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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac070, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serologic and cytokine responses of children hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) vs coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of hospitalized children who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-C (n = 118), acute COVID-19 (n = 88), or contemporaneous healthy controls (n = 24). We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and cytokine concentrations in patients and performed multivariable analysis to determine cytokine signatures associated with MIS-C. We also measured nucleocapsid IgG and convalescent RBD IgG in subsets of patients. RESULTS: Children with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG than children with acute COVID-19 (median, 2783 vs 146; P < .001), and titers correlated with nucleocapsid IgG. For patients with MIS-C, RBD IgG titers declined in convalescence (median, 2783 vs 1135; P = .010) in contrast to patients with COVID-19 (median, 146 vs 4795; P < .001). MIS-C was characterized by transient acute proinflammatory hypercytokinemia, including elevated levels of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, IL-17A, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Elevation of at least 3 of these cytokines was associated with significantly increased prevalence of prolonged hospitalization ≥8 days (prevalence ratio, 3.29 [95% CI, 1.17-9.23]). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C was associated with high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies and acute hypercytokinemia with IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and IFN-γ.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430994

ABSTRACT

A paucity of data exists evaluating a guardian's intent to vaccinate their child against COVID-19 in the United States. We administered 102 first (April-November 2020) and 45 second (December-January 2020-2021) surveys to guardians of children (<18 years) who had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and assessed their intent to give a COVID-19 vaccine to their child, when one becomes available. The first and second surveys of the same cohort of guardians were conducted before and following the press releases detailing the adult Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Phase 3 results. Both surveys included an intent-to-vaccinate question using the subjective language of "if a safe and effective vaccine" became available, and a second question was added to second surveys using the objective language of "would prevent 19 of 20 people from getting disease". When using subjective language, 24 of 45 (53%) guardians endorsed vaccine administration for their children in the first survey, which decreased to 21 (46%) in the second survey. When adding objective language, acceptance of vaccination increased to 31 (69%, p = 0.03). Common reasons for declining vaccination were concerns about adverse effects and/or vaccine safety. Providing additional facts on vaccine efficacy increased vaccine acceptance. Evidence-based strategies are needed to increase pediatric COVID-19 vaccine uptake.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 515-518, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387743

ABSTRACT

While the role of children in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains to be defined, children likely play an important role based on our knowledge of other respiratory viruses. Children are more likely to be asymptomatic or have milder symptoms and less likely to present for healthcare and be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, our current estimates are likely under-representative of the true burden of SARS-CoV-2 in children. Given the potential direct benefit of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children and the substantial indirect benefit through community protection, or "herd immunity," we argue that planning and implementation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should include children. Furthermore, community protection occurred after widespread implementation of prior childhood vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, rubella, and rotavirus. We detail considerations for vaccine clinical trials, potential barriers to the implementation of widespread vaccination and argue why children would be an ideal target population for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(5): 613-616, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919283

ABSTRACT

We investigated of illness among household members of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected children receiving medical care (n = 32). We identified 144 household contacts (HCs): 58 children and 86 adults. Forty-six percent of HCs developed symptoms consistent with coronavirus disease. Child-to-adult transmission was suspected in 7 cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Family , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28358, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the burden of influenza and seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). METHODS: We used a prospectively collected clinical registry of SCD patients 6 months to 21 years of age to determine the influenza cases per 100 patient-years, vaccination rates, and a test-negative case-control study design to estimate influenza VE against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. Influenza-positive cases were randomly matched to test-negative controls on age and influenza season in 1:1 ratio. We used adjusted logistic regression models to compare odds ratio (OR) of vaccination in cases to controls. We calculated VE as [100% × (1 - adjusted OR)] and computed 95% confidence intervals (CIs) around the estimate. RESULTS: There were 1037 children with SCD who were tested for influenza, 307 children (29.6%) had at least one influenza infection (338 infections, incidence rate 3.7 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 3.4-4.1) and 56.2% of those tested received annual influenza vaccine. Overall VE pooled over five seasons was 22.3% (95% CI, -7.3% to 43.7%). Adjusted VE estimates ranged from 39.7% (95% CI, -70.1% to 78.6%) in 2015/2016 to -5.9% (95% CI, -88.4% to 40.4%) in the 2016/17 seasons. Influenza VE varied by age and was highest in children 1-5 years of age (66.6%; 95% CI, 30.3-84.0). Adjusted VE against acute chest syndrome during influenza infection was 39.4% (95% CI, -113.0 to 82.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza VE in patients with SCD varies by season and age. Multicenter prospective studies are needed to better establish and monitor influenza VE among children with SCD.


Subject(s)
Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Prospective Studies
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-187893

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a worldwide pandemic. The severe morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 has mostly affected the elderly or those with underlying medical conditions. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with no past medical history who presented with fever, cough, and vomiting. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe thrombocytopenia and elevated markers of inflammation. The patient progressed to respiratory failure, and testing results for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 returned positive. Because of the severity of her thrombocytopenia, she was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids with prompt improvement in platelets. The patient's severe acute respiratory distress syndrome was managed with mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, and then airway pressure release ventilation. After azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine were given without improvement, our patient received tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, and remdesivir, a broad antiviral agent, with significant clinical benefit soon afterward. Given that severe pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 is rare, we hope to inform pediatric providers on the clinical course and management considerations as this pandemic continues to spread.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/therapy
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