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1.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 38(1):33-40, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2115925

ABSTRACT

The study describing the process of discovery and source tracing of a native case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on Jan 2021, in Guangxi, China, to provide methodology for source investigation better in the future. Following the Epidemiological Investigation Plan for COVID-19 (version 7), information of the native COVID-19 case and related close contacts were collected. Real time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the nucleic acids of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in samples collected from the infection case, related close contacts, and the environment, combined with serum specific antibody detection. The positive nucleic acid samples were undergone whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and analyses of variation of amino acids. The whole genome sequence from the native case and the imported asymptomatic infected case from Indonesia containing 25 nucleotide mutation sites belong to L-Lineage European Branch II. 3. The imported asymptomatic case was the source of infection of this native case. The possible route of infection was that native case was exposed to contaminated environment by imported case, due to improper personal protective equipment. A focus on local outbreaks of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2-infected people from outside China is needed.

2.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 7(3): 790-798, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003629

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and risk factors in public kindergarten and elementary school teachers in the Jimei district in Xiamen. We took particular interest in the relationship between work-related factors and voice disorders. Study Design: A cross-sectional investigation; a General Investigation. Methods: This study was conducted from September 14 to 18, 2020 at public kindergarten and elementary schools in Xiamen, China. A total of 3140 teachers were separated into a perceived voice disorder group (PVD) and no perceived voice disorder group (NPVD) according to the Voice Handicap Index. The chi-square test was applied to explore the differences between the PVD and NPVD groups. The univariate logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors in terms of unadjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Stepwise logistic regression was then used to ascertain independent determinants. Results: We found that the prevalence of PVD was 47.52%. The results showed that risk factors of PVD included being female (OR = 1.574), middle-rank technical title and higher (OR = 2.199), continuous lecturing for more than 3 classes (OR = 3.034), lectured more than 10 classes a week (OR = 1.436) and taught art or physical education (OR = 1.742). Conclusions: Teachers' work-related characteristics were associated with PVD. This proves that a preventive voice care program for teachers, administered by the school or education bureau, is urgent. This could include components such as the reasonable arrangement of timetables and recruitment of a sufficient number of kindergarten and elementary school teachers.Level of evidence: Case-series.

3.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 35(5): 412-418, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893037

ABSTRACT

Taking the Chinese city of Xiamen as an example, simulation and quantitative analysis were performed on the transmissions of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the influence of intervention combinations to assist policymakers in the preparation of targeted response measures. A machine learning model was built to estimate the effectiveness of interventions and simulate transmission in different scenarios. The comparison was conducted between simulated and real cases in Xiamen. A web interface with adjustable parameters, including choice of intervention measures, intervention weights, vaccination, and viral variants, was designed for users to run the simulation. The total case number was set as the outcome. The cumulative number was 4,614,641 without restrictions and 78 under the strictest intervention set. Simulation with the parameters closest to the real situation of the Xiamen outbreak was performed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the model. The simulation model generated a duration of 52 days before the daily cases dropped to zero and the final cumulative case number of 200, which were 25 more days and 36 fewer cases than the real situation, respectively. Targeted interventions could benefit the prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreak while safeguarding public health and mitigating impacts on people's livelihood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 863082, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822399

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is a positive-strand RNA virus, and has rapidly spread worldwide as a pandemic. The vaccines, repurposed drugs, and specific treatments have led to a surge of novel therapies and guidelines nowadays; however, the epidemic of COVID-19 is not yet fully combated and is still in a vital crisis. In repositioning drugs, natural products are gaining attention because of the large therapeutic window and potent antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Of note, the predominant curcumoid extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) including phenolic curcumin influences multiple signaling pathways and has demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, wound healing, chemopreventive, chemosensitizing, and radiosensitizing spectrums. In this review, all pieces of current information related to curcumin-used for the treatment and prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection through in vitro, in vivo, and in silico studies, clinical trials, and new formulation designs are retrieved to re-evaluate the applications based on the pharmaceutical efficacy of clinical therapy and to provide deep insights into knowledge and strategy about the curcumin's role as an immune booster, inflammatory modulator, and therapeutic agent against COVID-19. Moreover, this study will also afford a favorable application or approach with evidence based on the drug discovery and development, pharmacology, functional foods, and nutraceuticals for effectively fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 759444, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518579

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has alienated people from urban green spaces (UGSs) that have various health outcomes for humans. However, little is known about the influential factors of perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the key factors that influence perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs and to assess the mediating role of place attachment in relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese megacities. Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire survey from December 2020 to March 2021 in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Six multiple regression models were constructed to investigate the main factors by which UGSs influence citizens' perceived health benefits and use behaviors. Four mediation models were established using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method to explore the mediating effect of place attachment. Results: A total of 628 questionnaires were included in the analysis. The results revealed that some UGS components (green space access, maintenance, and soundscape) significantly affected perceived health benefits for citizens (physical, mental, and social health) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conversely, use behaviors (frequency of visits, duration of visits, and activity intensity) were mainly affected by the sociodemographic context but less affected by UGS components. In addition, UGS components were found to significantly predict place attachment, which in turn influenced the perceived health benefits, frequency, and duration of visits. Conclusions: This study distinguished the key factors that affect perceived health benefits and use behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: green space access, maintenance, soundscape, and sociodemographic characteristics. Place attachment still needs to be considered when discussing how to encourage citizens to visit UGSs during the pandemic. These findings provide implications for policymakers and landscape planners regarding design and management measures for UGSs that are conducive to coping with pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Cities , Health Status , Humans , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 626553, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417114

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus causing acute respiratory tract infection in humans. The virus has the characteristics of rapid transmission, long incubation period and strong pathogenicity, and has spread all over the world. Therefore, it is of great significance to select appropriate animal models for antiviral drug development and therapeutic effect evaluation. Here, we review and compare the current animal models of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
ssrn; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3738657

ABSTRACT

Background: Cohort-independent robust mortality prediction model in patients with COVID-19 infection is not yet established, while this mortality prediction model could help for early triaging, optimizing the medical resource and adjust the treatments in time. Methods: To build up a reliable, interpretable mortality prediction model with strong foresight, we have performed an international, bi-institutional study from China (Wuhan cohort, collected from January to March) and Germany (Würzburg cohort, collected from March to September). A Random Forest-based machine learning approach was applied to 1,352 patients from Wuhan cohort, generating a mortality prediction model based on their clinical features. Then, the 81 patients from Würzburg cohort were used as independent test data for this model. Findings: We identified five clinical features, including lymphocyte (%), neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, could be used for mortality prediction of COVID-19 patients with more than 91% accuracy and 99% AUC. Additionally, the time-series analysis revealed the predictive model based on these clinical features is very robust over time when patients are in the hospital, indicating the strong association of these five clinical features with the progression of treatment as well. Moreover, for different preexisting diseases, this model also demonstrated high predictive power. Finally, the mortality prediction model has been applied to the independent Würzburg cohort, resulting in high prediction accuracy (with above 90% accuracy and 85% AUC) as well, indicating the robustness of the model in different cohorts. Interpretation: This study has established the mortality prediction model that allowed early classification of COVID-19 patients, not only at admission but also along the treatment timeline, not only cohort-independent but also highly interpretable. This model represents a valuable tool for triaging and optimizing the resources in COVID-19 patients. Funding: National Science Foundation of China, National Key Research and Development Program of China and Urgent projects of scientific and technological research on COVID-19 funded by Hubei province.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, the local institutional review board of the University of Würzburg waived the requirement for additional approval.

9.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.08.27.271130

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replicates throughout human airways. The polarized human airway epithelium (HAE) cultured at an airway-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) is an in vitro model mimicking the in vivo human mucociliary airway epithelium and supports the replication of SARS-CoV-2. However, previous studies only characterized short-period SARS-CoV-2 infection in HAE. In this study, continuously monitoring the SARS-CoV-2 infection in HAE-ALI cultures for a long period of up to 51 days revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection was long lasting with recurrent replication peaks appearing between an interval of approximately 7-10 days, which was consistent in all the tested HAE-ALI cultures derived from 4 lung bronchi of independent donors. We also identified that SARS-CoV-2 does not infect HAE from the basolateral side, and the dominant SARS-CoV-2 permissive epithelial cells are ciliated cells and goblet cells, whereas virus replication in basal cells and club cells was not detectable. Notably, virus infection immediately damaged the HAE, which is demonstrated by dispersed Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression without clear tight junctions and partial loss of cilia. Importantly, we identified that SARS-CoV-2 productive infection of HAE requires a high viral load of 2.5 x 105 virions per cm2 of epithelium. Thus, our studies highlight the importance of a high viral load and that epithelial renewal initiates and maintains a recurrent infection of HAE with SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(14): 859, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global challenge since the December 2019. The hospital stay is one of the prognostic indicators, and its predicting model based on CT radiomics features is important for assessing the patients' clinical outcome. The study aimed to develop and test machine learning-based CT radiomics models for predicting hospital stay in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter study enrolled patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and their initial CT images from 5 designated hospitals in Ankang, Lishui, Lanzhou, Linxia, and Zhenjiang between January 23, 2020 and February 8, 2020. Patients were classified into short-term (≤10 days) and long-term hospital stay (>10 days). CT radiomics models based on logistic regression (LR) and random forest (RF) were developed on features from pneumonia lesions in first four centers. The predictive performance was evaluated in fifth center (test dataset) on lung lobe- and patients-level. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients were enrolled from designated hospitals. As of February 20, 21 patients remained in hospital or with non-findings in CT were excluded. Therefore, 31 patients with 72 lesion segments were included in analysis. The CT radiomics models based on 6 second-order features were effective in discriminating short- and long-term hospital stay in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, with areas under the curves of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.83-1.0) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.67-1.0) by LR and RF, respectively, in test. The LR and RF model showed a sensitivity and specificity of 1.0 and 0.89, 0.75 and 1.0 in test respectively. As of February 28, a prospective cohort of six discharged patients were all correctly recognized as long-term stay using RF and LR models. CONCLUSIONS: The machine learning-based CT radiomics features and models showed feasibility and accuracy for predicting hospital stay in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(4): 1404-1412, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has outbreak in the world. Little is known about the clinical characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the high-altitude region of China. We reported the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Gansu province, China. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were consecutively enrolled from January 21, 2020 to February 11, 2020. The information on the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, radiological features on admission, treatment and outcome were obtained with the final follow-up of March 13, 2020. On the basis of the median length of hospital stay, patients were further analyzed in two groups (long- vs. short-hospital stay). RESULTS: Of the 86 patients of COVID-19 in 11 cities of Gansu Province, the median hospital stay was 14.0 days (interquartile rang, 11.0-19.0 days). In the overall cohort, the median age was 41.0 years (interquartile rang, 31.0-54.3 years), and 48 (55.8%) patients were female. Forty (46.5%) had a history of exposure to epidemic regions, but none exposed to the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Common symptoms included fever (41, 47.7%), and cough (37, 43.0%). On admission, 30 (34.9%) and 58 (67.4%) patients had leukopenia and lymphopenia. According to chest CT scans, 53 (66.3%) of 80 patients showed bilateral pneumonia, and 19 (23.8%) of 80 patients showed unilateral pneumonia. Of the 15 asymptomatic cases, 10 (66.6%) cases were found CT findings of pneumonia. Besides, there were 65 (75.6%) patients with mild and moderate type of COVID-19. All 86 patients received antiviral and traditional Chinese medicine therapy, 53 (61.6%) received antibacterial therapy, and 3 (3.5%) patients received invasive ventilator mechanical ventilation. The proportion of patients received antibiotic treatment in long-hospital stay group was significantly higher than that in the short-hospital stay group (P=0.045). As of March 13, 2020, 84 (97.7%) patients were discharged, and two (2.3%) cases died. CONCLUSIONS: In the Gansu province cohort of 86 patients of COVID-19, most patients were with mild or moderate type, and most asymptomatic cases showed CT imaging findings of SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.04.11.20058891

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and intergenerational clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients associated with cluster, so as to understand the rules of the patients associated with cluster of this outbreak and provide help for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods: All close contacts of the patient were screened since the first supermarket employee with COVID-19 was identified. A retrospective analysis was made on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the confirmed cases admitted to the designated hospitals for centralized treatment. The patients were divided into two groups according to the first generation (supermarket employees, group A) and the second or third generation (family members or friends of supermarket employees, group B), and the similarities and differences between the two groups were compared. Results: A total of 24 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed, with an average age of 48{+/-}1.73 years. The mean duration from onset to release form quarantine was 21.04{+/-}6.77 days, and the onset time was concentrated in 5-11 days after the first patient was diagnosed. Among all the patients, 23 patients were moderate, among which 7 patients (29.17%) were asymptomatic. Symptoms of symptomatic patients were cough (75.00%), low fever (62.50%), shortness of breath (41.67%), sore throat (25.00%), gastrointestinal symptoms (25.00%), fatigue (20.83%), etc. Biochemical examination on admission showed that the white blood cell count < 4.010x9/L (29.17%) and the lymphocyte count <1.1x109/L (58.33%). The lymphocyte count of 50.00% of the patients was [≤]0.6x109/L. On admission, chest CT showed pneumonia (100%) with bilateral infiltration (75.00%). Treatment: antiviral drug (100%), Chinese medicine (100%), common oxygen therapy (45.83%). There were 11 cases in group A (first generation, 11 cases) and 13 cases in group B (second generation, 11 cases; third generation, 2 cases). In group B, there were more males, from onset to admission later, more patients had underlying diseases, and more patients were treated with albumin (P<0.05). However, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in other clinical indicators, including the duration from onset to release form quarantine(P>0.05). There was no improvement in granulocyte count in all patients, as well as in groups A and B, between admission and release from quarantine(P>0.05). Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients associated with cluster were similar to those of other COVID-19 patients, but there were some special features. The severity of the disease was similar and there was intergenerational spread. There was no difference in clinical characteristics between generations. Asymptomatic infections occurred in a proportion of patients and could cause spread.

14.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.03.21.20038778

ABSTRACT

Objective: To find out more characteristics and rules of COVID-19 by analyzing the clinical course of COVID-19 patients in a region outside Hubei province. Methods: 37 cases diagnosed adult COVID-19 cases of general characteristics, history of epidemiology, chronic underlying diseases,clinical symptoms and complications, chest CT, biochemical monitoring, severity assessment, treatment and outcome were retrospectively analyzed, and according to the duration from onset to release from quarantine were divided into 20-day group and > 20-day group, compare the similarities and differences between the two groups. Results: Among the 37 patients, 5 were mild, 30 were moderate, 1 was severe and 1 was critical. All the patients were released from quarantine without death. The average duration from onset to release from quarantine was 20.2{+/-}6.6 days, The average length of stay from onset to hospitalization was 4.1{+/-}3.7 days, and hospitalization duration average 16.1{+/-} 6.2 days. The average age was 44.3{+/-}1.67 years. 78.4% of cases were caused by exposure to a confirmed patient or the workplace of a confirmed patient. The main symptoms were cough (67.6%), fever( 62.2%), shortness of breath (32.4%), fatigue (24.3%), sore throat (21.6%,) vomiting or diarrhea (21.6%). The white blood cell count was decreased in 27.0% of the patients, and the lymphocyte count was decreased in 62.2% of the patients, of which 43.5% patients were <0.6 x 109/L. On admission, 86.5% of patients with chest CT showed pneumonia, including some asymptomatic patients. 68.8% of patients showed bilateral infiltration. In the > 20-day group, the average age was 49.9{+/-}1.38 years old, and the duration from onset to hospitalization was 5.5{+/-}3.9 days. Compared with the [≤]20-day group, the age was older and and duration was longer, P < 0.05. All the 7 asymptomatic patients were [≤]20-day group. When 37 patients were released from quarantine, the white blood cell count of 16.2% patients was <4.0 x 109/L, and the lymphocyte count of 59.5% patients was <1.1x109/L, and the absolute count of white blood cells and lymphocytes was 5.02 {+/-} 1.34x109/L and 1.03{+/-} 0.34x109/L respectively , compared with those on admission, P >0.05. Conclusion: The majority of COVID-19 cases in the study area were mild and moderate, with good clinical outcomes. There were some special characteristics in the clinical process. The reasons of duration from onset to release from quarantine were complex. There was no significant change in the number of granulocytes at the time of release from quarantine compared to the time of admission.

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