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J Anesth ; 36(1): 26-31, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397012


PURPOSE: From the perspective of infection prevention during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a recommendation was made to use surgical masks after extubation in patients in the operating room. For compliance with this recommendation, anesthesiologists need to administer oxygen to the patient with an oxygen mask over the surgical mask. However, no studies have investigated whether this method allows good maintenance of oxygenation in patients. This study aimed to investigate which method of oxygen administration lends itself best to use with a surgical mask in terms of oxygenation. METHOD: We administered oxygen to the study subjects using all the following three methods in random order: an oxygen mask over or under a surgical mask and a nasal cannula under the surgical mask. Oxygenation was assessed using the oxygen reserve index (ORi) and end-tidal oxygen concentration (EtO2). RESULT: This study included 24 healthy volunteers. ORi values with administration of oxygen were higher in the order of a nasal cannula under the surgical mask, an oxygen mask under the surgical mask, and an oxygen mask over the surgical mask, with median values of 0.50, 0.48, and 0.43, respectively, and statistically significant differences between all groups (P < 0.001). EtO2 values were in the same order as ORi, with median values of 33.0%, 31.0%, and 25%, respectively, and statistically significant differences between all groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Wearing a surgical mask over the nasal cannula during oxygen administration is beneficial for oxygenation and might help prevent aerosol dispersal.

COVID-19 , Masks , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 191, 2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835873


BACKGROUND: Determining the infectiousness of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is crucial for patient management. Medical staff usually refer to the results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests in conjunction with clinical symptoms and computed tomographic images. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 62-year-old Japanese man who twice had positive and negative test results by polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 over 48 days of hospitalization, including in intensive care. His respiratory symptoms and computed tomographic imaging findings consistent with coronavirus disease 2019 improved following initial intensive care, and the result of his polymerase chain reaction test became negative 3 days before discharge from the intensive care unit. However, 4 days after this first negative result, his polymerase chain reaction test result was positive again, and another 4 days later, he had a negative result once more. Eight days after the second polymerase chain reaction negative test result, the patient's test result again became positive. Finally, his polymerase chain reaction results were negative 43 days after his first hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes the importance of repeat polymerase chain reaction testing and diagnosis based on multiple criteria, including clinical symptoms and computed tomographic imaging findings. Clinical staff should consider that a negative result by polymerase chain reaction does not necessarily certify complete coronavirus disease 2019 recovery.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Symptom Assessment/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2020: 8814249, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751446


Although a variety of existing drugs are being tested for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), no efficacious treatment has been found so far, particularly for severe cases. We report successful recovery in an elderly patient with severe pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Despite administration of multiple antiviral drugs, including lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and favipiravir, the patient's condition did not improve. However, after administration of another antiviral drug, remdesivir, we were able to terminate invasive interventions, including ECMO, and subsequently obtained negative polymerase chain reaction results. Although further validation is needed, remdesivir might be effective in treating COVID-19.