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Heart Lung Circ ; 31(2): 292-298, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828537


BACKGROUND: Patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory disease (ARDS) increasingly receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. While ECMO has been shown to increase risk of stroke, few studies have examined this association in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to characterise neurological events during ECMO support in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Systematic review of cohort and large case series of COVID-19 patients who received ECMO support. DATA SOURCES: Studies retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Web of Science, Scopus,, and medRχiv from inception to November 11, 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria were a) Adult population (>18 year old); b) Positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 with active COVID-19 disease; c) ECMO therapy due to COVID-19 ARDS; and d) Neurological events and outcome described while on ECMO support. We excluded articles when no details of neurologic events were available. RESULTS: 1,322 patients from 12 case series and retrospective cohort studies were included in our study. The median age was 49.2, and 75% (n=985) of the patients were male. Diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia were the most common comorbidities (24% and 20%, respectively). Most (95%, n=1,241) patients were on venovenous ECMO with a median P:F ratio at the time of ECMO cannulation of 69.1. The prevalence of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), ischaemic stroke, and hypoxic ischaemic brain injury (HIBI) was 5.9% (n=78), 1.1% (n=15), and 0.3% (n=4), respectively. The overall mortality of the 1,296 ECMO patients in the 10 studies that reported death was 36% (n=477), and the mortality of the subset of patients who had a neurological event was 92%. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological injury is a concern for COVID-19 patients who receive ECMO. Further research is required to explore how neuromonitoring protocols can inform tailored anticoagulation management and improve survival in COVID-19 patients with ECMO support.

Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology