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2.
Glob Med Genet ; 9(1): 14-17, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692489

ABSTRACT

This literature review described the genetic and biochemical factors that may have been overlooked in the formulation of vaccines and that most likely underlie possible issues with mass vaccination.

3.
Glob Med Genet ; 8(4): 162-170, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561074

ABSTRACT

By examining the issue of the thromboses and hemostasis disorders associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the lens of cross-reactivity, it was found that 60 pentapeptides are shared by SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (gp) and human proteins that- when altered, mutated, deficient or, however, improperly functioning- cause vascular diseases, thromboembolic complications, venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathies, and bleeding, inter alia. The peptide commonality has a relevant immunological potential as almost all of the shared sequences are present in experimentally validated SARS-CoV-2 spike gp-derived epitopes, thus supporting the possibility of cross-reactions between the viral gp and the thromboses-related human proteins. Moreover, many of the shared peptide sequences are also present in pathogens to which individuals have previously been exposed following natural infection or vaccinal routes, and of which the immune system has stored imprint. Such an immunological memory might rapidly trigger anamnestic secondary cross-reactive responses of extreme affinity and avidity, in this way explaining the thromboembolic adverse events that can associate with SARS-CoV-2 infection or active immunization.

4.
Oncol Rep ; 47(1)2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518658

ABSTRACT

The devastating complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) result from the dysfunctional immune response of an individual following the initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) infection. Multiple toxic stressors and behaviors contribute to underlying immune system dysfunction. SARS­CoV­2 exploits the dysfunctional immune system to trigger a chain of events, ultimately leading to COVID­19. The authors have previously identified a number of contributing factors (CFs) common to myriad chronic diseases. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that there may be a significant overlap between CFs associated with COVID­19 and gastrointestinal cancer (GIC). Thus, in the present study, a streamlined dot­product approach was used initially to identify potential CFs that affect COVID­19 and GIC directly (i.e., the simultaneous occurrence of CFs and disease in the same article). The nascent character of the COVID­19 core literature (~1­year­old) did not allow sufficient time for the direct effects of numerous CFs on COVID­19 to emerge from laboratory experiments and epidemiological studies. Therefore, a literature­related discovery approach was used to augment the COVID­19 core literature­based 'direct impact' CFs with discovery­based 'indirect impact' CFs [CFs were identified in the non­COVID­19 biomedical literature that had the same biomarker impact pattern (e.g., hyperinflammation, hypercoagulation, hypoxia, etc.) as was shown in the COVID­19 literature]. Approximately 2,250 candidate direct impact CFs in common between GIC and COVID­19 were identified, albeit some being variants of the same concept. As commonality proof of concept, 75 potential CFs that appeared promising were selected, and 63 overlapping COVID­19/GIC potential/candidate CFs were validated with biological plausibility. In total, 42 of the 63 were overlapping direct impact COVID­19/GIC CFs, and the remaining 21 were candidate GIC CFs that overlapped with indirect impact COVID­19 CFs. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that COVID­19 and GIC share a number of common risk/CFs, including behaviors and toxic exposures, that impair immune function. A key component of immune system health is the removal of those factors that contribute to immune system dysfunction in the first place. This requires a paradigm shift from traditional Western medicine, which often focuses on treatment, rather than prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/etiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Immunome Research ; 17(6):1-7, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1498726

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical attention has focused recently on an unexplained insurgence of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) in concomitance with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, this study aimed at defining the possible role of autoimmune cross-reactivity and immunologic memory as mechanisms that might link the viral infection to CVDs. Methods: Human proteins that, when altered, associate with CVDs were searched for pentapeptide immune determinants that are shared with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (gp) and also recur in common pathogens to which the general population is frequently exposed. Results: Comparative sequence analyses show that: 1) a high level of peptide sharing exists between SARS-CoV-2 spike gp and human proteins related to CVDs;2) the shared peptides are endowed with an immunological potential because they are also part of experimentally validated SARS-CoV-2 spike gp-derived epitopes, and 3) most of the shared peptides are also present in infectious pathogens to which population, in general, has been already exposed. Conclusion: Peptide sharing and cross-reactivity appear to be, respectively, the molecular platform and the basic mechanism linking SARS-CoV-2 infection to CVDs, with the past history of the individual's infections having a role in determining and specifying the immune response as well as the pathologic autoimmune sequelae.

6.
Toxicol Rep ; 8: 1981, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458671

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.08.010.].

7.
Antibodies (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438468

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of molecular mimicry in the cytokine storms associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human proteins endowed with anti-inflammatory activity were assembled and analyzed for peptide sharing with the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (gp) using public databases. It was found that the SARS-CoV-2 spike gp shares numerous pentapeptides with anti-inflammatory proteins that, when altered, can lead to cytokine storms characterized by diverse disorders such as systemic multiorgan hyperinflammation, macrophage activation syndrome, ferritinemia, endothelial dysfunction, and acute respiratory syndrome. Immunologically, many shared peptides are part of experimentally validated epitopes and are also present in pathogens to which individuals may have been exposed following infections or vaccinal routes and of which the immune system has stored memory. Such an immunologic imprint might trigger powerful anamnestic secondary cross-reactive responses, thus explaining the raging of the cytokine storm that can occur following exposure to SARS-CoV-2. In conclusion, the results support molecular mimicry and the consequent cross-reactivity as a potential mechanism in SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storms, and highlight the role of immunological imprinting in determining high-affinity, high-avidity, autoimmune cross-reactions as a pathogenic sequela associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

8.
Glob Med Genet ; 8(4): 176-182, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434193

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives Whether exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may predispose to the risk of cancer in individuals with no prior cancers is a crucial question that remains unclear. To confirm/refute possible relationships between exposure to the virus and ex novo insurgence of tumors, this study analyzed molecular mimicry and the related cross-reactive potential between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (gp) antigen and human tumor-suppressor proteins. Materials and Methods Tumor-associated proteins were retrieved from UniProt database and analyzed for pentapeptide sharing with SARS-CoV-2 spike gp by using publicly available databases. Results An impressively high level of molecular mimicry exists between SARS-CoV-2 spike gp and tumor-associated proteins. Numerically, 294 tumor-suppressor proteins share 308 pentapeptides with the viral antigen. Crucially, the shared peptides have a relevant immunologic potential by repeatedly occurring in experimentally validated epitopes. Such immunologic potential is of further relevancy in that most of the shared peptides are also present in infectious pathogens to which, in general, human population has already been exposed, thus indicating the possibility of immunologic imprint phenomena. Conclusion This article described a vast peptide overlap between SARS-CoV-2 spike gp and tumor-suppressor proteins, and supports autoimmune cross-reactivity as a potential mechanism underlying prospective cancer insurgence following exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Clinically, the findings call for close surveillance of tumor sequelae that possibly could result from the current coronavirus pandemic.

9.
Toxicol Rep ; 8: 1665-1684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428525

ABSTRACT

This article examines issues related to COVID-19 inoculations for children. The bulk of the official COVID-19-attributed deaths per capita occur in the elderly with high comorbidities, and the COVID-19 attributed deaths per capita are negligible in children. The bulk of the normalized post-inoculation deaths also occur in the elderly with high comorbidities, while the normalized post-inoculation deaths are small, but not negligible, in children. Clinical trials for these inoculations were very short-term (a few months), had samples not representative of the total population, and for adolescents/children, had poor predictive power because of their small size. Further, the clinical trials did not address changes in biomarkers that could serve as early warning indicators of elevated predisposition to serious diseases. Most importantly, the clinical trials did not address long-term effects that, if serious, would be borne by children/adolescents for potentially decades. A novel best-case scenario cost-benefit analysis showed very conservatively that there are five times the number of deaths attributable to each inoculation vs those attributable to COVID-19 in the most vulnerable 65+ demographic. The risk of death from COVID-19 decreases drastically as age decreases, and the longer-term effects of the inoculations on lower age groups will increase their risk-benefit ratio, perhaps substantially.

10.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108426, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385285
11.
Toxicol Rep ; 8: 1616-1637, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377846

ABSTRACT

The devastating complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) result from an individual's dysfunctional immune response following the initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Multiple toxic stressors and behaviors contribute to underlying immune system dysfunction. SARS-CoV-2 exploits the dysfunctional immune system to trigger a chain of events ultimately leading to COVID-19. We have previously identified many contributing factors (CFs) (representing toxic exposure, lifestyle factors and psychosocial stressors) common to myriad chronic diseases. We hypothesized significant overlap between CFs associated with COVID-19 and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), because of the strong role immune dysfunction plays in each disease. A streamlined dot-product approach was used to identify potential CFs to COVID-19 and IBD. Of the fifty CFs to COVID-19 that were validated for demonstration purposes, approximately half had direct impact on COVID-19 (the CF and COVID-19 were mentioned in the same record; i.e., CF---→COVID-19), and the other half had indirect impact. The nascent character of the COVID-19 core literature (∼ one year old) did not allow sufficient time for the direct impacts of many CFs on COVID-19 to be identified. Therefore, an immune system dysfunction (ID) literature directly related to the COVID-19 core literature was used to augment the COVID-19 core literature and provide the remaining CFs that impacted COVID-19 indirectly (i.e., CF---→immune system dysfunction---→COVID-19). Approximately 13000 potential CFs for myriad diseases (obtained from government and university toxic substance lists) served as the starting point for the dot-product identification process. These phrases were intersected (dot-product) with phrases extracted from a PubMed-derived IBD core literature, a nascent COVID-19 core literature, and the COVID-19-related immune system dysfunction (ID) core literature to identify common ID/COVID-19 and IBD CFs. Approximately 3000 potential CFs common to both ID and IBD, almost 2300 potential CFs common to ID and COVID-19, and over 1900 potential CFs common to IBD and COVID-19 were identified. As proof of concept, we validated fifty of these ∼3000 overlapping ID/IBD candidate CFs with biologic plausibility. We further validated 24 of the fifty as common CFs in the IBD and nascent COVID-19 core literatures. This significant finding demonstrated that the CFs indirectly related to COVID-19 -- identified with use of the immune system dysfunction literature -- are strong candidates to emerge eventually as CFs directly related to COVID-19. As discussed in the main text, many more CFs common to all these core literatures could be identified and validated. ID and IBD share many common risk/contributing factors, including behaviors and toxic exposures that impair immune function. A key component to immune system health is removal of those factors that contribute to immune system dysfunction in the first place. This requires a paradigm shift from traditional Western medicine, which often focuses on treatment, rather than prevention.

12.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 86(6): e13494, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Oogenesis, the process of egg production by the ovary, involves a complex differentiation program leading to the production of functional oocytes. This process comprises a sequential pathway of steps that are finely regulated. The question related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and fertility has been evoked for several reasons, including the mechanism of molecular mimicry, which may contribute to female infertility by leading to the generation of deleterious autoantibodies, possibly contributing to the onset of an autoimmune disease in infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The immunological potential of the peptides shared between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and oogenesis-related proteins; Thus we planned a systematic study to improve our understanding of the possible effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on female fertility using the angle of molecular mimicry as a starting point. METHODS: A library of 82 human proteins linked to oogenesis was assembled at random from UniProtKB database using oogenesis, uterine receptivity, decidualization, and placentation as a key words. For the analyses, an artificial polyprotein was built by joining the 82 a sequences of the oogenesis-associated proteins. These were analyzed by searching the Immune Epitope DataBase for immunoreactive SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein epitopes hosting the shared pentapeptides. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein was found to share 41 minimal immune determinants, that is, pentapeptides, with 27 human proteins that relate to oogenesis, uterine receptivity, decidualization, and placentation. All the shared pentapeptides that we identified, with the exception of four, are also present in SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-derived epitopes that have been experimentally validated as immunoreactive.


Subject(s)
Molecular Mimicry , Oogenesis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Epitopes , Female , Humans
13.
Glob Med Genet ; 8(1): 32-37, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145068

ABSTRACT

Recently, it was found that proteomes from poliovirus, measles virus, dengue virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have high molecular mimicry at the heptapeptide level with the human proteome, while heptapeptide commonality is minimal or absent with proteomes from nonhuman primates, that is, gorilla, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque. To acquire more data on the issue, analyses here have been expanded to Ebola virus, Francisella tularensis , human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), Toxoplasma gondii , Variola virus, and Yersinia pestis . Results confirm that heptapeptide overlap is high between pathogens and Homo sapiens , but not between pathogens and primates. Data are discussed in light of the possible genetic bases that differently model primate phenomes, thus possibly underlying the zero/low level of molecular mimicry between infectious agents and primates. Notably, this study might help address preclinical vaccine tests that currently utilize primates as animal models, since autoimmune cross-reactions and the consequent adverse events cannot occur in absentia of shared sequences.

14.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(4): 102792, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086776

ABSTRACT

Autoimmunity may be generated by a variety of factors by creating a hyper-stimulated state of the immune system. It had been established long ago that viruses are a substantial component of environmental factors that contribute to the production of autoimmune antibodies, as well as autoimmune diseases. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are viruses that withhold these autoimmune abilities. In a similar manner, SARS-CoV-2 may be counted to similar manifestations, as numerous records demonstrating the likelihood of COVID-19 patients to develop multiple types of autoantibodies and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we focused on the association between COVID-19 and the immune system concerning the tendency of patients to develop over 15 separate types of autoantibodies and above 10 distinct autoimmune diseases. An additional autoimmunity manifestation may be one of the common initial symptoms in COVID-19 patients, anosmia, the complete loss of the ability to sense smell, and other olfactory alterations. We summarize current knowledge on principal mechanisms that may contribute to the development of autoimmunity in the disease: the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to hyper-stimulate the immune system, induce excessive neutrophil extracellular traps formation with neutrophil-associated cytokine responses and the molecular resemblance between self-components of the host and the virus. Additionally, we will examine COVID-19 potential risk on the new-onsets of autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Kawasaki disease and numerous others. It is of great importance to recognize those autoimmune manifestations of COVID-19 in order to properly cope with their outcomes in the ongoing pandemic and the long-term post-pandemic period. Lastly, an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 may be the best solution in dealing with the ongoing pandemic. We will discuss the new messenger RNA vaccination strategy with an emphasis on autoimmunity implications.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Autoimmunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Glob Med Genet ; 7(3): 92-94, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005856

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) codon usage, as shown by the polyprotein coding sequence, shows better translation potential in the human host when compared with human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) codon usage. Such translational advantage might facilitate SARS-CoV-2 replication, immunogenicity, and pathogenicity, thus also accounting for the less harmful character of HCoV-OC43 infection.

16.
Toxicol Rep ; 7: 1448-1458, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894246

ABSTRACT

A degraded/dysfunctional immune system appears to be the main determinant of serious/fatal reaction to viral infection (for COVID-19, SARS, and influenza alike). There are four major approaches being employed or considered presently to augment or strengthen the immune system, in order to reduce adverse effects of viral exposure. The three approaches that are focused mainly on augmenting the immune system are based on the concept that pandemics/outbreaks can be controlled/prevented while maintaining the immune-degrading lifestyles followed by much of the global population. The fourth approach is based on identifying and introducing measures aimed at strengthening the immune system intrinsically in order to minimize future pandemics/outbreaks. Specifically, the four measures are: 1) restricting exposure to virus; 2) providing reactive/tactical treatments to reduce viral load; 3) developing vaccines to prevent, or at least attenuate, the infection; 4) strengthening the immune system intrinsically, by a) identifying those factors that contribute to degrading the immune system, then eliminating/reducing them as comprehensively, thoroughly, and rapidly as possible, and b) replacing the eliminated factors with immune-strengthening factors. This paper focuses on vaccine safety. A future COVID-19 vaccine appears to be the treatment of choice at the national/international level. Vaccine development has been accelerated to achieve this goal in the relatively near-term, and questions have arisen whether vaccine safety has been/is being/will be compromised in pursuit of a shortened vaccine development time. There are myriad mechanisms related to vaccine-induced, and natural infection-induced, infections that could adversely impact vaccine effectiveness and safety. This paper summarizes many of those mechanisms.

18.
Antibodies ; 9(3):33, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-652248

ABSTRACT

Aim: To define the autoimmune potential of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Methods: Experimentally validated epitopes cataloged at the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB) and present in SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed for peptide sharing with the human proteome. Results: Immunoreactive epitopes present in SARS-CoV-2 were mostly composed of peptide sequences present in human proteins that—when altered, mutated, deficient or, however, improperly functioning—may associate with a wide range of disorders, from respiratory distress to multiple organ failure. Conclusions: This study represents a starting point or hint for future scientific-clinical investigations and suggests a range of possible protein targets of autoimmunity in SARS-CoV-2 infection. From an experimental perspective, the results warrant the testing of patients"sera for autoantibodies against these protein targets. Clinically, the results warrant a stringent surveillance on the future pathologic sequelae of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

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