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1.
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies ; 315:135-147, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2244444

ABSTRACT

As we see coronavirus is the very dangerous diseases and to identify this diseases in one's body is also not as easy. So during identification of diseases there are many false positive cases we see that person does not have corona and still the prediction comes true and also in some cases, it happens that person has corona but it does not get detected (false negative case). So due to this problem, we here come up with the two approaches and make comparison between these two approaches and decide which one is better to analyze the diseases in the body. We are using CNN to scan chest X-ray dataset and ML algorithms for tabular dataset as it contains many text information too. So in this project, we explain in detail, what is CNN, what is ML, how to implement CNN and ML algorithms on particular dataset, what output we will get as a comparison. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

2.
IEEE Access ; : 2023/01/01 00:00:00.000, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2234580

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected many people across the globe. Though vaccines are available now, early detection of the disease plays a vital role in the better management of COVID-19 patients. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) powered Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system can automate the detection pipeline accounting for accurate diagnosis, overcoming the limitations of manual methods. This work proposes a CAD system for COVID-19 that detects and classifies abnormalities in lung CT images using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimised ANN (ABCNN). The proposed ABCNN approach works by segmenting the suspicious regions from the CT images of non-COVID and COVID patients using an ABC optimised region growing process and extracting the texture and intensity features from those suspicious regions. Further, an optimised ANN model whose input features, initial weights and hidden nodes are optimised using ABC optimisation classifies those abnormal regions into COVID and non-COVID classes. The proposed ABCNN approach is evaluated using the lung CT images collected from the public datasets. In comparison to other available techniques, the proposed ABCNN approach achieved a high classification accuracy of 92.37% when evaluated using a set of 470 lung CT images. Author

3.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234834
4.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(7):573-578, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2073625

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives - Covid -19 is a pandemic, which is known to be a multi organ disease with complex clinical manifestations. Covid 19 virus has predilection for lung involvement but can also cause hepatic dysfunction. This study aims to analyze the significance of abnormal liver function tests in SARS- COV2 positive patients. METHOD- This retrospective study, involved 150 patients (75 MALES, 75 FEMALES) who tested positive for SARS COV2. After obtaining clearance from the ethical committee, clinical and biochemical data were collected retrospectively from patient records, for a period of six months. They were segregated into severe and non severe SARS COV2 infected individuals. liver function test were compared among patients between these 2 groups. RESULTS-Of the 150 covid- 19 positive patients, 75 were males and 75 were females. The mean age was 50+/-5 years. 95 patients belonged to the non severe covid-19 category (22 hypoxic and 73 non hypoxic patients), who were admitted in the ward. 55 patients belonged to the severe covid -19 category (hypoxic patients who required NIV/ ventilator support), admitted in the ICU. Severe hypoalbuminemia 63%, was observed in the severe category, compared to 6.32% in the non- severe category. Raised transaminases were observed in 60% in the severe category, compared to 23.15% in the non severe category. The incidence of death observed in the ICU in our study was 25.45%, of which 35% were female patients and 64.28% were male patients. CONCLUSION- Hypoalbuminemia, raised transaminases and bilirubin were observed in covid-19 patients admitted in the ICU, indicating, they could be considered as a poor prognostic factor. Copyright © 2022 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

5.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071653

ABSTRACT

The tracing of an alternative drug, Phytochemicals is a promising approach to the viral threats that have emerged over the past two years. Across the world, herbal medicine is a better solution against anti-viral diseases during pandemic periods. Goniothalamus wightii is an herbal plant, which has diverse bioactive compounds with anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-viral properties. The aim of the study was to isolate the compound by chromatography studies and functionalization by FT-IR, LC-MS, and NMR (C-NMR, H-NMR). As a result, the current work focuses on whether (S)-Goniathalamin and its analogue could act as natural anti-viral molecules for multiple target proteins viz., MPro, RdRp, and SPro, which are required for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, 954 compounds were examined and the molecular-docking studies were performed on the maestro platform of Schrodinger software. Molecular-dynamics simulation studies were performed on two complex major compounds to confirm their affinity across 150 simulations. This research suggests that plant-based drugs have high levels of antiviral properties against coronavirus. However, more research is needed to verify its antiviral properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Goniothalamus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Antioxidants , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
6.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 918101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933723

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus can cause a sudden respiratory disease spreading with a high mortality rate arising with unknown mechanisms. Still, there is no proper treatment available to overcome the disease, which urges the research community and pharmaceutical industries to screen a novel therapeutic intervention to combat the current pandemic. This current study exploits the natural phytochemicals obtained from clove, a traditional natural therapeutic that comprises important bioactive compounds used for targeting the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. As a result, inhibition of viral replication effectively procures by targeting the main protease, which is responsible for the viral replication inside the host. Pharmacokinetic studies were evaluated for the property of drug likeliness. A total of 53 bioactives were subjected to the study, and four among them, namely, eugenie, syzyginin B, eugenol, and casuarictin, showed potential binding properties against the target SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The resultant best bioactive was compared with the commercially available standard drugs. Furthermore, validation of respective compounds with a comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation was performed using Schrödinger software. To further validate the bioactive phytochemicals and delimit the screening process of potential drugs against coronavirus disease 2019, in vitro and in vivo clinical studies are needed to prove their efficacy.

7.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(3): 100589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867304

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a massive threat to public health worldwide. Siddha system of medicine is one of the traditional medicines of South India. The recommended formulations in Siddha Sasthric Medicines- Fixed Regimen (SSM-FiRe) are Amukkura tablets, Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK) for asymptomatic COVID-19 positive (RT-PCR) patients, and Athimathuram tablets, Adathodai Manappagu syrup, Thippili Rasayanam, Brahmananda Bairavam tablet, and Notchi Kudineer for mild symptomatic patients. The core objective of the trial was to document the efficacy of SSM-FiRe in the prevention of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 disease progression to the next level of severity, reduce the severity of symptoms and revert to RT-PCR Negative. Methods: An exploratory, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, non-randomized trial was designed as per GCP guidelines to assess the efficacy of SSM-FiRe. Sixty RT-PCR positive participants who were asymptomatic or with mild COVID-19 symptoms were recruited for the study at the Siddha COVID Care Centre, Vyasarpadi, Chennai from June to August 2020. Nasal and oropharyngeal swab tests were performed on the 0, 7th, and 14th days. All participants were treated with SSM - FiRe regimen. All the participants were also assessed based on Siddha Yakkkaiyin Ilakkanam, which included Clinical symptoms and vitals. Laboratory investigations such as Haemogram, Liver Function Test, Renal Function Test, HbA1C, Electrolytes, Inflammatory markers, Cardiac profile, Immunoglobulins, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests were performed. Results: 83% of COVID-19 patients turned RT-PCR negative on the 7th day and in most of the cases, symptoms were reduced within the first 5 days of admission. The RT-PCR cycle threshold (ct) value increased significantly (<0.001) after treatment and all the participants were RT-PCR negative, except one, who was positive even after 14 days. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies developed significantly (p-value - 0.006). LFT, RFT, CBC, Total proteins, and electrolytes continued to be in the normal range after treatment, indicating the safety of the intervention. Conclusion: Asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 disease can be well managed by SSM - FiRe treatment, Further studies could be taken up to strengthen the findings.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150355, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415772

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19, mucormycosis occurred after the SARS-CoV-2 has rampaged the human population and is a scorching problem among the pandemic globally, particularly among Asian countries. Invasive mucormycosis has been extensively reported from mild to severe COVID-19 survivors. The robust predisposing factor seems to be uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, comorbidity and immunosuppression acquired through steroid therapy. The prime susceptive reason for the increase of mucormycosis cases is elevated iron levels in the serum of the COVID survivors. A panoramic understanding of the infection has been elucidated based on clinical manifestation, genetic and non- genetic mechanisms of steroid drug administration, biochemical pathways and immune modulated receptor associations. This review lime-lights and addresses the "What", "Why", "How" and "When" about the COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) in a comprehensive manner with a pure intention to bring about awareness to the common public as the cases are inevitably and exponentially increasing in India and global countries as well. The article also unearthed the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and its association with the COVID-19 sequela, the plausible routes of entry, diagnosis and counter remedies to keep the infection at bay. Cohorts of case reports were analysed to spotlight the link between the pandemic COVID-19 and the nightmare-mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Comorbidity , Fungi , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 62(32): 8855-8865, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263603

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has damaged the world's economy during 2020-2021, reduced the purchasing power of households, partially restricted international movements and trade (including food products) and damaged horticultural production. This resulted in uncertainty in the food business and caused food supply shocks. According to some scientists, business people, and politicians, this situation is a forerunner and warning for humanity to change its lifestyle by focusing on sustainable measures to prevent natural ecosystems damage. In line with this, the present review article focused on the significant impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on horticultural production and some prevention measures. It has been scientifically confirmed that the postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables reach around 10-15% in developed countries and about 20-40% in developing countries, higher in some specific crops. It is believed that reducing these losses can help the world fight food supply shocks during the COVID-19 pandemic and customary conditions to reduce the pressure on natural resources. Therefore, the present paper aimed to highlight some critical handling practices against food supply shocks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vegetables , Humans , Fruit , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Ecosystem
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 642313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211822

ABSTRACT

Macrolides (e.g., erythromycin, fidaxomicin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin) are a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics commonly employed in medicine against various gram-positive and atypical bacterial species mostly related to respiratory tract infections, besides they possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019 and resulted in a continuing pandemic. Macrolides have been extensively researched as broad adjunctive therapy for COVID-19 due to its immunostimulant abilities. Among such class of drugs, azithromycin is described as azalide and is well-known for its ability to decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8. In fact, a report recently published highlighted the effectiveness of combining azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 treatment. Indeed, it has been underlined that azithromycin quickly prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection by raising the levels of both interferons and interferon-stimulated proteins at the same time which reduces the virus replication and release. In this sense, the current review aims to evaluate the applications of macrolides for the treatment of COVID-19.

12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111254, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051488

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2, previously called a novel coronavirus, that broke out in the Wuhan city of China caused a significant number of morbidity and mortality in the world. It is spreading at peak levels since the first case reported and the need for vaccines is in immense demand globally. Numerous treatment and vaccination strategies that were previously employed for other pathogens including coronaviruses are now being been adopted to guide the formulation of new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Several vaccine targets can be utilized for the development of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. In this review, we highlighted the potential of various antigenic targets and other modes for formulating an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. There are a varying number of challenges encountered during developing the most effective vaccines, and measures for tackling such challenges will assist in fast pace development of vaccines. This review will give a concise overview of various aspects of the vaccine development process against SARS-CoV-2, including 1) potential antigen targets 2) different vaccination strategies from conventional to novel platforms, 3) ongoing clinical trials, 4) varying challenges encountered during developing the most effective vaccine and the futuristic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Development/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909203

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which reported in an outbreak in 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The virus belongs to the beta-coronavirus class, along with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus. Interestingly, the virus binds with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 found in host cells, through the spike (S) protein that exists on its surface. This binding causes the entry of the virus into cells of the host organism. The actual mechanism used by the COVID-19 virus to induce disease is still speculative. A total of 44,322,504 cases, a 1,173,189 death toll and 32,486,703 recovery cases have been reported in 217 countries globally as of 28 October 2020. Symptoms from the infection of the virus include chest pain, fever, fatigue, nausea, and others. Acute respiratory stress syndrome, arrhythmia, and shock are some of the chronic manifestations recorded in severe COVID-19. Transmission is majorly by individual-to-individual through coughing, sneezing, etc. The lack of knowledge regarding the mechanism of and immune response to the virus has posed a challenge in the development of a novel drug and vaccine. Currently, treatment of the disease involves the use of anti-viral medications such as lopinavir, remdesivir, and other drugs. These drugs show some efficacy in the management of COVID-19. Studies are still on-going for the development of an ideal and novel drug for treatment. In terms of natural product intervention, Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) have been employed to alleviate the clinical manifestation and severity of the disease and have shown some efficacy. This review presents an updated detailed overview of COVID-19 and the virus, concerning its structure, epidemiology, symptoms and transmission, immune responses, and current interventions, and highlights the potential of TCM. It is anticipated that this review will further add to the understanding of COVID-19 and the virus, hence opening new research perspectives.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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