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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334343

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns adversely affected global health care services to varying extent. Emergency Services were affected along-with elective surgeries, to accommodate the added burden of COVID19 affected patients. We aimed to reflect, quantify and analyse the trends of essential surgeries and bellwether procedures during the waxing and waning of the pandemic, across various hospitals in India. Method: ology A research consortium led by WHO Collaboration Centre (WHOCC) for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in Low-and Middle-Income countries, India, conducted this study with 5 centres. All surgeries performed during the months of April 2020 (wave 1), November 2020 (recovery 1) and April 2021 (wave 2) were compared with those performed in April 2019 (pre-pandemic period). Results: The total number of surgeries reduced by 77% during wave 1, which improved to 52% reduction in recovery 1, as compared to pre-pandemic period. However, surgeries reduced again during wave 2 to 68%, but reduction was less as compared to wave 1. Emergency and essential surgeries were affected along-with the elective ones, but to a lesser extent. Conclusion: Our study quantified the effects of the pandemic on surgical-care delivery across a timeline and documented reduction in overall surgical volumes during the peaks of the pandemic (wave 1 and 2) with minimal improvement as the surge of COVID19 cases declined (recovery 1). The second wave showed improved surgical volumes as compared to the first one which may be attributable to improved preparedness. Caesarean sections were affected the least.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333111

ABSTRACT

Multiple introductions of SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant BA.1. and BA.1.1. lineages to Finland were detected early December 2021, and comprised the majority over Delta variant in 3 weeks in the capital region. Our sequence analysis demonstrates emergence of a large cluster of BA.1.1 in community transmission.

3.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786497

ABSTRACT

Multiple introductions of SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant BA.1. and BA.1.1. lineages to Finland were detected early December 2021, and comprised the majority over Delta variant in 3 weeks in the capital region. Our sequence analysis demonstrates emergence of a large cluster of BA.1.1 in community transmission.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775623

ABSTRACT

Multiple introductions of SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant BA.1 and BA.1.1. lineages to Finland were detected in early December 2021. Within 3 weeks, Omicron overtook Delta as the most common variant in the capital region. Sequence analysis demonstrated the emergence and spread through community transmission of a large cluster of BA.1.1 virus.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317940

ABSTRACT

Finland has had a low incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infections as compared to most European countries. Here we report the origins and turnover of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Finland in 2020. SARS-CoV-2 introduced to Finland in January 2020 and spread rapidly across southern Finland during spring. We observed rapid turnover among Finnish lineages during this period. Clade 20C became the most prevalent among sequenced cases and was replaced by other strains in fall 2020. Bayesian phylogeographic reconstructions suggested 42 independent introductions into Finland during spring 2020, mainly from Italy, Austria, and Spain, which might have been the source for a third of cases. The investigations of the original introductions of SARS-CoV-2 to Finland during the early stages of the pandemic and of the subsequent lineage dynamics could be utilized to assess the role of transboundary movements and effects of early intervention and public health measures.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313757

ABSTRACT

Two SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern, Alpha (~ 80%) and Beta (~ 23%) rapidly became dominant in Finland in the spring of 2021 but diminished near summer. To assess their temporal epidemiological dynamics among Finnish cases, we began large-scale sequencing efforts to identify spreading events and sources via phylogenetic clustering analyses. The results show the majority belonged to clusters spreading in the community while few sequenced samples were singletons. The results highlight the importance of surveillance and preventative policies in controlling the epidemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313756

ABSTRACT

Small animal models are of crucial importance for assessing COVID-19 countermeasures. Common laboratory mice would be well-suited for this purpose but are not susceptible to infection with wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Herein we show that the SARS-CoV-2 beta variant attains infectibility to BALB/c mice and causes pulmonary changes consistent with COVID-19.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310768

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown have adversely affected global health care services to varying extent. Emergency Services were also affected along with elective surgeries, which were deferred to accommodate the added burden of COVID 19 affected patients, on the healthcare systems. We aimed to assess the change in delivery of essential and emergency surgeries due to the pandemic. Methodology: A research consortium led by WHO Collaboration Centre (WHOCC) for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMIC), India, conducted this retrospective cross-sectional study with 12 recruited centers. All surgeries performed during the months of April 2020 were compared with those performed in April 2019. These surgeries were stratified into emergency and elective, and further categorized based on NHS surgery prioritization documents. Results: A total of 4396 surgeries were performed at these centers in April 2019 and 1216 surgeries were performed in same month during 2020, yielding a fall of 72.3% (1216 /4396).We found a 54% reduction in emergency surgeries and a 91% reduction in the elective surgeries. Number of cesarean sections reduced by 29.7% and fracture surgeries declined by 85.3% Laparotomies and surgeries for local soft tissue infections with necrotic tissue reduced by 71.7% and 69.5% respectively. Conclusion: Our study quantifies the effects of COVID 19 pandemic on surgical care delivery in India and documents that the overall surgical volume reduced by three fourths in the pandemic period. Emergency surgeries reduced to half when compared with pre-pandemic period. Cesarean section surgeries were affected the least by pandemic, whereas the fracture surgeries and laparotomies were affected the most.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327712

ABSTRACT

We report an experimental infection of American mink with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and show that mink remain virus RNA positive for days, develop clinical sings and histopathological changes, and transmit the virus to uninfected recipients warranting further studies and preparedness.

10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(3): 451.e1-451.e4, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to analyse possible zoonotic spill-over of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report the spill-over of mink-adapted SARS-CoV-2 from farmed mink to humans after adaptation that lasted at least 3 months. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing and a bioinformatic approach were applied to analyse the data. RESULTS: In an isolate obtained from an asymptomatic patient testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, we found four distinguishing mutations in the S gene that gave rise to the mink-adapted variant (G75V, M177T, Y453F, and C1247F) and others. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic spill-over of SARS-CoV-2 can occur from mink to human.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Farms , Humans , Mink , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses
11.
Surg J (N Y) ; 7(4): e366-e373, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607952

ABSTRACT

Introduction In response to the national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all hospitals and medical institutes gave priority to COVID-19 screening and to the management of patients who required hospitalization for COVID-19 infection. Surgical departments postponed all elective operative procedures and provided only essential surgical care to patients who presented with acute surgical conditions or suspected malignancy. Ample literature has emerged during this pandemic regarding the guidelines for safe surgical care. We report our experience during the lockdown period including the surgical procedures performed, the perioperative care provided, and the specific precautions implemented in response to the COVID-19 crisis. Materials and Methods We extracted patient clinical data from the medical records of all surgical patients admitted to our tertiary care hospital between the March 24th, 2020 and May 31st, 2020. Data collected included: patient demographics, surgical diagnoses, surgical procedures, nonoperative management, and patient outcomes. Results Seventy-seven patients were included in this report: 23 patients were managed medically, 28 patients underwent a radiologic intervention, and 23 patients required an operative procedure. In total eight of the 77 patients died due to ongoing sepsis, multiorgan failure, or advanced malignancy. Conclusion During the COVID-19 lockdown period, our surgical team performed many lifesaving surgical procedures and appropriately selected cancer operations. We implemented and standardized essential perioperative measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection. When the lockdown measures were phased out a large number of patients remained in need of delayed elective and semi-elective operative treatment. Hospitals, medical institutes, and surgical leadership must adjust their priorities, foster stewardship of limited surgical care resources, and rapidly implement effective strategies to assure perioperative safety for both patients and operating room staff during periods of crisis.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296908

ABSTRACT

Summary: SARS-CoV-2 is the highly transmissible etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has become a global scientific and public health challenge since December 2019. Several new variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged globally raising concern about prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Early detection and in depth analysis of the emerging variants allowing pre-emptive alert and mitigation efforts are thus of paramount importance. Here we present ClusTRace, a novel bioinformatic pipeline for a fast and scalable analysis of sequence clusters or clades in large viral phylogenies. ClusTRace offers several high level functionalities including outlier filtering, aligning, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, cluster or clade extraction, variant calling, visualization and reporting. ClusTRace was developed as an aid for COVID-19 transmission chain tracing in Finland and the main emphasis has been on fast and unsupervised screening of phylogenies for markers of super-spreading events and other features of concern, such as high rates of cluster growth and/or accumulation of novel mutations. Availability: All code is freely available from https://bitbucket.org/plyusnin/clustrace/

13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294850

ABSTRACT

Background Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the world began a frantic search for possible prophylactic options. While trials on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) prophylaxis are ongoing, concrete evidence is lacking. The study aimed to determine the relative efficacy of various doses of oral HCQ in prophylaxis and mitigating the severity of COVID-19 in healthcare workers. Methods This was a prospective cohort with four arms (high, medium, low dose, and control) of HCQ prophylaxis, used by healthcare workers at a tertiary care center in India. Participants were grouped as per their opting for any one arm on a voluntary basis as per institute policy under the Government guidance. The outcomes studied were COVID-19 positivity by RT-PCR and its severity assessed by WHO COVID-19 severity scale. Results Total 486 participants were enrolled, of which 29 (6%) opted for low dose, 2 (<1%) medium dose, and none for high dose HCQ while 455 (93.6%) were in the control arm. Of the 164 participants who underwent RT-PCR, 96 (58.2%) tested positive. Out of these 96 positive cases, the majority of them (79 of 96 [82.3%]) were ambulatory and were managed conservatively at home. Only 17.7% (17 of 96) participants, all of them from the control group, required hospitalization with the mild-moderate disease. None of the participants had severe disease, COVID-related complications, ICU stay, or death. The difference in the outcome assessed amongst the various arms was statistically insignificant (p value >0.05). Conclusion This single-center study demonstrated that HCQ prophylaxis in healthcare workers does not cause a significant reduction in COVID-19 as well as mitigating its severity in those infected. At present, most of the trials have not shown any benefit. The debate continues to rage, should HCQ prophylaxis be given to healthcare workers for chemoprophylaxis?

14.
Korean J Fam Med ; 42(6): 445-452, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a large number of deaths along with severe socio-economic effects. The vaccine is considered to be the last hope to control viral transmission. This study aimed to explore the determinants of health care workers' (HCWs) willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A structured, pre-validated, and pre-tested questionnaire was administered online to 599 HCWs including physicians, residents, and nurses from different types of healthcare set-ups across India. Information was collected regarding vaccine acceptability, attitude toward vaccination, and reasons for hesitancy. The chi-square test, followed by multinomial regression analysis, was applied to determine the factors associated with HCWs' vaccination willingness. RESULTS: It was found that 73 % (n=437) of HCWs were willing to accept the vaccines, while 10.85% (n=65) refused and 16.2% (n=96) needed more time to decide. Gender (P<0.001), occupation (P=0.040), working as front-line workers (P=0.008), vaccine manufacturing country preferences (P<0.001), and perceived risk of catching COVID-19 in the next 6 months (P=0.005) had a significant association with intent to receive vaccination (the response were "yes" vs. "no" and "not sure"). The reasons for vaccine hesitancy were vaccine safety and efficacy concerns, antivaccine attitude and beliefs, personal choice, and not wanting to take a vaccine before others. CONCLUSION: The majority of HCWs agreed to take COVID-19 vaccines once available. Nevertheless, providing support to manage evolving vaccine environments will help change the perception of HCWs who refuse or are reluctant to take the vaccines.

15.
Indian J Anaesth ; 65(11): 834-836, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547547
16.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 392, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease rapidly spreads across the entire world in < 2 months and gravely jeopardizes the regular human routine. The medical fraternity recommends a vaccine as one of the best solutions to save the universe. However, to be effective, the population should reflect an encouraging attitude to accept it. The study aimed to measure vaccine acceptability and reason for hesitancy among the public. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight hundred and forty one adults visiting a tertiary care hospital responded to a pretested validated questionnaire on vaccine acceptability and hesitancy. The Chi-square test and independent t-test, followed by multinomial logistic regression, were used to analyze the findings. RESULTS: Overall, 53.4% (n = 445) of participants interested to take vaccine, 27.2% (n = 229) were not sure, and the remaining 19.4% (n = 163) did not intent to vaccinate. Gender (P = 0.013), information on the vaccine (P = 0.022), chances to get coronavirus disease in the next 6 months (P < 0.001), awareness on India COVID-19 vaccine (P < 0.001), Indian manufacturing company of vaccine (P < 0.001), family history of the laboratory-confirmed case (P < 0.001), and health status (P = 0.011) found a significant association with intention to vaccination (a response "yes" vs. "no" and "not sure"). Reasons for vaccine hesitancy included specific antivaccine attitudes and beliefs, a concern of fear and phobia, lack of information, and safety issues on the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: This institute-specific survey revealed that approximately every 4 in 8 people were not sure to take the vaccine, and one in five people refused to be vaccinated. The study recommends using target-based health education to understand and address vaccine-specific concerns to enhance vaccine coverage, and boost confidence among the population.

17.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512701

ABSTRACT

Small animal models are of crucial importance for assessing COVID-19 countermeasures. Common laboratory mice would be well-suited for this purpose but are not susceptible to infection with wild-type SARS-CoV-2. However, the development of mouse-adapted virus strains has revealed key mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that increase infectivity, and interestingly, many of these mutations are also present in naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. This suggests that these variants might have the ability to infect common laboratory mice. Herein we show that the SARS-CoV-2 beta variant attains infectibility to BALB/c mice and causes pulmonary changes within 2-3 days post infection, consistent with results seen in other murine models of COVID-19, at a reasonable virus dose (2 × 105 PFU). The findings suggest that common laboratory mice can serve as the animal model of choice for testing the effectiveness of antiviral drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Inflammation , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nose/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3137-3141, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496966

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Alpha and Beta variants became dominant in Finland in spring 2021 but had diminished by summer. We used phylogenetic clustering to identify sources of spreading. We found that outbreaks were mostly seeded by a few introductions, highlighting the importance of surveillance and prevention policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Phylogeny
19.
CHEST ; 160(4):A2198-A2198, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1460921
20.
Clin Pharmacol ; 13: 185-195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456165

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Definitive antiviral treatment is not available for COVID-19 infection, with the exception of remdesivir, which still evokes many doubts. Various monotherapy or combination therapies with antivirals or other agents have been tried. The present study aims to evaluate the therapeutic potential of hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir-ritonavir in combination with ribavirin in mild-severe COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-center, open-label, parallel-arm, stratified randomized controlled trial evaluated the therapeutic potential of combination antiviral therapies. Enrolled patients in the severe category were randomized into three groups: (A) standard treatment, (B) hydroxychloroquine+ribavirin+standard treatment, or (C) lopinavir+ritonavir+ribavirin+standard treatment; while the non-severe category comprised two groups: (A) standard treatment or (B) hydroxychloroquine+ribavirin. Combination antivirals were given for 10 days and followed for 28 days. The primary endpoints were safety, symptomatic and laboratory recovery of organ dysfunctions, and time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative report. RESULTS: In total, 111 patients were randomized: 24, 23, and 24 in severe categories A, B, and C, respectively, and 20 in each of the non-severe groups. Two patients receiving ribavirin experienced drug induced liver injury, and another developed QT prolongation after hydroxychloroquine. In the severe category, 47.6%, 55%, and 30.09% in A, B, and C groups, respectively, showed symptomatic recovery, compared to 93.3% and 86.7% in A and B groups, respectively, in the non-severe category at 72 hours (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Though the results failed to show statistical superiority of the antiviral combination therapies to that of the standard therapy in both the severe and non-severe categories in symptomatic adult patients of COVID-19 due to very small sized trial, clinically hydroxychloroquine+ribavirin therapy is showing better recovery by 7.4% than standard therapy in the former category. However, results do indicate the benefit of standard therapy in the non-severe category by 6.6%. Furthermore, the dose of ribavirin needs to be reconsidered in the Indian population.

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