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1.
J Breath Res ; 16(3)2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806207

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 detection currently relies on testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antigen testing. However, SARS-CoV-2 is expected to cause significant metabolic changes in infected subjects due to both metabolic requirements for rapid viral replication and host immune responses. Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from human breath can detect these metabolic changes and is therefore an alternative to RT-PCR or antigen assays. To identify VOC biomarkers of COVID-19, exhaled breath samples were collected from two sample groups into Tedlar bags: negative COVID-19 (n= 12) and positive COVID-19 symptomatic (n= 14). Next, VOCs were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Subjects with COVID-19 displayed a larger number of VOCs as well as overall higher total concentration of VOCs (p< 0.05). Univariate analyses of qualified endogenous VOCs showed approximately 18% of the VOCs were significantly differentially expressed between the two classes (p< 0.05), with most VOCs upregulated. Machine learning multivariate classification algorithms distinguished COVID-19 subjects with over 95% accuracy. The COVID-19 positive subjects could be differentiated into two distinct subgroups by machine learning classification, but these did not correspond with significant differences in number of symptoms. Next, samples were collected from subjects who had previously donated breath bags while experiencing COVID-19, and subsequently recovered (COVID Recovered subjects (n= 11)). Univariate and multivariate results showed >90% accuracy at identifying these new samples as Control (COVID-19 negative), thereby validating the classification model and demonstrating VOCs dysregulated by COVID are restored to baseline levels upon recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Volatile Organic Compounds , Breath Tests/methods , Exhalation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
2.
Clinical nurse specialist CNS ; 36(2):84-91, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678916

ABSTRACT

Purpose/Aims Healthcare workers internationally continue to look for innovative ways to improve patient outcomes and optimize resource utilization during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Proning awake, nonintubated patients has been suggested as a potential intervention in critical care. The aim of this study is to provide a multidisciplinary approach to safely perform awake self-prone positioning in the acute care setting. Design This is a prospective, descriptive study. Method Patients with COVID-19 were screened and enrolled within 48 hours of a positive test. After approval from the primary team, patients were provided education materials by a multidisciplinary team on the self-prone intervention. Visual cues were placed in the room. Patients were requested to maintain a diary of hours of prone positioning. Patients' baseline characteristics, admission vitals, daily oxygen requirements, and level of care were collected. Results Of 203 patients screened, 31 were enrolled. No pressure-related injury or catheter (intravenous or urinary) displacement was identified. Eighty-one percent of patients spent less than 8 hours a day in prone positioning. Among patients enrolled, none required invasive ventilation or died. Conclusions Awake self-proning can be performed safely in patients given a diagnosis of COVID-19 in the acute care setting with a multidisciplinary team.

3.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(2): 414-418, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been associated with cases of refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) sometimes requiring support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Bivalirudin can be used for anticoagulation in patients on ECMO support, but its efficacy and safety in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. The authors set out to compare the pharmacologic characteristics and dosing requirements of bivalirudin in patients requiring ECMO support for ARDS due to COVID-19 versus ARDS from other etiologies. DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective case-control study was performed at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital in Indianapolis, Indiana. PARTICIPANTS: Patients were included if they were on venovenous ECMO support between June 2019 and June 2020, and divided into two groups: ARDS secondary to COVID-19 and those with ARDS from another etiology (Non-COVID). INTERVENTIONS: Patient demographics, such as age, sex, weight, chronic comorbid conditions, baseline antiplatelet and anticoagulant use, antiplatelet use during ECMO, and need for renal replacement therapy were collected, and compared between groups. Time to activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) goal, percentage of time at aPTT goal, bivalirudin rates, total bivalirudin requirements, total duration on bivalirudin, total duration on ECMO, mortality, and complications associated with ECMO were collected and compared between groups. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 42 patients met inclusion criteria (n = 19 COVID-19, n = 23 non-COVID). However, percentages of aPTTs at goal were maintained more consistently in patients with COVID-19 versus non-COVID (86% v 74%: p < 0.01). Higher median (IQR) daily rates (3.1 µg/kg/min [2.3-5.2] v 2.4 µg/kg/min [1.7-3.3]: p = 0.05) and higher median (IQR) maximum rates of bivalirudin (5 µg/kg/min [3.7-7.5] v 3.8 µg/kg/min [2.5-5]: p = 0.03) were required in the COVID-19 group versus the non-COVID group. Time to goal aPTT was similar between groups. There were no differences in complications associated with anticoagulation, as demonstrated by similar rates of bleeding and thrombosis between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients on ECMO with ARDS from COVID-19 require more bivalirudin overall and higher rates of bivalirudin to maintain goal aPTTs compared with patients without COVID-19. However, COVID-19 patients more consistently maintain goal aPTT. Future randomized trials are needed to support efficacy and safety of bivalirudin for anticoagulation of COVID-19 patients on ECMO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Hirudins , Humans , Peptide Fragments , Recombinant Proteins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 605-614.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early reports suggest that patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection carry a significant risk of altered coagulation with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events. This report investigates the relationship of significant COVID-19 infection and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as reflected in the patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. METHODS: We reviewed the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiologic evaluations, results of venous duplex imaging and mortality of COVID-19-positive patients (18-89 years) admitted to the Indiana University Academic Health Center. Using oxygen saturation, radiologic findings, and need for advanced respiratory therapies, patients were classified into mild, moderate, or severe categories of COVID-19 infection. A descriptive analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to examine the distribution of patient characteristics and compare the DVT outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of experiencing DVT and a receiver operating curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff for d-dimer to predict DVT in this COVID-19 cohort. Time to the diagnosis of DVT from admission was analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Our study included 71 unique COVID-19-positive patients (mean age, 61 years) categorized as having 3% mild, 14% moderate, and 83% severe infection and evaluated with 107 venous duplex studies. DVT was identified in 47.8% of patients (37% of examinations) at an average of 5.9 days after admission. Patients with DVT were predominantly male (67%; P = .032) with proximal venous involvement (29% upper and 39% in the lower extremities with 55% of the latter demonstrating bilateral involvement). Patients with DVT had a significantly higher mean d-dimer of 5447 ± 7032 ng/mL (P = .0101), and alkaline phosphatase of 110 IU/L (P = .0095) than those without DVT. On multivariable analysis, elevated d-dimer (P = .038) and alkaline phosphatase (P = .021) were associated with risk for DVT, whereas age, sex, elevated C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels were not. A receiver operating curve analysis suggests an optimal d-dimer value of 2450 ng/mL cutoff with 70% sensitivity, 59.5% specificity, and 61% positive predictive value, and 68.8% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that males with severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization are at highest risk for developing DVT. Elevated d-dimers and alkaline phosphatase along with our multivariable model can alert the clinician to the increased risk of DVT requiring early evaluation and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , COVID-19 , Extremities , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Extremities/blood supply , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
5.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(10): 1719-1730, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether obesity is independently associated with major adverse clinical outcomes and inflammatory and thrombotic markers in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in adults with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units across the US. Secondary outcomes were acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT), thrombotic events, and seven blood markers of inflammation and thrombosis. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted models were used. RESULTS: Among the 4,908 study patients, mean (SD) age was 60.9 (14.7) years, 3,095 (62.8%) were male, and 2,552 (52.0%) had obesity. In multivariable models, BMI was not associated with mortality. Higher BMI beginning at 25 kg/m2 was associated with a greater risk of ARDS and AKI-RRT but not thrombosis. There was no clinically significant association between BMI and inflammatory or thrombotic markers. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with COVID-19, higher BMI was not associated with death or thrombotic events but was associated with a greater risk of ARDS and AKI-RRT. The lack of an association between BMI and circulating biomarkers calls into question the paradigm that obesity contributes to poor outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19 by upregulating systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 622-632, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability may be a key mechanism of death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and examine the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival. DESIGN: In a multicenter cohort study of 3239 critically ill adults with COVID-19, the incidence of VTE and major bleeding within 14 days after intensive care unit (ICU) admission was evaluated. A target trial emulation in which patients were categorized according to receipt or no receipt of therapeutic anticoagulation in the first 2 days of ICU admission was done to examine the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival. A Cox model with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding was used. SETTING: 67 hospitals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with COVID-19 admitted to a participating ICU. MEASUREMENTS: Time to death, censored at hospital discharge, or date of last follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 3239 patients included, the median age was 61 years (interquartile range, 53 to 71 years), and 2088 (64.5%) were men. A total of 204 patients (6.3%) developed VTE, and 90 patients (2.8%) developed a major bleeding event. Independent predictors of VTE were male sex and higher D-dimer level on ICU admission. Among the 2809 patients included in the target trial emulation, 384 (11.9%) received early therapeutic anticoagulation. In the primary analysis, during a median follow-up of 27 days, patients who received early therapeutic anticoagulation had a similar risk for death as those who did not (hazard ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.35]). LIMITATION: Observational design. CONCLUSION: Among critically ill adults with COVID-19, early therapeutic anticoagulation did not affect survival in the target trial emulation. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
7.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918936

ABSTRACT

Beta cell dysfunction is suggested in patients with COVID-19 infections. Poor glycemic control in ICU is associated with poor patient outcomes. This is a single center, retrospective analysis of 562 patients in an intensive care unit from 1 March to 30 April 2020. We review the time in range (70-150 mg/dL) spent by critically ill COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients, along with the daily insulin use. Ninety-three in the COVID-19 cohort and 469 in the non-COVID-19 cohort were compared for percentage of blood glucose TIR (70-150 mg/dL) and average daily insulin use. The COVID-19 cohort spent significantly less TIR (70-150 mg/dL) compared to the non-COVID-19 cohort (44.4% vs. 68.5%). Daily average insulin use in the COVID-19 cohort was higher (8.37 units versus 6.17 units). ICU COVID-19 patients spent less time in range (70-150 mg/dL) and required higher daily insulin dose. A higher requirement for ventilator and days on ventilator was associated with a lower TIR. Mortality was lower for COVID-19 patients who achieved a higher TIR.

8.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(8): e0187, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Differences in mortality rates previously reported in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 have increased the need for additional data on mortality and risk factors for death. We conducted this study to describe length of stay, mortality, and risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality in mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Two urban, academic referral hospitals in Indianapolis, Indiana. PATIENTS OR SUBJECTS: Participants were critically ill patients 18 years old and older, admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 between March 1, 2020, and April 27, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of stay. A total of 242 patients were included with mean age of 59.6 years (sd, 15.5 yr), 41.7% female and 45% African American. Mortality in the overall cohort was 19.8% and 20.5% in the mechanically ventilated subset. Patients who died were older compared with those that survived (deceased: mean age, 72.8 yr [sd, 10.6 yr] vs patients discharged alive: 54.3 yr [sd, 14.8 yr]; p < 0.001 vs still hospitalized: 59.5 yr [sd, 14.4 yr]; p < 0.001) and had more comorbidities compared with those that survived (deceased: 2 [0.5-3] vs survived: 1 [interquartile range, 0-1]; p = 0.001 vs still hospitalized: 1 [interquartile range, 0-2]; p = 0.015). Older age and end-stage renal disease were associated with increased hazard of in-hospital mortality: age 65-74 years (hazard ratio, 3.1 yr; 95% CI, 1.2-7.9 yr), age 75+ (hazard ratio, 4.1 yr; 95% CI, 1.6-10.5 yr), and end-stage renal disease (hazard ratio, 5.9 yr; 95% CI, 1.3-26.9 yr). The overall median duration of mechanical ventilation was 9.3 days (interquartile range, 5.7-13.7 d), and median ICU length of stay in those that died was 8.7 days (interquartile range, 4.0-14.9 d), compared with 9.2 days (interquartile range, 4.0-14.0 d) in those discharged alive, and 12.7 days (interquartile range, 7.2-20.3 d) in those still remaining hospitalized.Conclusions:: We found mortality rates in mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 to be lower than some previously reported with longer lengths of stay.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 48(9): e805-e808, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: One of the defining features of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 infection has been high rates of venous thromboses. The present study aimed to describe the prevalence of venous thromboembolism in critically ill patients receiving different regimens of prophylactic anticoagulation. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective review using data from patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 requiring intubation. SETTING: Tertiary-care center in Indianapolis, IN, United States. PATIENTS: Patients hospitalized at international units Health Methodist Hospital with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 requiring intubation between March 23, 2020, and April 8, 2020, who underwent ultrasound evaluation for venous thrombosis. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 45 patients were included. Nineteen of 45 patients (42.2%) were found to have deep venous thrombosis. Patients found to have deep venous thrombosis had no difference in time to intubation (p = 0.97) but underwent ultrasound earlier in their hospital course (p = 0.02). Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were similar between the groups on day of intubation and day of ultrasound (p = 0.44 and p = 0.07, respectively). D-dimers were markedly higher in patients with deep venous thrombosis, both for maximum value and value on day of ultrasound (p < 0.01 for both). Choice of prophylactic regimen was not related to presence of deep venous thrombosis (p = 0.35). Ultrasound evaluation is recommended if D-dimer is greater than 2,000 ng/mL (sensitivity 95%, specificity 46%) and empiric anticoagulation considered if D-dimer is greater than 5,500 ng/mL (sensitivity 53%, specificity 88%). CONCLUSIONS: Deep venous thrombosis is very common in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019. There was no difference in incidence of deep venous thrombosis among different pharmacologic prophylaxis regimens, although our analysis is limited by small sample size. D-dimer values are elevated in the majority of these patients, but there may be thresholds at which screening ultrasound or even empiric systemic anticoagulation is indicated.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
10.
Crit Care Med ; 48(9): e783-e790, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380791

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of venous thromboembolism in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients and associate a degree of inflammatory marker elevation to venous thromboembolism development. DESIGN: An observational study that identified patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 between March 12, 2020, and March 31, 2020. Data reported are those available through May 6, 2020. SETTING: A multicenter study including three Indianapolis area academic hospitals. PATIENTS: Two-hundred forty consecutive patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were admitted to one of three hospitals. One-hundred nine critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to the ICU were included in the analysis. INTERVENTIONS: All patients received routine subcutaneous chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome of this study was to determine the frequency of venous thromboembolism and the degree of inflammatory and coagulation marker elevation associated with venous thromboembolism development. Descriptive statistics outlined the frequency of venous thromboembolism at any time during severe coronavirus disease 2019. Clinical course and laboratory metrics were compared between patients that developed venous thromboembolism and patients that did not develop venous thromboembolism. Hypercoagulable thromboelastography was defined as two or more hypercoagulable parameters. MAIN RESULTS: One-hundred nine patients developed severe coronavirus disease 2019 requiring ICU care. The mean (± SD) age was 61 ± 16 years and 57% were male. Seventy-five patients (69%) were discharged home, 7 patients (6%) remain in the hospital, and 27 patients (25%) died. Venous thromboembolism was diagnosed in 31 patients (28%) 8 ± 7 days after hospital admission, including two patients diagnosed with venous thromboembolism at presentation to the hospital. Elevated admission D-dimer and peak D-dimer were associated with venous thromboembolism development (p < 0.05). D-dimer greater than 2,600 ng/mL predicted venous thromboembolism with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.760 (95% CI, 0.661-0.858; p < 0.0001), sensitivity of 89.7%, and specificity of 59.5%. Twelve patients (11%) had thromboelastography performed and 58% of these patients had a hypercoagulable study. The calculated coagulation index was hypercoagulable in 50% of patients with thromboelastography. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that coronavirus disease 2019 results in a hypercoagulable state. Routine chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis may be inadequate in preventing venous thromboembolism in severe coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombophilia/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Young Adult
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