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1.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931837

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate low rates of breakthrough coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and mild course of illness following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination in a large cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Residence in southern United States and lower median anti-receptor binding antibody level were associated with development of COVID-19.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(14): 517-523, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780340

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis, have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection (1-3) and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (2-5). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with frequent cardiac involvement (6). Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 40 U.S. health care systems during January 1, 2021-January 31, 2022, investigators calculated incidences of cardiac outcomes (myocarditis; myocarditis or pericarditis; and myocarditis, pericarditis, or MIS) among persons aged ≥5 years who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, stratified by sex (male or female) and age group (5-11, 12-17, 18-29, and ≥30 years). Incidences of myocarditis and myocarditis or pericarditis were calculated after first, second, unspecified, or any (first, second, or unspecified) dose of mRNA COVID-19 (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) vaccines, stratified by sex and age group. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to compare risk for cardiac outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to that after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of cardiac outcomes after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was highest for males aged 12-17 years after the second vaccine dose; however, within this demographic group, the risk for cardiac outcomes was 1.8-5.6 times as high after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after the second vaccine dose. The risk for cardiac outcomes was likewise significantly higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after first, second, or unspecified dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination for all other groups by sex and age (RR 2.2-115.2). These findings support continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among all eligible persons aged ≥5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(6): 727-733, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concerns have been raised about the risk to children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We aimed to collate global experience and provide provisional guidance for managing paediatric IBD (PIBD) in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: An electronic reporting system of children with IBD infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been circulated among 102 PIBD centres affiliated with the Porto and Interest-group of ESPGHAN. A survey has been completed by major PIBD centres in China and South-Korea to explore management during the pandemic. A third survey collected current practice of PIBD treatment. Finally, guidance points for practice have been formulated and voted upon by 37 PIBD authors and Porto group members. RESULTS: Eight PIBD children had COVID-19 globally, all with mild infection without needing hospitalization despite treatment with immunomodulators and/or biologics. No cases have been reported in China and South Korea but biologic treatment has been delayed in 79 children, of whom 17 (22%) had exacerbation of their IBD. Among the Porto group members, face-to-face appointments were often replaced by remote consultations but almost all did not change current IBD treatment. Ten guidance points for clinicians caring for PIBD patients in epidemic areas have been endorsed with consensus rate of 92% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data for PIBD patients during COVID-19 outbreak are reassuring. Standard IBD treatments including biologics should continue at present through the pandemic, especially in children who generally have more severe IBD course on one hand, and milder SARS-CoV-2 infection on the other.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(8): 1881-1883.e1, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670286

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has disrupted health care and has resulted in high mortality rates.1 Vaccination is an international priority to mitigate the risks of SARS-CoV-2. The initial trials for development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines excluded individuals with immunocompromising conditions.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have emerged in discrete waves. We explored temporal trends in the reporting of COVID-19 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: The Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) is an international registry of IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The average percent changes (APCs) were calculated in weekly reported cases of COVID-19 during the periods of March 22 to September 12, September 13 to December 12, 2020, and December 13 to July 31, 2021. RESULTS: Across 73 countries, 6404 cases of COVID-19 were reported in IBD patients. COVID-19 reporting decreased globally by 4.2% per week (95% CI, -5.3% to -3.0%) from March 22 to September 12, 2020, then climbed by 10.2% per week (95% CI, 8.1%-12.3%) from September 13 to December 12, 2020, and then declined by 6.3% per week (95% CI, -7.8% to -4.7%). In the fall of 2020, weekly reporting climbed in North America (APC, 11.3%; 95% CI, 8.8-13.8) and Europe (APC, 17.7%; 95% CI, 12.1%-23.5%), whereas reporting was stable in Asia (APC, -8.1%; 95% CI, -15.6-0.1). From December 13, 2020, to July 31, 2021, reporting of COVID-19 in those with IBD declined in North America (APC, -8.5%; 95% CI, -10.2 to -6.7) and Europe (APC, -5.4%; 95% CI, -7.2 to -3.6) and was stable in Latin America (APC, -1.5%; 95% CI, -3.5% to 0.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal trends in reporting of COVID-19 in those with IBD are consistent with the epidemiological patterns COVID-19 globally.

8.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(3): 462-469, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625333

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although an additional coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine dose for immunocompromised persons has been recommended in some countries, further data to guide vaccination strategies for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are urgently needed. We sought to identify factors affecting initial humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines among patients with IBD. METHODS: In this prospective cohort of SARS-CoV-2 immunized patients with IBD, we evaluated associations between participant age, sex, vaccine type, medication use, and the presence of a detectable antireceptor binding domain antibody and quantitative antibody level. RESULTS: In total, 1,909 participants were included (1,123, 692, and 94 received BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S, respectively) of whom 96% achieved a positive antibody response. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with lack of antibody response were older age (P = 0.043), BNT162b2 vs mRNA-1273 (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.9), and combination therapy with anti-TNF and 6MP, azathioprine, or methotrexate (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.3). The use of 5-aminosalicylate or sulfasalazine (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8) and ustekinumab (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05-0.8) was associated with decreased odds of lacking antibody response. DISCUSSION: Most patients with IBD mount an initial response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; however, older patients and those treated with anti-TNF and immunomodulator have blunted responses and may benefit the most from an additional vaccine dose. Patients treated with other classes of immunosuppressive medications have more robust initial immune responses to vaccination. These data should inform key decisions about patient selection for additional coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine doses in patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
10.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination is recommended for all individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including those on immunosuppressive therapies; however, little is known about vaccine safety and efficacy in these patients or the impact of vaccination on IBD disease course. METHODS: We evaluated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) and the effect of vaccination on IBD disease course among participants in the PREVENT-COVID (Partnership to Report Effectiveness of Vaccination in populations Excluded from iNitial Trials of COVID) study, a prospective, observational cohort study. Localized and systemic reactions were assessed via questionnaire. Disease flare was defined by worsening IBD symptoms and change in IBD medications. Outcomes were stratified by vaccine type and IBD medication classes. RESULTS: A total of 3316 individuals with IBD received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccine. Injection site tenderness (68%) and fatigue (46% dose 1, 68% dose 2) were the most commonly reported localized and systemic AEs after vaccination. Severe localized and systemic vaccine-related AEs were rare. The mRNA-1273 vaccine was associated with significantly greater severe AEs at dose 2 (localized 4% vs 2%, systemic 15% vs 10%; P < .001 for both). Prior COVID-19 infection, female sex, and vaccine type were associated with severe systemic reactions to dose 1, while age <50 years, female sex, vaccine type, and antitumor necrosis factor and vedolizumab use were associated with severe systemic reactions to dose 2. Overall rates (2%) of IBD flare were low following vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide reassurance that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine is safe and well tolerated among individuals with IBD, which may help to combat vaccine hesitancy and increase vaccine confidence.


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine is safe and well tolerated among individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Severe localized and systemic vaccine-related adverse events were rare, and rates of IBD flare were low (2%) following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination in a cohort of 3316 participants with IBD.

11.
Crohns Colitis 360 ; 3(4): otab066, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at risk for complications due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We performed a qualitative study to better understand IBD patient experiences and concerns when navigating the COVID-19 pandemic, with the goal of prioritizing patients' information needs. METHODS: We conducted a series of semistructured virtual focus groups at 6 months, then member checking focus groups 1 year into the COVID-19 pandemic. We included questions on patients' experiences navigating the pandemic with IBD, differences in their experience as compared to peers, their concerns and fears, as well as preferred information sources. Transcribed focus groups were coded and content analyzed to summarize key areas of interest and identify themes. We focused on 4 areas in our content analysis process: fears, challenges, information preferences, and research questions. RESULTS: A total of 26 IBD patient participants were included in the initial focus groups. Findings highlighted the many challenges faced by patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, ranging from access (bathrooms, medications, healthcare) to significant fears and concerns surrounding medications used for IBD worsening risks of COVID-19. Research questions of importance to patients centered on understanding risks for COVID-19 complications, particularly pertaining to medication utilization, with a shift over time toward understanding COVID-19 vaccination. In our member checking focus groups (n = 8 participants), themes were reiterated, with a central focus of research questions pertaining to COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Information needs for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic centered upon understanding disease-specific risks. Identified challenges and fears will inform future research agendas and communication with patients.

12.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e049740, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Develop an individualised prognostic risk prediction tool for predicting the probability of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN AND SETTING: This study developed and validated prognostic penalised logistic regression models using reports to the international Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease voluntary registry from March to October 2020. Model development was done using a training data set (85% of cases reported 13 March-15 September 2020), and model validation was conducted using a test data set (the remaining 15% of cases plus all cases reported 16 September-20 October 2020). PARTICIPANTS: We included 2709 cases from 59 countries (mean age 41.2 years (SD 18), 50.2% male). All submitted cases after removing duplicates were included. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 related: (1) Hospitalisation+: composite outcome of hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death; (2) Intensive Care Unit+ (ICU+): composite outcome of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death; (3) Death. We assessed the resulting models' discrimination using the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curves and reported the corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of the submitted cases, a total of 633 (24%) were hospitalised, 137 (5%) were admitted to the ICU or intubated and 69 (3%) died. 2009 patients comprised the training set and 700 the test set. The models demonstrated excellent discrimination, with a test set area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.79 (0.75 to 0.83) for Hospitalisation+, 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95) for ICU+ and 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) for Death. Age, comorbidities, corticosteroid use and male gender were associated with a higher risk of death, while the use of biological therapies was associated with a lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic models can effectively predict who is at higher risk for COVID-19-related adverse outcomes in a population of patients with IBD. A free online risk calculator (https://covidibd.org/covid-19-risk-calculator/) is available for healthcare providers to facilitate discussion of risks due to COVID-19 with patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Crohns Colitis ; 16(4): 591-600, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Age is a major prognostic factor for COVID-19 outcomes. The effect of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] activity on COVID-19 is unclear. We examined the relationship between IBD activity and COVID-19 severity according to age. METHODS: We included IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19, reported to SECURE-IBD between March 13, 2020 and August 3, 2021. Clinical IBD activity was measured by physician global assessment [PGA]. COVID-19-related outcomes were [1] intensive care unit [ICU] admission, ventilation or death, and [2] hospitalization. Using generalized estimating equations, we determined adjusted odds ratios [aOR, 95% confidence interval] for moderate and severe PGA vs clinical remission/mild PGA, controlling for demographics, medications and COVID-19 diagnosis period. We performed stratified analyses by age [≤50 vs >50 years]. RESULTS: Among 6078 patients, adverse COVID-19 outcomes were more common with active IBD: ICU/ventilation/death in 3.6% [175/4898] of remission/mild, 4.9% [45/920] of moderate and 8.8% [23/260] of severe [p < 0.001]; and hospitalization in 13% [649/4898] of remission/mild, 19% [178/920] of moderate and 38% [100/260] of severe [p < 0.001]. Stratified by decade, effect sizes were larger for younger patients. In patients ≤50 years, severe PGA was independently associated with ICU/ventilation/death (aOR 3.27 [1.15-9.30]) and hospitalization (aOR 4.62 [2.83-7.55]). In contrast, severe PGA was not independently associated with COVID-19 outcomes in those older than 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically active IBD may be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, particularly in younger patients. IBD disease control, including through medication compliance, and strategies to mitigate the risk of COVID-19 infection amongst patients with active IBD [e.g. distancing, immunization] are key to limit adverse COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Prostaglandins A/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(4): 1271-1277, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities increase the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and mortality. As many comorbidities are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), we sought to investigate the effects of comorbidities in these patients on infection severity. AIM: To evaluate association between individual comorbidities and COVID-19 infection severity among patients with IBD. METHODS: Data were obtained from SECURE-IBD, an international registry created to evaluate COVID-19 outcomes in patients with IBD. We used multivariable regression to analyze associations between eleven non-IBD comorbidities and a composite primary outcome of COVID-19-related hospitalization or death. Comorbidities were first modeled individually, adjusting for potential confounders. Next, to determine the independent effect of comorbidities, we fit a model including all comorbidities as covariates. RESULTS: We analyzed 2,035 patients from 58 countries (mean age 42.7 years, 50.6% male). A total of 538 patients (26.4%) experienced severe COVID-19. All comorbidities but a history of stroke and obesity were associated with severe infection in our initial analysis, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.9 to 3.7. In a model including all comorbidities significantly associated with the composite outcome in the initial analysis, as well as other confounders, most comorbidities remained significant, with the highest risk in chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CONCLUSION: Many non-IBD comorbidities are associated with a two to threefold increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization or death among patients with IBD. These data can be used to risk-stratify and guide treatment and lifestyle decisions during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Colitis/complications , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics
18.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(3): 467-478, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260686

ABSTRACT

High-quality dermatology patient registries often require considerable time to develop and produce meaningful data. Development time is influenced by registry complexity and regulatory hurdles that vary significantly nationally and institutionally. The rapid emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has challenged health services in an unprecedented manner. Mobilization of the dermatology community in response has included rapid development and deployment of multiple, partially harmonized, international patient registries, reinventing established patient registry timelines. Partnership with patient organizations has demonstrated the critical nature of inclusive patient involvement. This global effort has demonstrated the value, capacity, and necessity for the dermatology community to adopt a more cohesive approach to patient registry development and data sharing that can lead to myriad benefits. These include improved utilization of limited resources, increased data interoperability, improved ability to rapidly collect meaningful data, and shortened response times to generate real-world evidence. We call on the global dermatology community to support the development of an international federation of patient registries to consolidate and operationalize the lessons learned during this pandemic. This will provide an enduring means of applying this knowledge to the maintenance and development of sustainable, coherent, and impactful patient registries of benefit now and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Clin Transl Sci ; 5(1): e104, 2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253824

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prior to the COVID pandemic, many CTSAs employed face-to-face interactions to conduct most of their community engagement (CE) activities. During the COVID pandemic, such engagement had to be curtailed and alternatives needed to be formulated. In addition, Community Engaged Research (CEnR) teams refocused their efforts to address this public health crisis. METHODS: To obtain a general understanding of how CTSAs have conducted CE and CEnR during the COVID pandemic, we invited seven CTSA CE leaders to provide brief field reports of their activities during the pandemic. This included how their approaches to CE and CEnR were modified during the COVID-19 pandemic and key lessons learned. RESULTS: We found that despite numerous challenges, all seven CTSAs CE cores were able to successfully carry out CE and CEnR. We also found that the fundamental principles of meaningful and authentic stakeholder engagement were of paramount importance during the pandemic. Through virtual approaches, all sites had considerable success in maintaining CE in during the COVID pandemic. They also leveraged existing bi-directional community partnerships to carry out meaningful and impactful research. This included both new COVID CEnR and also innovative approaches to sustain prior non-COVID research. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that academic-community partnerships must be fostered and sustained over the many years so that when such crises emerge, all partners can build on existing trust and mutual respect. The lessons learned and the new tools and approaches developed would be key in addressing any such future public health emergencies.

20.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(10): 2210-2213.e3, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252551

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 29 million people and led to more than 542,000 deaths in the United States.1 Older age, comorbidities, and racial and ethnic minority status are associated with severe COVID-19.2 Among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), racial and ethnic minorities have worse outcomes, mediated in part by inequitable health care access.3 Racial and ethnic minority patients with IBD and COVID-19 may be an especially vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes among IBD patients and the impact of non-IBD comorbidities on observed disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Aged , Humans , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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