In contrast, clinical BToVs generally lose the HE gene after a few passages but some recombinant viruses retained the HE gene for up to 20 passages, suggesting some benefits of HE retention. The EGFP gene of the recombinant viruses was unstable and was rapidly deleted, likely via negative selection. Interestingly, one virus variant with mutations in NSPs was more stable, resulting in improved EGFP-expression and viral growth, suggesting that the mutations contributed to some acceptance of the exogenous EGFP gene without clear positive selection. The recombinant BToVs and reverse genetics developed here are powerful tools for understanding fundamental viral processes and their pathogenesis and for developing BToV vaccines.


Subject(s)
Torovirus Infections , Diarrhea
17.
Transfusion ; 61(2): 356-360, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are several types of coronaviruses that infect humans and cause disease. The latest is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an emerging global threat with no current effective treatment. Normal intravenous immunoglobulin (N-IVIG) has been administered to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to control severe inflammation and the cellular immune response. However, the neutralizing activity of N-IVIG against SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine whether N-IVIG manufactured before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic contained IgG antibodies against the circulating human coronaviruses (HCoVs) that cross-react with the highly pathogenic coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. No cases of SARS-CoV-1 or MERS-CoV have been reported in Japan. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The neutralizing and binding activities of N-IVIG against SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, HCoV 229E, and HCoV OC43 were evaluated. Nine N-IVIG lots manufactured between 2000 and 2018, derived from donors in Japan, were tested. Binding activity was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: None of the N-IVIG lots tested displayed neutralizing or binding activity against SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, or SARS-CoV-2. However, they displayed substantial neutralizing and binding activity against HCoV OC43 and weak neutralizing and substantial binding activity against HCoV 229E. CONCLUSION: N-IVIG derived from healthy donors in Japan before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic had no direct effect against SARS-CoV-2. Further studies are warranted to determine the effects of N-IVIG manufactured after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/immunology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Japan , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 330-331, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597639
19.
Non-conventional in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-9002

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronaviruses (CoVs) are pathogens that infect a large variety of vertebrate animals, resulting in mainly respiratory and enteric diseases. An epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China in 2002, and the causative agent was designated as SARS-CoV. Ten years after the SARS outbreak, another highly pathogenic human CoV, designated as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, emerged in Saudi Arabia. Now, we faces on an epidemic of Novel coronavirus, (SARS-CoV-2).The nonstructural protein (nsp) 1 of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are the most studied among CoVs and are known to inhibit host gene expression by translational shutoff and host mRNA degradation. This two-pronged strategy of nsp1 inhibits expression of the IFN gene. Murine models of SARS-CoV have revealed that the dysregulated type I IFN response is a key factor for inducing lethal pneumonia. These accumulated data indicate that the nsp1 of CoV is a major virulence factor. We speculate that the nsp1 of SARS-CoV-2 has similar function to SARS and MERS-CoV.

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