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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477973

ABSTRACT

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with persistent, low-degree inflammation, which could explain the increased prevalence of autoimmune conditions and accelerated aging among patients. The aim of the present study is to assess which inflammatory and oxidative stress markers are associated with PTSD. We carried out a meta-analytic and meta-regression analysis based on a systematic review of studies comparing inflammatory and oxidative stress markers between patients with PTSD and controls. We undertook meta-analyses whenever values of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were available in two or more studies. Overall, 28,008 abstracts were identified, and 54 studies were included, with a total of 8394 participants. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Concentrations of C-reactive protein (SMD = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.21 to 1.06; p = 0.0031; k = 12), interleukin 6 (SMD = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.36 to 1.52; p = 0.0014; k = 32), and tumor necrosis factor-α (SMD = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.23 to 1.55; p = 0.0080; k = 24) were significantly increased in patients with PTSD in comparison with healthy controls. Interleukin 1ß levels almost reached the threshold for significance (SMD = 1.20; 95% CI: -0.04 to 2.44; p = 0.0569; k = 15). No oxidative stress marker was associated with PTSD. These findings may explain why PTSD is associated with accelerated aging and illnesses in which immune activation has a key role, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In addition, they pointed to the potential role of inflammatory markers as therapeutic targets.

2.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 48674221091731, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder may undertake a progressive course in a subset of patients, and research efforts have been made to understand the biological basis underlying this process. This systematic review examined the literature available on biological markers associated with illness progression in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Peer-reviewed articles were assessed using Embase, PsycINFO and PubMed, as well as from external sources. After initial screening, a total of 871 citations from databases and other sources were identified. Participants with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were included in our systematic review; however, studies with participants younger than 15 or older than 65 were excluded. All studies were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessment tool, and data pertaining to the results were extracted into tabular form using Google Sheets and Google Documents. The systematic review was registered on PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews (ID Number: CRD42020154305). RESULTS: A total of 35 studies were included in the systematic review. Increased ventricular size and reduction of grey matter volume were the most common brain changes associated with illness progression in bipolar disorder. Among the several biomarkers evaluated in this systematic review, findings also indicate a role of peripheral inflammatory markers in this process. DISCUSSION: The studies evaluating the biological basis of the illness progression in bipolar disorder are still scarce and heterogeneous. However, current evidence supports the notion of neuroprogression, the pathophysiological process related to progressive brain changes associated with clinical progression in patients with bipolar disorder. The increase in peripheral inflammatory biomarkers and the neuroanatomical changes in bipolar disorder suggest progressive systemic and structural brain alterations, respectively.

3.
Psychiatry Res ; 311: 114525, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364335

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to describe whether Bipolar Disorder (BD) with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) comorbidity is associated with an increased cognitive impairment as compared to BD without SUD comorbidity. This is a systematic review. The literature search was conducted in three databases: PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase. A total of 2032 studies were screened after removing duplicates. 29 articles were included for full text screening, and a total of 14 articles were included in the systematic review. Multiple cognitive domains were assessed, including verbal, spatial and visual memory, and psychomotor and executive functioning. Over half the articles (64.3%, n=9) identified cognitive impairments in individuals with BD+SUD comorbidity as compared to individuals with BD without SUD comorbidity. In addition, individuals with the comorbidity exhibited more severe impairments on tests of executive functioning, and greater impairments in verbal and visual memory. The studies included in this systematic review reinforce that individual with comorbidity of BD and SUD have increased cognitive impairment as compared to individuals with BD without SUD comorbidity. Executive functioning was the most impaired cognitive domain found across the studies included in this review. Intervention strategies focused on executive functioning would be beneficial for this specific population.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Cognitive Dysfunction , Substance-Related Disorders , Bipolar Disorder/complications , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4710, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304551

ABSTRACT

Access to postmortem brain tissue can be valuable in refining knowledge on the pathophysiology and genetics of neuropsychiatric disorders. Obtaining postmortem consent for the donation after death by suicide can be difficult, as families may be overwhelmed by a violent and unexpected death. Examining the process of brain donation can inform on how the request can best be conducted. This is a qualitative study with in-depth interviews with forty-one people that were asked to consider brain donation-32 who had consented to donation and 9 who refused it. Data collection and analyses were carried out according to grounded theory. Five key themes emerged from data analysis: the context of the families, the invitation to talk to the research team, the experience with the request protocol, the participants' assessment of the experience, and their participation in the study as an opportunity to heal. The participants indicated that a brain donation request that is respectful and tactful can be made without adding to the family distress brought on by suicide and pondering brain donation was seen as an opportunity to transform the meaning of the death and invest it with a modicum of solace for being able to contribute to research.


Subject(s)
Suicide , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Brain , Brain Death , Family/psychology , Humans , Tissue Donors/psychology
5.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Past suicide attempt (SA) is one of the most important risk factors for suicide death. An ideation-to-action framework posits that impulsivity, potentially traumatic events, and mental disorders also play a role in increasing suicide risk. This study aimed to assess the association between trait impulsivity, lifetime exposure to trauma, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with SA in a sample of Brazilian college students. METHODS: A total of 2,137 participants filled self-reported questionnaires consisting of a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, Trauma History Questionnaire, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian version, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that trait impulsivity may be interpreted as exerting a distal effect on SA, even in the presence of other variables - such as trauma history, psychological neglect, and PTSD - which also increase the odds of SA. High and medium levels of impulsivity, history of trauma, and PTSD increased the likelihood of SA. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention strategies to prevent SA may target trait impulsivity and exposure to traumatic experiences.

6.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240012

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent research has suggested an increase in the global prevalence of psychiatric symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess whether lifestyle behaviors can predict the presence of depression and anxiety in the Brazilian general population, using a model developed in Spain. METHODS: A web survey was conducted during April-May 2020, which included the Short Multidimensional Inventory Lifestyle Evaluation (SMILE) scale, assessing lifestyle behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression and anxiety were examined using the PHQ-2 and the GAD-7, respectively. Elastic net, random forest, and gradient tree boosting were used to develop predictive models. Each technique used a subset of the Spanish sample to train the models, which were then tested internally (vs. the remainder of the Spanish sample) and externally (vs. the full Brazilian sample), evaluating their effectiveness. RESULTS: The study sample included 22,562 individuals (19,069 from Brazil, and 3,493 from Spain). The models developed performed similarly and were equally effective in predicting depression and anxiety in both tests, with internal test AUC-ROC values of 0.85 (depression) and 0.86 (anxiety), and external test AUC-ROC values of 0.85 (depression) and 0.84 (anxiety). Meaning of life was the strongest predictor of depression, while sleep quality was the strongest predictor of anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: :Specific lifestyle behaviors during the early COVID-19 epidemic successfully predicted the presence of depression and anxiety in a large Brazilian sample using machine learning models developed on a Spanish sample. Targeted interventions focused on promoting healthier lifestyles are encouraged.

7.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 25(2): 345-353, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226173

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether women diagnosed with comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience higher disruptions in biological rhythms in two independent study samples. The first study has a population-based sample of 727 women, including 104 women with PMDD only, 43 women with BD only, 24 women with comorbid PMDD and BD, and 556 women without BD or PMDD (controls). Biological rhythm disruptions were cross-sectionally evaluated using the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN). The second study enrolled 77 outpatient women who completed prospective assessments at two timepoints: during the mid-follicular and the late-luteal phases of their menstrual cycles, using the BRIAN, and included 19 women with PMDD, 16 with BD, 17 with comorbid PMDD and BD, and 25 controls. In the population-based sample, all the diagnostic groups (BD, PMDD, BDPMDD) presented greater biological rhythm disruption than controls. In addition, women with BD presented greater overall biological rhythms disruption, and greater disruption in sleep, activity, and eating patterns, than women with PMDD. In the outpatient sample study, women with BDPMDD showed greater disruption in the social domain than women with PMDD. In the outpatient sample, women with BDPMDD reported significantly higher disruptions in biological rhythms across both the follicular and the luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The comorbidity between BD and PMDD may affect biological rhythms beyond the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. These results support previous literature on the increased illness burden of women diagnosed with comorbid BD and PMDD.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder , Premenstrual Syndrome , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Circadian Rhythm , Female , Humans , Luteal Phase , Menstrual Cycle , Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder/epidemiology , Premenstrual Syndrome/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
8.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218333
9.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; : e2836, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and most people do not achieve symptom remission. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is characterized by the failure of at least one adequate trial of a major class of antidepressant, with adequate time and dosage. We aimed to identify clinical predictors of depressive symptom remission and response 24 h and 7 days after racemic ketamine and esketamine infusions. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial using ketamine and esketamine in TRD. Individuals diagnosed with MDD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version IV and fulfilling TRD criteria were recruited from March 2017 to June 2018. Participants received a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) or esketamine (0.25 mg/kg) for 40 min. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and symptom remission was defined as a MADRS score ≤7 and response defined as ≥50% reduction in depressive symptom severity, 24 h and 7 days after the infusion. Clinical variables were selected based on previous clinical trials. Stepwise backward logistic regression was used, considering a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: 61 subjects were included: 39 (63.9%) were females with a mean age of 47.2 ± 14.9. Higher number of therapeutic failures (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.677; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.97) and higher severity of illness (OR = 0.912; 95% CI: 0.83-0.99) were associated with fewer remissions of depressive symptoms 7 days after intervention, and with fewer response in 24 h (OR = 0.583; 95% CI: 0,40; 0,84 and OR = 0.909; 95% CI: 0,83; 0,99, respectively). CONCLUSION: Number of treatment failures and severity of illness were predictors of fewer remissions and responses of depressive symptoms in this TRD population. Study of predictors of remission may contribute to better selection patients that may benefit from receiving ketamine.

11.
Bipolar Disord ; 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder (BD) persists even during euthymia and has repeatedly been associated with illness progression and cognitive function. Its neurobiological correlates remain largely unexplored. Using a structural covariance approach, we explored whole cortex intracortical myelin (ICM) and psychosocial functioning in 39 BD type I and 58 matched controls. METHOD: T1 -weighted images (3T) optimized for ICM measurement were analyzed using a surface-based approach. The ICM signal was sampled at cortical mid-depth using the MarsAtlas parcellation, and psychosocial functioning was measured via the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). Following construction of structural covariance matrices, graph theoretical measures were calculated for each subject. Within BD and HC groups separately, correlations between network measures and FAST were explored. After accounting for multiple comparisons, significant correlations were tested formally using rank-based regressions accounting for sex differences. RESULTS: In BD only, psychosocial functioning was associated with global efficiency (ß = -0.312, pcorr  = 0.03), local efficiency in the right rostral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (ß = 0.545, pcorr  = 0.001) and clustering coefficient in this region (ß = 0.497, pcorr  = 0.0002) as well as in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (ß = 0.428, pcorr  = 0.002). All results excepting global efficiency remained significant after accounting for severity of depressive symptoms. In contrast, no significant associations between functioning and network measures were observed in the HC group. CONCLUSION: These results uncovered a novel brain-behaviour relationship between intracortical myelin signal changes and psychosocial functioning in BD.

12.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081210

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify suicide rates and how they relate to demographic factors (sex, race and ethnicity, age, location) among physicians compared to the general population when aggravated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We searched U.S. databases to report global suicide rates and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) among U.S. physicians (and non-physicians in health occupations) using National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) data and using Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) in the general population. We also reviewed the effects of age, suicide methods and locations, COVID-19 considerations, and potential solutions to current challenges. RESULTS: Between NOMS1 (1985-1998) and NOMS2 (1999-2013), the PMRs for suicide increased in White male physicians (1.77 to 2.03) and Black male physicians (2.50 to 4.24) but decreased in White female physicians (2.66 to 2.42). CONCLUSIONS: The interaction of non-modifiable risk factors, such as sex, race and ethnicity, age, education level/healthcare career, and location, require further investigation. Addressing systemic and organizational problems and personal resilience training are highly recommended, particularly during the additional strain from the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have estimated the 30-day prevalence of alcohol use to be approximately 21% among youth in Brazil, despite the legal drinking age of 18 years. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of underage drinking and its associated factors among adolescents in Brazil. METHODS: The 3rd National Survey on Drug Use by the Brazilian Population (III Levantamento Nacional sobre o Uso de Drogas pela População Brasileira) is a nationwide, multi-stage, probability-sample household survey. Herein, youth between the ages of 12-17 years were included. Lifetime and 12-month alcohol use prevalence were estimated. Factors associated with 12-month alcohol use were evaluated through multivariate analysis considering survey weights and design. RESULTS: Overall, 628 youth were interviewed. Estimated lifetime and 12-month alcohol use were 34.3% (standard error [SE] = 1.9) and 22.2% (SE = 1.7), respectively. Factors associated with 12-month drinking were: other/no religion vs. Christianity; living in rural vs. urban areas; self-reported diagnosis of depression vs. no self-reported depression; lifetime tobacco use vs. no history of tobacco use; and any illicit drug use vs. no history of illicit drug use. CONCLUSION: Considering that alcohol use is a major risk factor for early death among Brazilian youth, our findings highlight the importance of preventative measures to reduce underage drinking.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261201, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910759

ABSTRACT

Genetic variants in the OPRM1 and CYP2B6 genes, respectively coding for an opioid receptor and methadone metabolizers, have been linked to negative treatment outcomes in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment, with little consensus on their effect. This study aims to test the associations between pre-selected SNPs of OPRM1 and CYP2B6 and outcomes of continued opioid use, relapse, and methadone dose. It also aims to observe differences in associations within the sexes. 1,172 participants treated with methadone (nMale = 666, nFemale = 506) were included in this study. SNPs rs73568641 and rs7451325 from OPRM1 and all the tested CYP2B6 SNPs were detected to be in high linkage disequilibrium. Though no associations were found to be significant, noteworthy differences were observed in associations of OPRM1 rs73568641 and CYP2B6 rs3745274 with treatment outcomes between males and females. Further research is needed to determine if sex-specific differences are present.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6/genetics , Receptors, Opioid, mu/genetics , Substance-Related Disorders/genetics , Adult , Alleles , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6/metabolism , Female , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Linkage Disequilibrium/genetics , Male , Methadone/therapeutic use , Ontario/epidemiology , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptors, Opioid, mu/metabolism , Recurrence , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
15.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that ketamine's influence on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) might be involved in its mechanism of rapid antidepressant action. We aimed to evaluate the differential impact of ketamine and esketamine on serum BDNF levels and its association with response patterns in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: Participants (n=53) are from a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial comparing the efficacy of single-dose ketamine (0.5mg/kg, n=27) and esketamine (0.25mg/kg, n=26) in TRD. Depression severity was assessed before, 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days after the intervention, using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Blood samples were collected before infusion, 24 hours, and 7 days afterwards. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in BDNF levels at post-infusion evaluation points, and no difference in BDNF levels comparing ketamine and esketamine. Both drugs exhibited similar therapeutic effect. There was no association between BDNF levels and response to treatment or severity of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: There was no significant treatment impact - neither with ketamine nor esketamine - in BDNF serum levels, despite therapeutic response. These results suggest that ketamine or esketamine intervention for TRD has no impact on BDNF levels measured at 24 hours and 7 days after the infusion. This clinical trial is registered on the Japan Primary Registries Network: UMIN000032355.

16.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 70, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) display an interindividual variability in their response to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). A genetic basis may explain the variability in this response. However, no consensus has been reached regarding which genetic variants significantly contribute to MOUD outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to summarize genome-wide significant findings on MOUD outcomes and critically appraise the quality of the studies involved. METHODS: Databases searched from inception until August 21st, 2020 include: MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL and Pre-CINAHL, GWAS Catalog and GWAS Central. The included studies had to be GWASs that assessed MOUD in an OUD population. All studies were screened in duplicate. The quality of the included studies was scored and assessed using the Q-Genie tool. Quantitative analysis, as planned in the protocol, was not feasible, so the studies were analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: Our search identified 7292 studies. Five studies meeting the eligibility criteria were included. However, only three studies reported results that met our significance threshold of p ≤ 1.0 × 10-7. In total, 43 genetic variants were identified. Variants corresponding to CNIH3 were reported to be associated with daily heroin injection in Europeans, OPRM1, TRIB2, and ZNF146 with methadone dose in African Americans, EYS with methadone dose in Europeans, and SPON1 and intergenic regions in chromosomes 9 and 3 with plasma concentrations of S-methadone, R-methadone, and R-EDDP, respectively, in Han Chinese. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this study include not being able to synthesize the data in a quantitative way and a conservative eligibility and data collection model. CONCLUSION: The results from this systematic review will aid in highlighting significant genetic variants that can be replicated in future OUD pharmacogenetics research to ascertain their role in patient-specific MOUD outcomes. Systematic review registration number CRD42020169121.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , Opioid-Related Disorders , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/therapeutic use , Eye Proteins/therapeutic use , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Methadone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
17.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 145(2): 156-185, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the cognitive and functional impairment in individuals with the first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) as compared to controls and individuals with recurrent MDD. Also to describe the functional and cognitive trajectory after the first episode of MDD. METHODS: A total of 52 studies were included in our systematic review. 32 studies compared the cognitive performance between first episode of depression (FED) and controls, 11 studies compared the cognitive performance between recurrent depression (RD) and FED, 10 compared global functioning between RD and FED, four studies assessed cognition in FED over time, and two studies assessed global functioning in FED over time. RESULTS: The majority of studies (n = 22/32, 68.8%) found that FED subjects performed significantly worse than controls on cognitive tests, with processing speed (n = 12) and executive/working memory (n = 11) being the most commonly impaired domains. Seven out of 11 studies (63.6%) found that RD performed significantly worse than FED, with verbal learning and memory being the most commonly impaired domain (n = 4). Most studies (n = 7/10, 70%) did not find a significant difference in global functioning between RD and FED. In three of four longitudinal studies assessing cognition, subgroup analyses were used instead of directly assessing cognition in FED over time while the remaining study found significant cognitive declines over time in FED when compared to controls. The two longitudinal studies assessing functional trajectory found that functioning significantly improved over time, possibly due to the improvement of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence that cognitive impairment is present during the first episode of depression, and individuals with multiple episodes display greater cognitive impairment than individuals with a single episode. Future studies aimed at identifying predictors of cognitive and functional impairment after the first episode of depression are needed to describe the functional and cognitive trajectory of individuals with the first episode of MDD over time.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Depressive Disorder, Major , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
18.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 565-576, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are an important tool for implementation of evidence-based clinical care. Despite clinical trials showing lack of efficacy of some agents in bipolar disorder (BD), they are still frequently prescribed in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to systematically review the CPG recommendations on pharmacological interventions with evidence against their use due to lack of efficacy data and/or due to serious safety concerns. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified 29 guidelines published by national and international organizations during the 1994-2020 period. Information was extracted regarding how the recommendations framed non-use of treatments in particular clinical situations as well as the actual recommendation in the guideline. RESULTS: Twenty-three guidelines (79%) mentioned at least one non-recommended treatment. The terms used to qualify recommendations varied amongst guidelines and included: "not recommended" "no recommendation" and "negative evidence". Lamotrigine, topiramate and gabapentin were commonly cited as non-recommended treatments for mania and most CPG did not recommend monotherapy with antidepressants, aripiprazole, risperidone, and ziprasidone for treatment of acute bipolar depression. Most guidelines made recommendations about lack of efficacy data or potential harm in treatments for BD but there is a significant variation in the way this information is conveyed to the reader. LIMITATIONS: Non-recommended treatments were based on their use for BD episodes or maintenance but specific medications may benefit patients when treating comorbid conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of a uniform language and recommendations in current guidelines may be an additional complicating factor in the implementation of evidence-based treatments in BD.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Bipolar Disorder , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Humans , Lamotrigine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21301, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716400

ABSTRACT

The placebo effect across psychiatric disorders is still not well understood. In the present study, we conducted meta-analyses including meta-regression, and machine learning analyses to investigate whether the power of placebo effect depends on the types of psychiatric disorders. We included 108 clinical trials (32,035 participants) investigating pharmacological intervention effects on major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). We developed measures based on clinical rating scales and Clinical Global Impression scores to compare placebo effects across these disorders. We performed meta-analysis including meta-regression using sample-size weighted bootstrapping techniques, and machine learning analysis to identify the disorder type included in a trial based on the placebo response. Consistently through multiple measures and analyses, we found differential placebo effects across the three disorders, and found lower placebo effect in SCZ compared to mood disorders. The differential placebo effects could also distinguish the condition involved in each trial between SCZ and mood disorders with machine learning. Our study indicates differential placebo effect across MDD, BD, and SCZ, which is important for future neurobiological studies of placebo effects across psychiatric disorders and may lead to potential therapeutic applications of placebo on disorders more responsive to placebo compared to other conditions.


Subject(s)
Machine Learning , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Placebo Effect , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Child , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22835, 2020.
Article in English | MMyP, MMyP | ID: biblio-1342811

ABSTRACT

Background: Essential workers have been shown to present a higher prevalence of positive screenings for anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals from countries with socioeconomic inequalities may be at increased risk for mental health disorders. Objective: We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, and their comorbidity among essential workers in Brazil and Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A web survey was conducted between April and May 2020 in both countries. The main outcome was a positive screening for depression only, anxiety only, or both. Lifestyle was measured using a lifestyle multidimensional scale adapted for the COVID-19 pandemic (Short Multidimensional Inventory Lifestyle Evaluation-Confinement). A multinomial logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the factors associated with depression, anxiety, and the presence of both conditions. Results: From the 22,786 individuals included in the web survey, 3745 self-reported to be essential workers. Overall, 8.3% (n=311), 11.6% (n=434), and 27.4% (n=1027) presented positive screenings for depression, anxiety, and both, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the multinomial model showed that an unhealthy lifestyle increased the likelihood of depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.00, 95% CI 2.72-5.87), anxiety (AOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.80-3.20), and both anxiety and depression (AOR 8.30, 95% CI 5.90-11.7). Living in Brazil was associated with increased odds of depression (AOR 2.89, 95% CI 2.07-4.06), anxiety (AOR 2.81, 95%CI 2.11-3.74), and both conditions (AOR 5.99, 95% CI 4.53-7.91). Conclusions: Interventions addressing lifestyle may be useful in dealing with symptoms of common mental disorders during the strain imposed among essential workers by the COVID-19 pandemic. Essential workers who live in middle-income countries with higher rates of inequality may face additional challenges. Ensuring equitable treatment and support may be an important challenge ahead, considering the possible syndemic effect of the social determinants of health. (AU)


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Life Style , Spain/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19
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