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1.
Acute Med Surg ; 9(1): e731, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669367

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess heat stroke and heat exhaustion occurrence and response during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Japan. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, registry-based study describes and compares the characteristics of patients between the months of July and September in 2019 and 2020. Factors affecting heat stroke and heat exhaustion were statistically analyzed. Cramér's V was calculated to determine the effect size for group comparisons. We also investigated the prevalence of mask wearing and details of different cooling methods. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between 2019 and 2020. In both years, in-hospital mortality rates just exceeded 8%. Individuals >65 years old comprised 50% of cases and non-exertional onset (office work and everyday life) comprised 60%-70%, respectively. The recommendations from the Working Group on Heat Stroke Medicine given during the coronavirus disease pandemic in 2019 had a significant impact on the choice of cooling methods. The percentage of cases, for which intravascular temperature management was performed and cooling blankets were used increased, whereas the percentage of cases in which evaporative plus convective cooling was performed decreased. A total of 49 cases of heat stroke in mask wearing were reported. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological assessments of heat stroke and heat exhaustion did not reveal significant changes between 2019 and 2020. The findings suggest that awareness campaigns regarding heat stroke prevention among the elderly in daily life should be continued in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In the future, it is also necessary to validate the recommendations of the Working Group on Heatstroke Medicine.

2.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233166

ABSTRACT

AIM: An early tracheostomy is often considered for patients with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). However, there is no consensus on the timing of a tracheostomy in patients on VV-ECMO for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present report described the optimal timing of tracheostomy for these patients. METHOD: The present study was a single-center case series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of nine consecutive patients who underwent tracheostomy either during or after VV-ECMO treatment in our center between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020. RESULTS: All the patients received a percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy, which was performed during VV-ECMO in four patients. Three of these patients experienced hemorrhagic complications, and the remaining patient required a circuit change on the day after the operation. Heparin was discontinued 8 h preoperatively and resumed 1-14 h later. The platelet count was below normal in two patients, but no transfusion was performed. APTT was almost normal, and D-dimer was elevated postoperatively. The remaining five patients received a tracheostomy after weaning off VV-ECMO, and no complication was observed. Eight patients were deeply sedated during VV-ECMO to prioritize lung rest and prevent infecting the healthcare workers. CONCLUSION: In the present study, patients who underwent a tracheostomy during VV-ECMO tended to have more hemorrhagic complications. Because an early tracheostomy during ECMO has little benefit for patients with COVID-19, it should be performed after weaning off VV-ECMO to protect the safety of the healthcare workers concerned.

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