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1.
Nat Chem Biol ; 18(4): 355-356, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784002
3.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750506

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the 2019-2020 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 genome is replicated-transcribed by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase holoenzyme (subunits nsp7/nsp82/nsp12) along with a cast of accessory factors. One of these factors is the nsp13 helicase. Both the holo-RdRp and nsp13 are essential for viral replication and are targets for treating the disease COVID-19. Here we present cryo-electron microscopic structures of the SARS-CoV-2 holo-RdRp with an RNA template-product in complex with two molecules of the nsp13 helicase. The Nidovirus-order-specific N-terminal domains of each nsp13 interact with the N-terminal extension of each copy of nsp8. One nsp13 also contacts the nsp12-thumb. The structure places the nucleic acid-binding ATPase domains of the helicase directly in front of the replicating-transcribing holo-RdRp, constraining models for nsp13 function. We also observe ADP-Mg2+ bound in the nsp12 N-terminal nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase domain, detailing a new pocket for anti-viral therapeutic development.

5.
Biophys J ; 120(6): 1020-1030, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987186

ABSTRACT

The superfamily 1 helicase nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) is required for SARS-CoV-2 replication. The mechanism and regulation of nsp13 has not been explored at the single-molecule level. Specifically, force-dependent unwinding experiments have yet to be performed for any coronavirus helicase. Here, using optical tweezers, we find that nsp13 unwinding frequency, processivity, and velocity increase substantially when a destabilizing force is applied to the RNA substrate. These results, along with bulk assays, depict nsp13 as an intrinsically weak helicase that can be activated >50-fold by piconewton forces. Such force-dependent behavior contrasts the known behavior of other viral monomeric helicases, such as hepatitis C virus NS3, and instead draws stronger parallels to ring-shaped helicases. Our findings suggest that mechanoregulation, which may be provided by a directly bound RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, enables on-demand helicase activity on the relevant polynucleotide substrate during viral replication.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Single Molecule Imaging
6.
Cell ; 182(6): 1560-1573.e13, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710427

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the 2019-2020 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 genome is replicated and transcribed by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase holoenzyme (subunits nsp7/nsp82/nsp12) along with a cast of accessory factors. One of these factors is the nsp13 helicase. Both the holo-RdRp and nsp13 are essential for viral replication and are targets for treating the disease COVID-19. Here we present cryoelectron microscopic structures of the SARS-CoV-2 holo-RdRp with an RNA template product in complex with two molecules of the nsp13 helicase. The Nidovirales order-specific N-terminal domains of each nsp13 interact with the N-terminal extension of each copy of nsp8. One nsp13 also contacts the nsp12 thumb. The structure places the nucleic acid-binding ATPase domains of the helicase directly in front of the replicating-transcribing holo-RdRp, constraining models for nsp13 function. We also observe ADP-Mg2+ bound in the nsp12 N-terminal nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase domain, detailing a new pocket for anti-viral therapy development.


Subject(s)
Methyltransferases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication , Adenosine Diphosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Diphosphate/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Binding Sites , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Holoenzymes/chemistry , Holoenzymes/metabolism , Magnesium/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Protein Binding , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
7.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663149

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the 2019-2020 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 genome is replicated-transcribed by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase holoenzyme (subunits nsp7/nsp82/nsp12) along with a cast of accessory factors. One of these factors is the nsp13 helicase. Both the holo-RdRp and nsp13 are essential for viral replication and are targets for treating the disease COVID-19. Here we present cryo-electron microscopic structures of the SARS-CoV-2 holo-RdRp with an RNA template-product in complex with two molecules of the nsp13 helicase. The Nidovirus-order-specific N-terminal domains of each nsp13 interact with the N-terminal extension of each copy of nsp8. One nsp13 also contacts the nsp12-thumb. The structure places the nucleic acid-binding ATPase domains of the helicase directly in front of the replicating-transcribing holo-RdRp, constraining models for nsp13 function. We also observe ADP-Mg2+ bound in the nsp12 N-terminal nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase domain, detailing a new pocket for anti-viral therapeutic development.

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