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Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 573, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510584


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly affected the mental health of both infected and uninfected people. Although most psychiatric disorders have highly overlapping genetic and pathogenic backgrounds, most studies investigating the impact of the pandemic have examined only single psychiatric disorders. It is necessary to examine longitudinal trajectories of factors that modulate psychiatric states across multiple dimensions. About 2274 Japanese citizens participated in online surveys presented in December 2019 (before the pandemic), August 2020, Dec 2020, and April 2021. These surveys included nine questionnaires on psychiatric symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Multidimensional psychiatric time-series data were then decomposed into four principal components. We used generalized linear models to identify modulating factors for the effects of the pandemic on these components. The four principal components can be interpreted as a general psychiatric burden, social withdrawal, alcohol-related problems, and depression/anxiety. Principal components associated with general psychiatric burden and depression/anxiety peaked during the initial phase of the pandemic. They were further exacerbated by the economic burden the pandemic imposed. In contrast, principal components associated with social withdrawal showed a delayed peak, with human relationships as an important risk modulating factor. In addition, being female was a risk factor shared across all components. Our results show that COVID-19 has imposed a large and varied burden on the Japanese population since the commencement of the pandemic. Although components related to the general psychiatric burden remained elevated, peak intensities differed between components related to depression/anxiety and those related to social withdrawal. These results underline the importance of using flexible monitoring and mitigation strategies for mental problems, according to the phase of the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
Contemp Clin Trials ; 111: 106596, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466090


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the mental health of people around the world. Anxiety related to infection, stress and stigma caused by the forced changes in daily life have reportedly increased the incidence and symptoms of depression, anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Under such circumstances, telepsychiatry is gaining importance and attracting a great deal of attention. However, few large pragmatic clinical trials on the use of telepsychiatry targeting multiple psychiatric disorders have been conducted to date. METHODS: The targeted study cohort will consist of adults (>18 years) who meet the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for either (1) depressive disorders, (2) anxiety disorders, or (3) obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Patients will be assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either a "telepsychiatry group" (at least 50% of treatments to be conducted using telemedicine, with at least one face-to-face treatment [FTF] within six months) or an "FTF group" (all treatments to be conducted FTF, with no telemedicine). Both groups will receive the usual treatment covered by public medical insurance. The study will utilize a master protocol design in that there will be primary and secondary outcomes for the entire group regardless of diagnosis, as well as the outcomes for each individual disorder group. DISCUSSION: This study will be a non-inferiority trial to test that the treatment effect of telepsychiatry is not inferior to that of FTF alone. This study will provide useful insights into the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the practice of psychiatry. TRIAL REGISTRATION: jRCT1030210037, Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT).