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1.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(6): 354-360, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219555

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The utility of chest radiography (CXR) remains an evolving topic of discussion. Current reports of CXR findings related to COVID-19 contain varied terminology as well as various assessments of its sensitivity and specificity. This can lead to a misunderstanding of CXR reports and makes comparison between examinations and research studies challenging. With this need for consistency, we propose language for standardized CXR reporting and severity assessment of persons under investigation for having COVID-19, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, and patients who may have radiographic findings typical or suggestive of COVID-19 when the diagnosis is not suspected clinically. We recommend contacting the referring providers to discuss the likelihood of viral infection when typical or indeterminate features of COVID-19 pneumonia on CXR are present as an incidental finding. In addition, we summarize the currently available literature related to the use of CXR for COVID-19 and discuss the evolving techniques of obtaining CXR in COVID-19-positive patients. The recently published expert consensus statement on reporting chest computed tomography findings related to COVID-19, endorsed by the Radiological Society of North American (RSNA), the Society of Thoracic Radiology (STR), and American College of Radiology (ACR), serves as the framework for our proposal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200152, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155981

ABSTRACT

Routine screening CT for the identification of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pneumonia is currently not recommended by most radiology societies. However, the number of CT examinations performed in persons under investigation for COVID-19 has increased. We also anticipate that some patients will have incidentally detected findings that could be attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, requiring radiologists to decide whether or not to mention COVID-19 specifically as a differential diagnostic possibility. We aim to provide guidance to radiologists in reporting CT findings potentially attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, including standardized language to reduce reporting variability when addressing the possibility of COVID-19. When typical or indeterminate features of COVID-19 pneumonia are present in endemic areas as an incidental finding, we recommend contacting the referring providers to discuss the likelihood of viral infection. These incidental findings do not necessarily need to be reported as COVID-19 pneumonia. In this setting, using the term viral pneumonia can be a reasonable and inclusive alternative. However, if one opts to use the term COVID-19 in the incidental setting, consider the provided standardized reporting language. In addition, practice patterns may vary, and this document is meant to serve as a guide. Consultation with clinical colleagues at each institution is suggested to establish a consensus reporting approach. The goal of this expert consensus is to help radiologists recognize findings of COVID-19 pneumonia and aid their communication with other health care providers, assisting management of patients during this pandemic. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license.

3.
Radiol Imaging Cancer ; 2(3): e204013, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155959

ABSTRACT

Background: The risks from potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resource reallocation that has occurred to combat the pandemic, have altered the balance of benefits and harms that informed current (pre-COVID-19) guideline recommendations for lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. Consensus statements were developed to guide clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: An expert panel of 24 members, including pulmonologists (n = 17), thoracic radiologists (n = 5), and thoracic surgeons (n = 2), was formed. The panel was provided with an overview of current evidence, summarized by recent guidelines related to lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. The panel was convened by video teleconference to discuss and then vote on statements related to 12 common clinical scenarios. A predefined threshold of 70% of panel members voting agree or strongly agree was used to determine if there was a consensus for each statement. Items that may influence decisions were listed as notes to be considered for each scenario. Results: Twelve statements related to baseline and annual lung cancer screening (n = 2), surveillance of a previously detected lung nodule (n = 5), evaluation of intermediate and high-risk lung nodules (n = 4), and management of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (n = 1) were developed and modified. All 12 statements were confirmed as consensus statements according to the voting results. The consensus statements provide guidance about situations in which it was believed to be appropriate to delay screening, defer surveillance imaging of lung nodules, and minimize nonurgent interventions during the evaluation of lung nodules and stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusion: There was consensus that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is appropriate to defer enrollment in lung cancer screening and modify the evaluation of lung nodules due to the added risks from potential exposure and the need for resource reallocation. There are multiple local, regional, and patient-related factors that should be considered when applying these statements to individual patient care.© 2020 RSNA; The American College of Chest Physicians, published by Elsevier Inc; and The American College of Radiology, published by Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Radiology ; 299(1): E204-E213, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147215

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health care emergency. Although reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing is the reference standard method to identify patients with COVID-19 infection, chest radiography and CT play a vital role in the detection and management of these patients. Prediction models for COVID-19 imaging are rapidly being developed to support medical decision making. However, inadequate availability of a diverse annotated data set has limited the performance and generalizability of existing models. To address this unmet need, the RSNA and Society of Thoracic Radiology collaborated to develop the RSNA International COVID-19 Open Radiology Database (RICORD). This database is the first multi-institutional, multinational, expert-annotated COVID-19 imaging data set. It is made freely available to the machine learning community as a research and educational resource for COVID-19 chest imaging. Pixel-level volumetric segmentation with clinical annotations was performed by thoracic radiology subspecialists for all COVID-19-positive thoracic CT scans. The labeling schema was coordinated with other international consensus panels and COVID-19 data annotation efforts, the European Society of Medical Imaging Informatics, the American College of Radiology, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Study-level COVID-19 classification labels for chest radiographs were annotated by three radiologists, with majority vote adjudication by board-certified radiologists. RICORD consists of 240 thoracic CT scans and 1000 chest radiographs contributed from four international sites. It is anticipated that RICORD will ideally lead to prediction models that can demonstrate sustained performance across populations and health care systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Humans , Internationality , Radiography, Thoracic , Radiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
5.
Radiology ; 299(3): E262-E279, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072808

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 ranges from an asymptomatic condition to a severe and sometimes fatal disease, with mortality most frequently being the result of acute lung injury. The role of imaging has evolved during the pandemic, with CT initially being an alternative and possibly superior testing method compared with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing and evolving to having a more limited role based on specific indications. Several classification and reporting schemes were developed for chest imaging early during the pandemic for patients suspected of having COVID-19 to aid in triage when the availability of RT-PCR testing was limited and its level of performance was unclear. Interobserver agreement for categories with findings typical of COVID-19 and those suggesting an alternative diagnosis is high across multiple studies. Furthermore, some studies looking at the extent of lung involvement on chest radiographs and CT images showed correlations with critical illness and a need for mechanical ventilation. In addition to pulmonary manifestations, cardiovascular complications such as thromboembolism and myocarditis have been ascribed to COVID-19, sometimes contributing to neurologic and abdominal manifestations. Finally, artificial intelligence has shown promise for use in determining both the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia with respect to both radiography and CT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788168

ABSTRACT

Reviews of COVID-19 CT imaging along with postmortem lung biopsies and autopsies indicate that the majority of patients with COVID-19 pulmonary involvement have secondary organising pneumonia (OP) or its histological variant, acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia, both well-known complications of viral infections. Further, many publications on COVID-19 have debated the puzzling clinical characteristics of 'silent hypoxemia', 'happy hypoxemics' and 'atypical ARDS', all features consistent with OP. The recent announcement that RECOVERY, a randomised controlled trial comparing dexamethasone to placebo in COVID-19, was terminated early due to excess deaths in the control group further suggests patients present with OP given that corticosteroid therapy is the first-line treatment. Although RECOVERY along with other cohort studies report positive effects with corticosteroids on morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, treatment approaches could be made more effective given that secondary OP often requires prolonged duration and/or careful and monitored tapering of corticosteroid dose, with 'pulse' doses needed for the well-described fulminant subtype. Increasing recognition of this diagnosis will thus lead to more appropriate and effective treatment strategies in COVID-19, which may lead to a further reduction of need for ventilatory support and improved survival.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/drug therapy , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/etiology , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/physiopathology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Chest ; 158(1): 406-415, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-700492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risks from potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resource reallocation that has occurred to combat the pandemic, have altered the balance of benefits and harms that informed current (pre-COVID-19) guideline recommendations for lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. Consensus statements were developed to guide clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An expert panel of 24 members, including pulmonologists (n = 17), thoracic radiologists (n = 5), and thoracic surgeons (n = 2), was formed. The panel was provided with an overview of current evidence, summarized by recent guidelines related to lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. The panel was convened by video teleconference to discuss and then vote on statements related to 12 common clinical scenarios. A predefined threshold of 70% of panel members voting agree or strongly agree was used to determine if there was a consensus for each statement. Items that may influence decisions were listed as notes to be considered for each scenario. RESULTS: Twelve statements related to baseline and annual lung cancer screening (n = 2), surveillance of a previously detected lung nodule (n = 5), evaluation of intermediate and high-risk lung nodules (n = 4), and management of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (n = 1) were developed and modified. All 12 statements were confirmed as consensus statements according to the voting results. The consensus statements provide guidance about situations in which it was believed to be appropriate to delay screening, defer surveillance imaging of lung nodules, and minimize nonurgent interventions during the evaluation of lung nodules and stage I non-small cell lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: There was consensus that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is appropriate to defer enrollment in lung cancer screening and modify the evaluation of lung nodules due to the added risks from potential exposure and the need for resource reallocation. There are multiple local, regional, and patient-related factors that should be considered when applying these statements to individual patient care.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections , Lung Neoplasms , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Resource Allocation , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Radiology ; 296(1): 172-180, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38290

ABSTRACT

With more than 900 000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50 000 deaths during the first 3 months of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented health care crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. For these regions, health care delivery has been disrupted and compromised by critical resource constraints in diagnostic testing, hospital beds, ventilators, and health care workers who have fallen ill to the virus exacerbated by shortages of personal protective equipment. Although mild cases mimic common upper respiratory viral infections, respiratory dysfunction becomes the principal source of morbidity and mortality as the disease advances. Thoracic imaging with chest radiography and CT are key tools for pulmonary disease diagnosis and management, but their role in the management of COVID-19 has not been considered within the multivariable context of the severity of respiratory disease, pretest probability, risk factors for disease progression, and critical resource constraints. To address this deficit, a multidisciplinary panel comprised principally of radiologists and pulmonologists from 10 countries with experience managing patients with COVID-19 across a spectrum of health care environments evaluated the utility of imaging within three scenarios representing varying risk factors, community conditions, and resource constraints. Fourteen key questions, corresponding to 11 decision points within the three scenarios and three additional clinical situations, were rated by the panel based on the anticipated value of the information that thoracic imaging would be expected to provide. The results were aggregated, resulting in five main and three additional recommendations intended to guide medical practitioners in the use of chest radiography and CT in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Global Health , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Societies, Medical , Triage , Video Recording
9.
Chest ; 158(1): 106-116, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634902

ABSTRACT

With more than 900,000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50,000 deaths during the first 3 months of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented health care crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. For these regions, health care delivery has been disrupted and compromised by critical resource constraints in diagnostic testing, hospital beds, ventilators, and health care workers who have fallen ill to the virus exacerbated by shortages of personal protective equipment. Although mild cases mimic common upper respiratory viral infections, respiratory dysfunction becomes the principal source of morbidity and mortality as the disease advances. Thoracic imaging with chest radiography and CT are key tools for pulmonary disease diagnosis and management, but their role in the management of COVID-19 has not been considered within the multivariable context of the severity of respiratory disease, pretest probability, risk factors for disease progression, and critical resource constraints. To address this deficit, a multidisciplinary panel comprised principally of radiologists and pulmonologists from 10 countries with experience managing patients with COVID-19 across a spectrum of health care environments evaluated the utility of imaging within three scenarios representing varying risk factors, community conditions, and resource constraints. Fourteen key questions, corresponding to 11 decision points within the three scenarios and three additional clinical situations, were rated by the panel based on the anticipated value of the information that thoracic imaging would be expected to provide. The results were aggregated, resulting in five main and three additional recommendations intended to guide medical practitioners in the use of chest radiography and CT in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Humans , International Cooperation , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(4): 211-218, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia has become a global pandemic. Although the rate of new infections in China has decreased, currently, 169 countries report confirmed cases, with many nations showing increasing numbers daily. Testing for COVID-19 infection is performed via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, but availability is limited in many parts of the world. The role of chest computed tomography is yet to be determined and may vary depending on the local prevalence of disease and availability of laboratory testing. A common but nonspecific pattern of disease with a somewhat predictable progression is seen in patients with COVID-19. Specifically, patchy ground-glass opacities in the periphery of the lower lungs may be present initially, eventually undergoing coalescence, consolidation, and organization, and ultimately showing features of fibrosis. In this article, we review the computed tomography features of COVID-19 infection. Familiarity with these findings and their evolution will help radiologists recognize potential COVID-19 and recognize the significant overlap with other causes of acute lung injury.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(4): 219-227, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612519

ABSTRACT

Routine screening CT for the identification of COVID-19 pneumonia is currently not recommended by most radiology societies. However, the number of CTs performed in persons under investigation (PUI) for COVID-19 has increased. We also anticipate that some patients will have incidentally detected findings that could be attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, requiring radiologists to decide whether or not to mention COVID-19 specifically as a differential diagnostic possibility. We aim to provide guidance to radiologists in reporting CT findings potentially attributable to COVID-19 pneumonia, including standardized language to reduce reporting variability when addressing the possibility of COVID-19. When typical or indeterminate features of COVID-19 pneumonia are present in endemic areas as an incidental finding, we recommend contacting the referring providers to discuss the likelihood of viral infection. These incidental findings do not necessarily need to be reported as COVID-19 pneumonia. In this setting, using the term "viral pneumonia" can be a reasonable and inclusive alternative. However, if one opts to use the term "COVID-19" in the incidental setting, consider the provided standardized reporting language. In addition, practice patterns may vary, and this document is meant to serve as a guide. Consultation with clinical colleagues at each institution is suggested to establish a consensus reporting approach. The goal of this expert consensus is to help radiologists recognize findings of COVID-19 pneumonia and aid their communication with other healthcare providers, assisting management of patients during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , Consensus , Humans , North America , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States
12.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(7): 845-854, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risks from potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resource reallocation that has occurred to combat the pandemic, have altered the balance of benefits and harms that informed current (pre-COVID-19) guideline recommendations for lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. Consensus statements were developed to guide clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An expert panel of 24 members, including pulmonologists (n = 17), thoracic radiologists (n = 5), and thoracic surgeons (n = 2), was formed. The panel was provided with an overview of current evidence, summarized by recent guidelines related to lung cancer screening and lung nodule evaluation. The panel was convened by video teleconference to discuss and then vote on statements related to 12 common clinical scenarios. A predefined threshold of 70% of panel members voting agree or strongly agree was used to determine if there was a consensus for each statement. Items that may influence decisions were listed as notes to be considered for each scenario. RESULTS: Twelve statements related to baseline and annual lung cancer screening (n = 2), surveillance of a previously detected lung nodule (n = 5), evaluation of intermediate and high-risk lung nodules (n = 4), and management of clinical stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 1) were developed and modified. All 12 statements were confirmed as consensus statements according to the voting results. The consensus statements provide guidance about situations in which it was believed to be appropriate to delay screening, defer surveillance imaging of lung nodules, and minimize nonurgent interventions during the evaluation of lung nodules and stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: There was consensus that during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is appropriate to defer enrollment in lung cancer screening and modify the evaluation of lung nodules due to the added risks from potential exposure and the need for resource reallocation. There are multiple local, regional, and patient-related factors that should be considered when applying these statements to individual patient care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diagnostic Imaging/standards , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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