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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 202: 113975, 2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611634

ABSTRACT

Vertically paired electrodes (VPEs) with multiple electrode pairs were developed for the enhancement of capacitive measurements by optimizing the electrode gap and number of electrode pairs. The electrode was fabricated using a conductive polymer layer of PEDOT:PSS instead of Ag and Pt metal electrodes to increase the VPE fabrication yield because the PEDOT:PSS layer could be effectively etched using a reactive dry etching process. In this study, sensitivity enhancement was realized by decreasing the electrode gap and increasing the number of VPE electrode pairs. Such an increase in sensitivity according to the electrode gap and the number of electrode pairs was estimated using a model analyte for an immunoassay. Additionally, a computer simulation was performed using VPEs with different electrode gaps and numbers of VPE electrode pairs. Finally, VPEs with multiple electrode pairs were applied for SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (NP) detection. The capacitive biosensor based on the VPE with immobilized anti-SARS-CoV-2 NP was applied for the specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 in viral cultures. Using viral cultures of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and CoV-strain 229E, the limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to satisfy the cutoff value (dilution factor of 1/800) for the medical diagnosis of COVID-19, and the assay results from the capacitive biosensor were compared with commercial rapid kit based on a lateral flow immunoassay.

2.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 17(S6):e054133, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1589235

ABSTRACT

Background While the global COVID-19 pandemic has hindered many human research operations, it has allowed for the investigation of novel scientific questions. Particularly, the effects of the pandemic and its resulting social isolation on elderly individuals and their association with Alzheimer?s disease biomarkers remains a broad and open question. Here, we sought to investigate whether knowledge of COVID-19, pandemic-related distress, and changes in sleep quality were associated with in vivo tau deposition in an AD-enriched cohort. Methods COVID-19 telephone assessments were conducted in N=292 individuals (29 young/174 CN/52 MCI/19 AD/18 other) of the TRIAD cohort in April-July 2020. Assessment consisted of clinical and neuropsychiatric, instruments, including scales assessing the individual?s experience of the pandemic. Structural MRI and [18F]MK6240 tau-PET were acquired before the pandemic. [18F]MK6240 standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) were calculated 90-110 minutes post-injection using cerebellar grey matter as the reference region. Voxel-based regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between baseline [18F]MK6240 SUVR and knowledge of COVID-19, distress related to COVID-19, and change in sleep quality since the pandemic. Results Higher tau-PET SUVR was associated with less knowledge of COVID-19 in N=210 individuals in the cuneus, cingulate and superior temporal regions. Tau-PET was similarly associated with lower levels of COVID-19-related distress in the isthmus and rostral anterior cingulate (N=201 individuals). Furthermore, tau-PET tracer uptake was significantly associated with increases in sleep quality as assessed by rate of change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index before and during the pandemic (N=176 individuals). All results survived correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory with a cluster threshold of p < 0.001. Conclusion Our results suggest that those with increased tau deposition may have a weaker understanding of symptoms and prevention of COVID-19 and lower levels of distress related to the pandemic than individuals with less brain tau. Individuals with higher tau may also experience improved sleep quality during the pandemic. While these observations appear to be favourable effects of tau, the first may suggest that public health information about COVID-19 is less accessible to the aging population. The interactions and mediation of these effects remain to be properly elucidated.

3.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 17(S1):e054773, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1589233

ABSTRACT

Background Individuals with cognitive/memory impairments may be more vulnerable to COVID19 due to having poor knowledge of COVID19 and how to protect themselves under current policies. Here, we aimed to show cognitive/memory impairment is associated with less knowledge or less anxiety change related to COVID19. We hypothesized that the effect of hippocampal volume on COVID19-related knowledge or anxiety change during the pandemic is mediated by cognitive health. Method A total of 247 participants (162 cognitively normal (CN) and 85 cognitively impaired (CI)) from the Montreal TRIAD cohort underwent a structural MRI and cognition and anxiety assessments using CDRSOB and GAD score, respectively before the COVID19 pandemic. During the first wave of COVID19, the participants were assessed for anxiety using GAD score and knowledge related to COVID19. Hippocampal volume was measured using Freesurfer, and the anxiety was evaluated as the rate of change in the GAD score: (follow-up ? baseline)/time difference. Then, the effect of hippocampal volume on the rate of change in the anxiety or knowledge on COVID19 was evaluated based on a mediation analysis with CDRSOB as a mediator, 2000 bootstrapping, and age, sex, education, and APOEe4 as covariates. Result The CI group showed significantly less knowledge of COVID19, or less anxiety change compared to the CN group, while hippocampal volume showed a significant association with knowledge of COVID19 or the rate of change in anxiety. Upon further examination, we revealed that the effect of hippocampal volume on COVID19 knowledge or the rate of change in anxiety was significantly mediated by cognitive health, indicated by CDRSOB (Figure 1). Conclusion Our finding highlights the poorer knowledge of COVID19 and related risks in individuals with cognitive/memory impairments;the CDRSOB, indicative of cognitive health, significantly mediated the effect of hippocampal volume on the rate of change in anxiety or knowledge on COVID19 in our cohort. This study urges for a more effective strategy and policy about informing and educating the individual with cognitive/memory impairment on COVID19 and related risks.

4.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 17(S6):e056606, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1589203

ABSTRACT

Background The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on cohort studies, particularly those whose subjects are at higher risk of developing complications from the virus. As such, assessment methods must be adapted to minimize COVID-19 exposure risk. The TRIAD (Translational Biomarkers of Aging and Dementia) cohort assessed N=292 individuals during initial COVID-19 lockdown measures by telephone interview to rate cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and impact of the pandemic. To increase speed and efficiency of data collection, we aim to follow these individuals by means of online survey. Here, we present a validation of our online assessment tools by comparing data obtained through both methods (phone interview and online survey) in the same subjects. Methods 10 subjects (4 elderly CN/3 MCI/3 AD) and their informants participated in this study. Subjects were varied for assessment language (English/French) and first assessment method (phone/online). 18 instruments were administered (listed in Table 1). Instrument scores were first compared by computing individual differences (phone-online), then by pooling all scores by assessment type and calculating an effect size. Pearson correlation coefficient between phone and online scores was also computed. Results Mean interval between assessments was 8.8±4.8 days. Mean length of online assessment (63.7±20.7mins) was comparable to mean phone interview length (72.6±32.4mins). Instrument scores from phone interviews had a total mean of 102.60, while scores from online surveys had a total mean of 103.93, with a pooled SD of 716.09. Effect size was -0.00186. Correlation of phone and online scores yielded a Pearson?s R of 0.85 (p<0.05). Pearson?s R was also computed by applying bootstrapping using 1000 resamples without replacement with a sample size of 50. The Pearson R coefficient after bootstrapping was 0.91 (95% CI: [0.7699-0.998]). Conclusion Our results suggest that instrument scores from phone and online assessments are comparable, and not significantly different from each other. The observed variance in scores between phone and online assessments may be due in part to the normal test-retest variability associated with re-administering instruments. This validation of online assessment tools in an aging population is of significant importance to human studies in the context of COVID-19.

5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580943

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays an important role in assessing the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. Recent COVID-19 research indicates that the disease progress propagates from the bottom of the lungs to the top. However, chest radiography (CXR) cannot directly provide a quantitative metric of radiographic opacities, and existing AI-assisted CXR analysis methods do not quantify the regional severity. In this paper, to assist the regional analysis, we developed a fully automated framework using deep learning-based four-region segmentation and detection models to assist the quantification of COVID-19 pneumonia. Specifically, a segmentation model is first applied to separate left and right lungs, and then a detection network of the carina and left hilum is used to separate upper and lower lungs. To improve the segmentation performance, an ensemble strategy with five models is exploited. We evaluated the clinical relevance of the proposed method compared with the radiographic assessment of the quality of lung edema (RALE) annotated by physicians. Mean intensities of segmented four regions indicate a positive correlation to the regional extent and density scores of pulmonary opacities based on the RALE. Therefore, the proposed method can accurately assist the quantification of regional pulmonary opacities of COVID-19 pneumonia patients.

6.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295289

ABSTRACT

Summary We report the first local transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of the quarantined subjects indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR+, were on average ∼1000 times greater compared to A/B lineage infections during initial epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. We performed high-quality sequencing on samples from 126 individuals. Reliable epidemiological data meant that, for 111 transmission events, the donor and recipient cases were known. The estimated transmission bottleneck size was 1-3 virions with most minor intra-host single nucleotide variants (iSNVs) failing to transmit to the recipients. However, transmission heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 was also observed. The transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 4 of the 30 substitutions identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population level viral diversity during rapid spread. Disease control activities, such as the frequency of population testing, quarantine during pre-symptomatic infection, and level of virus genomic surveillance should be adjusted in order to account for the increasing prevalence of the Delta variant worldwide.

7.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293892

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is underway. Some COVID-19 cases re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after discharge raising the public concern on their infectivity. Characterization of re-positive cases are urgently needed for designing intervention strategies. <br><br>Methods: Clinical data were obtained through Guangdong COVID-19 surveillance network. Neutralization antibody titre was determined using a microneutralization assay. Potential infectivity of clinical samples was evaluated after the cell inoculation. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using three different RT-PCR kits and multiplex PCR with nanopore sequencing. <br><br>Findings: Among 619 discharged COVID-19 cases, 87 were re-tested as SARS-CoV-2 positive in circumstance of social isolation. All re-positive cases had mild or moderate symptoms in initial diagnosis and a younger age distribution (mean, 30·4). Re-positive cases (n=59) exhibited similar neutralization antibodies (NAbs) titre distributions to other COVID-19 cases (n=150) parallel-tested in this study. No infective viral strain could be obtained by culture and none full-length viral genomes could be sequenced for all re-positive cases. I<br><br>nterpretation: Re-positive SARS-CoV-2 was not caused by the secondary infection and was identified in around 14% of discharged cases. A robust Nabs response and a potential virus genome degradation were detected from nearly all re-positive cases suggesting a lower transmission risk, especially through a respiratory route. <br><br>Funding: This work was supported by grants from Guangdong Provincial Novel Coronavirus Scientific and Technological Project (2020111107001), Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong(2018B020207006), National Science and Technology Project(2020YFC0846800).<br><br>Declaration of Interests: All authors: No reported conflicts of interest.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: This study was reviewed and approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data collection and analysis of cases were determined by the Health Commission of Guangdong province to be part of a continuing public health outbreak investigation during the emergency response and were thus considered exempt from institutional review board approval.

8.
JCI Insight ; 6(21)2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506181

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 (SC2) and is more prevalent and severe in elderly and patients with comorbid diseases (CM). Because chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) is induced during aging and CM, the relationships between CHI3L1 and SC2 were investigated. Here, we demonstrate that CHI3L1 is a potent stimulator of the SC2 receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and viral spike protein priming proteases (SPP), that ACE2 and SPP are induced during aging, and that anti-CHI3L1, kasugamycin, and inhibitors of phosphorylation abrogate these ACE2- and SPP-inductive events. Human studies also demonstrate that the levels of circulating CHI3L1 are increased in the elderly and patients with CM, where they correlate with COVID-19 severity. These studies demonstrate that CHI3L1 is a potent stimulator of ACE2 and SPP, that this induction is a major mechanism contributing to the effects of aging during SC2 infection, and that CHI3L1 co-opts the CHI3L1 axis to augment SC2 infection. CHI3L1 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of and is an attractive therapeutic target in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/metabolism , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1/metabolism , Aging/drug effects , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Aminoglycosides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Singapore instituted lockdown measures from 7th February 2020 to 1st June 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases from the national trauma registry was carried out comparing the lockdown period (7th February 2020 to 1st June 2020) to the pre-lockdown period (7th February 2019 to 1st June 2019). Data extracted included the volume of Tier 1 (ISS >15) and Tier 2 (ISS 9-15) cases and epidemiology. Subgroup analysis was performed for Tier 1 patient outcomes. RESULTS: Trauma volume decreased by 19.5% with a 32% drop in Tier 1 cases. Road traffic and workplace accidents decreased by 50% (p<0.01) while interpersonal violence showed an increase of 37.5% (p=0.34). There was an 18.1% decrease in usage of trauma workflows (p=0.01), with an increase in time to intervention for Tier 1 patients from 88 to 124 minutes (p =0.22). Discharge to community facilities decreased from 31.4% to 17.1% (p < 0.05). There was no increase in inpatient mortality, length of stay in critical care, or length of stay overall. CONCLUSION: There was an overall decrease in major trauma cases during the lockdown period, particularly road traffic accidents and worksite injuries and a relative increase in interpersonal violence. Redeployment of manpower and hospital resources may have contributed to decreased usage of trauma workflows and community facilities. In the event of further lockdowns it is necessary to plan for trauma coverage and maintain use of workflows to facilitate early intervention.

10.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 17: 100282, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446928

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are public health measures that aim to suppress the transmission of infectious diseases, including border restrictions, quarantine and isolation, community management, social distancing, face mask usage, and personal hygiene. This research aimed to assess the co-benefits of NPIs against COVID-19 on notifiable infectious diseases (NIDs) in Guangdong Province, China. Methods: Based on NID data from the Notifiable Infectious Diseases Surveillance System in Guangdong, we first compared the incidence of NIDs during the emergency response period (weeks 4-53 of 2020) with those in the same period of 2015-2019 and then compared that with the expected incidence during the synchronous period of 2020 for each city by using a Bayesian structural time series model. Findings: A total of 514,341 cases of 39 types of NIDs were reported in Guangdong during the emergency response period in 2020, which decreased by 50·7% compared with the synchronous period during 2015-2019. It was estimated that the number of 39 NIDs during the emergency response in 2020 was 65·6% (95% credible interval [CI]: 64·0% - 68·2%) lower than expected, which means that 982,356 (95% CI: 913,443 - 1,105,170) cases were averted. The largest reduction (82·1%) was found for children aged 0-14 years. For different categories of NIDs, natural focal diseases and insect-borne infectious diseases had the greatest reduction (89·4%), followed by respiratory infectious diseases (87·4%), intestinal infectious diseases (59·4%), and blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections (18·2%). Dengue, influenza, and hand-foot-and-mouth disease were reduced by 99·3%, 95·1%, and 76·2%, respectively. Larger reductions were found in the regions with developed economies and a higher number of COVID-19 cases. Interpretation: NPIs against COVID-19 may have a large co-benefit on the prevention of other infectious diseases in Guangdong, China, and the effects have heterogeneity in populations, diseases, time and space. Funding: Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province.

11.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443684

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to changes in stroke patients' healthcare use. This study evaluated changes in Korean stroke patients' health-seeking behaviors and stroke care services using data from the Korean Stroke Registry (KSR). METHODS: We reviewed data from patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) during 2019 (before COVID-19 period) and 2020 (COVID-19 period). Outcomes included patient characteristics, time from stroke onset to hospital arrival, and in-hospital stroke pathways. Subgroup analyses were performed for an epidemic region (Daegu city and Gyeongsangbuk-do region, the D-G region). RESULTS: The study included 1,792 patients from the pre-COVID-19 period and 1,555 patients from the COVID-19 period who visited hospitals that contribute to the KSR. During the COVID-19 period, the D-G region had two-thirds the number of cases (vs. the pre-CO-VID-19 period) and a significant decrease in the proportion of patients with TIA (9.97%-2.91%). Unlike other regions, the median onset-to-door time increased significantly in the D-G region (361 min vs. 526.5 min, p = 0.016), and longer onset-to-door times were common for patients with mild symptoms and who were in their 60s or 70s. The number of patients who underwent intravenous thrombolysis also decreased during the COVID-19 period, although the treatment times were not significantly different between the 2 periods. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Korean stroke patients in a CO-VID-19 epidemic region exhibited distinct changes in health-seeking behaviors. Appropriate triage system and public education regarding the importance of early treatment are needed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101129, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401440

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel variant of SARS-CoV-2, the Delta variant of concern (VOC, also known as lineage B.1.617.2), is fast becoming the dominant strain globally. We reported the epidemiological, viral, and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients infected with the Delta VOC during the local outbreak in Guangzhou, China. Methods: We extracted the epidemiological and clinical information pertaining to the 159 cases infected with the Delta VOC across seven transmission generations between May 21 and June 18, 2021. The whole chain of the Delta VOC transmission was described. Kinetics of viral load and clinical characteristics were compared with a cohort of wild-type infection in 2020 admitted to the Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital. Findings: There were four transmission generations within the first ten days. The Delta VOC yielded a significantly shorter incubation period (4.0 vs. 6.0 days), higher viral load (20.6 vs. 34.0, cycle threshold of the ORF1a/b gene), and a longer duration of viral shedding in pharyngeal swab samples (14.0 vs. 8.0 days) compared with the wild-type strain. In cases with critical illness, the proportion of patients over the age of 60 was higher in the Delta VOC group than in the wild-type strain (100.0% vs. 69.2%, p = 0.03). The Delta VOC had a higher risk than wild-type infection in deterioration to critical status (hazards ratio 2.98 [95%CI 1.29-6.86]; p = 0.01). Interpretation: Infection with the Delta VOC is characterized by markedly increased transmissibility, viral loads and risk of disease progression compared with the wild-type strain, calling for more intensive prevention and control measures to contain future outbreaks. Funding: National Grand Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Guangdong Provincial Department of Science and Technology, Guangzhou Laboratory.

14.
Biochip J ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378994

ABSTRACT

Several endemic corona viruses (eCoVs) have been reported to be the most common etiologic agents for the seasonal common cold and also cause pneumonia. These eCoVs share extensive sequence homology with SARS-CoV-2, and immune responses to eCoVs can cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Based on such cross-reactivity of antigens among eCoVs, the IgG antibodies against the spike protein (SP) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were isolated from pig serum using magnetic beads immobilized with SARS-CoV SP and a protein-A column. The selectivity of the isolated antibodies was tested using different types of antigens, such as SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (NP), influenza A virus (Beijing type), influenza B virus (Tokio and Florida types), human hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), and bovine serum albumin (BSA). From the selectivity test, the anti-SP antibodies isolated from pig serum had sufficient selectivity to other kinds of viral antigens, and the apparent binding constant of the isolated antibodies was approximately 1.5 × 10-8 M from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements. Finally, the isolated anti-SP antibodies were applied to the immunoassay of SP using competitive immunoassay configuration. The feasibility of the detection as well as the quantitative analysis of the SARS-CoV viral culture fluid was determined using four viral culture samples, namely, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and CoV-229E.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 716407, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359193

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new strain of coronavirus and the causative agent of the current global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are currently no FDA-approved antiviral drugs for COVID-19 and there is an urgent need to develop treatment strategies that can effectively suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection. Numerous approaches have been researched so far, with one of them being the emerging exosome-based therapies. Exosomes are nano-sized, lipid bilayer-enclosed structures, share structural similarities with viruses secreted from all types of cells, including those lining the respiratory tract. Importantly, the interplay between exosomes and viruses could be potentially exploited for antiviral drug and vaccine development. Exosomes are produced by virus-infected cells and play crucial roles in mediating communication between infected and uninfected cells. SARS-CoV-2 modulates the production and composition of exosomes, and can exploit exosome formation, secretion, and release pathways to promote infection, transmission, and intercellular spread. Exosomes have been exploited for therapeutic benefits in patients afflicted with various diseases including COVID-19. Furthermore, the administration of exosomes loaded with immunomodulatory cargo in combination with antiviral drugs represents a novel intervention for the treatment of diseases such as COVID-19. In particular, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used as cell-free therapeutic agents. Mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes reduces the cytokine storm and reverse the inhibition of host anti-viral defenses associated with COVID-19 and also enhances mitochondrial function repair lung injuries. We discuss the role of exosomes in relation to transmission, infection, diagnosis, treatment, therapeutics, drug delivery, and vaccines, and present some future perspectives regarding their use for combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Carriers/therapeutic use , Exosomes/metabolism , Immunomodulation/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Infect Prev Pract ; 3(3): 100145, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253049

ABSTRACT

Despite remarkable developments in healthcare, the world was not ready to stop the spread of the novel COVID-19 pandemic almost a century after the great influenza pandemic. The explosive increase in the number of patients stalled the healthcare system, and the first and apparent issue was the shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE). Our group established a system using a hydrogen peroxide vaporization method to decontaminate and reuse N95 respirators for healthcare workers. The system decontaminated over 12,000 units of PPE to cover institutions in West Texas. This service provided support at the most needed time during the pandemic.

19.
J Infect ; 83(2): 207-216, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease that has become a global pandemic. Close contact plays an important role in infection spread, while fomite may also be a possible transmission route. Research during the COVID-19 pandemic has identified long-range airborne transmission as one of the important transmission routes although lack solid evidence. METHODS: We examined video data related to a restaurant associated COVID-19 outbreak in Guangzhou. We observed more than 40,000 surface touches and 13,000 episodes of close contacts in the restaurant during the entire lunch duration. These data allowed us to analyse infection risk via both the fomite and close contact routes. RESULTS: There is no significant correlation between the infection risk via both fomite and close contact routes among those who were not family members of the index case. We can thus rule out virus transmission via fomite contact and interpersonal close contact routes in the Guangzhou restaurant outbreak. The absence of a fomite route agrees with the COVID-19 literature. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide indirect evidence for the long-range airborne route dominating SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the restaurant. We note that the restaurant was poorly ventilated, allowing for increasing airborne SARS-CoV-2 concentration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Restaurants , SARS-CoV-2 , Touch
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