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1.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans compared with other races and ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the African American population.METHODSWe identified 6218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in an African American compared with non-African American population.RESULTSOf the 6218 patients with COVID-19, 1138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P = 0.001), African American population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P = 0.005), and non-African American population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P = 0.06). In the African American population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P = 0.006), whereas outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P = 0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the African American population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P = 0.001), whereas ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population.CONCLUSIONIn-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive African American patients.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040441, 2020 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess association of clinical features on COVID-19 patient outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study using electronic medical record data. SETTING: Five member hospitals from the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City (NYC). PARTICIPANTS: 28 336 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 24 February 2020 to 15 April 2020, including 6158 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Positive test rates and in-hospital mortality were assessed for different racial groups. Among positive cases admitted to the hospital (N=3273), we estimated HR for both discharge and death across various explanatory variables, including patient demographics, hospital site and unit, smoking status, vital signs, lab results and comorbidities. RESULTS: Hispanics (29%) and African Americans (25%) had disproportionately high positive case rates relative to their representation in the overall NYC population (p<0.05); however, no differences in mortality rates were observed in hospitalised patients based on race. Outcomes differed significantly between hospitals (Gray's T=248.9; p<0.05), reflecting differences in average baseline age and underlying comorbidities. Significant risk factors for mortality included age (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06; p=1.15e-32), oxygen saturation (HR 0.985, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.988; p=1.57e-17), care in intensive care unit areas (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.92; p=7.81e-6) and elevated creatinine (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.10; p=7.48e-10), white cell count (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04; p=8.4e-3) and body mass index (BMI) (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03; p=1.09e-2). Deceased patients were more likely to have elevated markers of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: While race was associated with higher risk of infection, we did not find racial disparities in inpatient mortality suggesting that outcomes in a single tertiary care health system are comparable across races. In addition, we identified key clinical features associated with reduced mortality and discharge. These findings could help to identify which COVID-19 patients are at greatest risk of a severe infection response and predict survival.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Age Factors , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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