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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac158, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831309

ABSTRACT

Background: Singing in an indoor space may increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We conducted a case-control study of karaoke-related coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks to reveal the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among individuals who participate in karaoke. Methods: Cases were defined as people who enjoyed karaoke at a bar and who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction between 16 May and 3 July 2020. Controls were defined as people who enjoyed karaoke at the same bar during the same period as the cases and tested negative. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. ORs of key variables adjusted for each other were also estimated (aOR). Results: We identified 81 cases, the majority of whom were active elderly individuals (median age, 75 years). Six cases died (case fatality ratio, 7%). Among the cases, 68 (84%) were guests, 18 of whom had visited ≧2 karaoke bars. A genome analysis conducted in 30 cases showed 6 types of isolates within 4 single-nucleotide variation difference. The case-control study revealed that singing (aOR, 11.0 [95% CI, 1.2-101.0]), not wearing a mask (aOR, 3.7 [95% CI, 1.2-11.2]), and additional hour spent per visit (aOR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.7]) were associated with COVID-19 infection. Conclusions: A karaoke-related COVID-19 outbreak that occurred in 2 different cities was confirmed by the results of genome analysis. Singing in less-ventilated, indoor and crowded environments increases the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. Wearing a mask and staying for only a short time can reduce the risk of infection during karaoke.

2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787333

ABSTRACT

Background Singing in an indoor space may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We conducted a case-control study of karaoke-related COVID-19 outbreaks to reveal the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among individuals who participate in karaoke. Methods Cases were defined as people who enjoyed karaoke at a bar and who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR between May 16 and July 3, 2020. Controls were defined as people who enjoyed karaoke at the same bar during the same period as the cases and tested negative. Odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) were calculated. ORs were adjusted by variables with significantly high odds ratio (aOR). Results We identified 81 cases, the majority of whom were active elderly individuals (median age: 75 years). Six cases died (case fatality ratio: 7%). Among the cases, 68 (84%) were guests, 18 of whom had visited more than two karaoke bars. A genome analysis conducted in 30 cases showed six types of isolates within four single-nucleotide variations difference. The case-control study revealed that singing (aOR 11.0, 95% CI, 1.2-101.0), not wearing a mask (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.2-11.2) and time spent per visit (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7) were associated with COVID-19 infection. Conclusions A karaoke-related COVID-19 outbreak that occurred in two different cities was confirmed by the results of genome analysis. Singing in less-ventilated, indoor and crowded environments increases the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. Wearing a mask and staying for only a short time can reduce the risk of infection during karaoke.

3.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(4): 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633870

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, undertook enhanced event-based surveillance (EBS) for infectious diseases occurring overseas that have potential for importation (excluding coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Summer Games (the Games). The pre-existing EBS system was enhanced using the World Health Organization Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources system and the BlueDot Epidemic Intelligence platform. The enhanced EBS before and during the Games did not detect any major public health event that would warrant action for the Games. However, information from multiple sources helped us identify events, characterize risk and improve confidence in risk assessment. The collaboration also reduced the surveillance workload of the host country, while ensuring the quality of surveillance, even during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
4.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14912, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people of all ages. Most reports on pediatric cases suggest that children experience fewer and milder symptoms than do adults. This is the first nationwide study in Japan focusing on pediatric cases reported by pediatricians, including cases with no or mild symptoms. METHODS: We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and transmission patterns of 840 pediatric (<16 years old) COVID-19 cases reported between February and December 2020 in Japan, using a dedicated database which was maintained voluntarily by members of the Japan Pediatric Society. RESULTS: Almost half of the patients (47.7%) were asymptomatic, while most of the others presented mild symptoms. At the time of admission or first outpatient clinic visit, 84.0% of the cases were afebrile (<37.5°C). In total, 609 cases (72.5%) were exposed to COVID-19-positive household members. We analyzed the influence of nationwide school closures that were introduced in March 2020 on COVID-19 transmission routes among children in Japan. Transmission within households occurred most frequently, with no significant difference between the periods before and after declaring nationwide school closures (70.9% and 74.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 symptoms in children are less severe than those in adults. School closure appeared to have a limited effect on transmission. Controlling household transmission from adult family members is the most important measure for prevention of COVID-19 among children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
6.
mSphere ; 5(6)2020 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920897

ABSTRACT

After the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan on 15 January 2020, multiple nationwide COVID-19 clusters were identified by the end of February. The Japanese government focused on mitigating the emerging COVID-19 clusters by conducting active nationwide epidemiological surveillance. However, an increasing number of cases continued to appear until early April 2020, many with unclear infection routes and no recent history of travel outside Japan. We aimed to evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome sequences from the COVID-19 cases that appeared until early April 2020 and to characterize their genealogical networks in order to demonstrate possible routes of spread in Japan. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from patients, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed. Positive RNA samples were subjected to whole-genome sequencing, and a haplotype network analysis was performed. Some of the primary clusters identified during January and February 2020 in Japan descended directly from the Wuhan-Hu-1-related isolates from China and other distinct clusters. Clusters were almost contained until mid-March; the haplotype network analysis demonstrated that the COVID-19 cases from late March through early April may have created an additional large cluster related to the outbreak in Europe, leading to additional spread within Japan. In conclusion, genome surveillance has suggested that there were at least two distinct SARS-CoV-2 introductions into Japan from China and other countries.IMPORTANCE This study aimed to evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome sequences from COVID-19 cases and to characterize their genealogical networks to demonstrate possible routes of spread in Japan. We found that there were at least two distinct SARS-CoV-2 introductions into Japan, initially from China and subsequently from other countries, including Europe. Our findings can help understand how SARS-CoV-2 entered Japan and contribute to increased knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 in Asia and its association with implemented stay-at-home/shelter-in-place/self-restraint/lockdown measures. This study suggested that it is necessary to formulate a more efficient containment strategy using real-time genome surveillance to support epidemiological field investigations in order to highlight potential infection linkages and mitigate the next wave of COVID-19 in Japan.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Whole Genome Sequencing , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Emigration and Immigration , Haplotypes , Health Policy , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20198-20201, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691088

ABSTRACT

The Diamond Princess cruise ship was put under quarantine offshore Yokohama, Japan, after a passenger who disembarked in Hong Kong was confirmed as a coronavirus disease 2019 case. We performed whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) directly from PCR+ clinical specimens and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak. All tested isolates exhibited a transversion at G11083T, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 dissemination on the Diamond Princess originated from a single introduction event before the quarantine started. Although further spreading might have been prevented by quarantine, some progeny clusters could be linked to transmission through mass-gathering events in the recreational areas and direct transmission among passengers who shared cabins during the quarantine. This study demonstrates the usefulness of haplotype network/phylogeny analysis in identifying potential infection routes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Haplotypes , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ships , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1098-1102, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661147

ABSTRACT

During a COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship we sampled environmental surfaces after passengers and crew vacated cabins. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 58 of 601 samples (10%) from case cabins 1-17 days after cabins were vacated but not from noncase cabins. There was no difference in detection proportion between cabins of symptomatic (15%, 28/189; cycle quantification [Cq], 29.79-38.86) and asymptomatic cases (21%, 28/131; Cq, 26.21-38.99). No SARS-CoV-2 virus was isolated from any of the samples. Transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients may be similar and surfaces could be involved in transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Environmental Monitoring , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Ships , Specimen Handling
9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1316, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615535

ABSTRACT

Japan has reported 26 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) linked to cruise tours on the River Nile in Egypt between March 5 and 15, 2020. Here, we characterized the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome of isolates from 10 travelers who returned from Egypt and from patients possibly associated with these travelers. We performed haplotype network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates using genome-wide single-nucleotide variations. Our analysis identified two potential Egypt-related clusters from these imported cases, and these clusters were related to globally detected viruses in different countries.

10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(11): 312-313, 2020 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-10241

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among passengers and crew on a cruise ship led to quarantine of approximately 3,700 passengers and crew that began on February 3, 2020, and lasted for nearly 4 weeks at the Port of Yokohama, Japan (1). By February 9, 20 cases had occurred among the ship's crew members. By the end of quarantine, approximately 700 cases of COVID-19 had been laboratory-confirmed among passengers and crew. This report describes findings from the initial phase of the cruise ship investigation into COVID-19 cases among crew members during February 4-12, 2020.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine , Ships , COVID-19 , Humans , Japan/epidemiology
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