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1.
Applied Economics Letters ; 30(9):1205-1212, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2301463

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has exerted significant downward pressure on economic activity. In this paper, we examine the extent of the epidemic shock and recovery effects on economic growth by province in China since 2020. We find that the extent of the epidemic shock on economic growth in China has been gradually weakening. Still, the economy has not yet fully recovered from the shock. Also, there is some heterogeneity across provinces in the extent to the economic growth shocked by epidemic and the recovery effects.

2.
Pharmaceuticals ; 13(10):266, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-783911

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased demand for chemical disinfectants, which can be potentially hazardous to users. Here, we suggest that the cell-free supernatant from Lactobacillus plantarum NIBR97, including novel bacteriocins, has potential as a natural alternative to chemical disinfectants. It exhibits significant antibacterial activities against a broad range of pathogens, and was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to cause cellular lysis through pore formation in bacterial membranes, implying that its antibacterial activity may be mediated by peptides or proteins and supported by proteinase K treatment. It also showed significant antiviral activities against HIV-based lentivirus and influenza A/H3N2, causing lentiviral lysis through envelope collapse. Furthermore, whole-genome sequencing revealed that NIBR97 has diverse antimicrobial peptides, and among them are five novel bacteriocins, designated as plantaricin 1 to 5. Plantaricin 3 and 5 in particular showed both antibacterial and antiviral activities. SEM revealed that plantaricin 3 causes direct damage to both bacterial membranes and viral envelopes, while plantaricin 5 damaged only bacterial membranes, implying different antiviral mechanisms. Our data suggest that the cell-free supernatant from L. plantarum NIBR97, including novel bacteriocins, is potentially useful as a natural alternative to chemical disinfectants.

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