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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(9): 1652-1654, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097327

ABSTRACT

We compared antibody and T-cell responses against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine strain spike protein to responses against the Omicron variant in 15 messenger RNA vaccine recipients. While these individuals had significantly lower levels of antibodies that inhibited Omicron spike protein binding to ACE2, there was no difference in T-cell responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992159

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reduced in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). We report that increased levels of pre-existing antibodies to seasonal coronaviruses are associated with decreased antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in SOTRs, supporting that antigenic imprinting modulates vaccine responses in this immunosuppressed population.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S61-S71, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male sex and old age are risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019, but the intersection of sex and aging on antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines has not been characterized. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from older adults (aged 75-98 years) before and after 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, and from younger adults (aged 18-74 years) post-dose 2, for comparison. Antibody binding to SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike protein [S], S receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid), functional activity against S, and live-virus neutralization were measured against the vaccine virus and the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants of concern (VOCs). RESULTS: Vaccination induced greater antibody titers in older females than in older males, with both age and frailty associated with reduced antibody responses in males but not females. Responses declined significantly in the 6 months after the second dose. The third dose restored functional antibody responses and eliminated disparities caused by sex, age, and frailty in older adults. Responses to the VOCs, particularly the Omicron variant, were significantly reduced relative to the vaccine virus, with older males having lower titers to the VOCs than older females. Older adults had lower responses to the vaccine and VOC viruses than younger adults, with greater disparities in males than in females. CONCLUSIONS: Older and frail males may be more vulnerable to breakthrough infections owing to low antibody responses before receipt of a third vaccine dose. Promoting third dose coverage in older adults, especially males, is crucial to protecting this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Viral Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
AIDS ; 36(9): 1315-1317, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931985

ABSTRACT

Current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines induce robust SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses in people with HIV (PWH). However, the rate of decay of effector immune responses has not been studied in these individuals. Here, we report a significant waning of antibody responses but persistent T-cell responses 6 months post vaccination in virally suppressed PWH with high CD4+ T-cell counts. These responses are comparable with those seen in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
Am J Transplant ; 22(9): 2254-2260, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831928

ABSTRACT

Heterologous vaccination ("mixing platforms") for the third (D3) dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is a potential strategy to improve antibody responses in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), but data are mixed regarding potential differential immunogenicity. We assessed for differences in immunogenicity and tolerability of homologous (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; D3-mRNA) versus heterologous (Ad.26.COV2.S; D3-JJ) D3 among 377 SARS-CoV-2-infection naïve SOTRs who remained seronegative after two mRNA vaccines. We measured anti-spike titers and used weighted Poisson regression to evaluate seroconversion and development of high-titers, comparing D3-JJ to D3-mRNA, at 1-, 3-, and 6 month post-D3. 1-month post-D3, seroconversion (63% vs. 52%, p = .3) and development of high-titers (29% vs. 25%, p = .7) were comparable between D3-JJ and D3-mRNA recipients. 3 month post-D3, D3-JJ recipients were 1.4-fold more likely to seroconvert (80% vs. 57%, weighted incidence-rate-ratio: wIRR = 1.10 1.401.77 , p = .006) but not more likely to develop high-titers (27% vs. 22%, wIRR = 0.44 0.921.93 , p = .8). 6 month post-D3, D3-JJ recipients were 1.41-fold more likely to seroconvert (88% vs. 59%, wIRR = 1.04 1.411.93 , p = .029) and 2.63-fold more likely to develop high-titers (59% vs. 21%, wIRR = 1.38 2.635.00 , p = .003). There was no differential signal in alloimmune events or reactogenicity between platforms. SOTRs without antibody response after two mRNA vaccines may derive benefit from heterologous Ad.26.COV2.S D3.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Organ Transplantation , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
7.
Transplantation ; 106(7): 1440-1444, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), necessitating additional booster vaccinations. The Omicron variant demonstrates substantial immune evasion, and it is unknown whether additional vaccine doses increase neutralizing capacity versus this variant of concern (VOC) among SOTRs. METHODS: Within an observational cohort, 25 SOTRs with low seroresponse underwent anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin (Ig)G testing using a commercially available multiplex ELISA before and after a fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose (D4). Surrogate neutralization (percent angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibition [%ACE2i], range 0%-100% with >20% correlating with live virus neutralization) was measured against full-length spike proteins of the vaccine strain and 5 VOCs including Delta and Omicron. Changes in IgG level and %ACE2i were compared using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: Anti-receptor-binding domain and anti-spike seropositivity increased post-D4 from 56% to 84% and 68% to 88%, respectively. Median (interquartile range) anti-spike antibody significantly increased post-D4 from 42.3 (4.9-134.2) to 228.9 (1115.4-655.8) World Health Organization binding antibody units. %ACE2i (median [interquartile range]) also significantly increased against the vaccine strain (5.8% [0%-16.8%] to 20.6% [5.8%-45.9%]) and the Delta variant (9.1% [4.9%-12.8%] to 17.1% [10.3%-31.7%]), yet neutralization versus Omicron was poor, did not increase post-D4 (4.1% [0%-6.9%] to 0.5% [0%-5.7%]), and was significantly lower than boosted healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although a fourth vaccine dose increases anti-spike IgG and neutralizing capacity against many VOCs, some SOTRs may remain at high risk for Omicron infection despite boosting. Thus, additional protective interventions or alternative vaccination strategies should be urgently explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Transplant Recipients , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779508

ABSTRACT

BackgroundBreakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated individuals have been previously associated with suboptimal humoral immunity. However, less is known about breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant.MethodsWe analyzed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and cellular responses in healthy vaccine recipients who experienced breakthrough infections a median of 50 days after receiving a booster mRNA vaccine with an ACE2 binding inhibition assay and an ELISpot assay, respectively.ResultsWe found that high levels of antibodies inhibited vaccine strain spike protein binding to ACE2 but that lower levels inhibited Omicron variant spike protein binding to ACE2 in 4 boosted vaccine recipients prior to infection. The levels of antibodies that inhibited vaccine strain and Omicron spike protein binding after breakthrough in 18 boosted vaccine recipients were similar to levels seen in COVID-19-negative boosted vaccine recipients. In contrast, boosted vaccine recipients had significantly stronger T cell responses to both vaccine strain and Omicron variant spike proteins at the time of breakthrough.ConclusionOur data suggest that breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant can occur despite robust immune responses to the vaccine strain spike protein.FundingThis work was supported by the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 Vaccine-related Research Fund and by funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease intramural program as well as awards from the National Cancer Institute (U54CA260491) and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease (K08AI156021 and U01AI138897).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Hypersensitivity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1268-1270, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699639

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that certain vaccines induce suboptimal responses in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, PLWH). However, responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have not been fully characterized in these patients. Here we show that the BNT162b2 vaccine induces robust immune responses comparable to responses in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 254-262, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several inflammatory cytokines are upregulated in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared cytokines in COVID-19 versus influenza to define differentiating features of the inflammatory response to these pathogens and their association with severe disease. Because elevated body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for severe COVID-19, we examined the relationship of BMI to cytokines associated with severe disease. METHODS: Thirty-seven cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma from 135 patients with COVID-19, 57 patients with influenza, and 30 healthy controls. Controlling for BMI, age, and sex, differences in cytokines between groups were determined by linear regression and random forest prediction was used to determine the cytokines most important in distinguishing severe COVID-19 and influenza. Mediation analysis was used to identify cytokines that mediate the effect of BMI and age on disease severity. RESULTS: Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased in COVID-19 versus influenza patients, whereas granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IFN-λ1, IL-10, IL-15, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 were significantly elevated in the influenza group. In subgroup analysis based on disease severity, IL-18, IL-6, and TNF-α were elevated in severe COVID-19, but not in severe influenza. Random forest analysis identified high IL-6 and low IFN-λ1 levels as the most distinct between severe COVID-19 and severe influenza. Finally, IL-1RA was identified as a potential mediator of the effects of BMI on COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to activation of fundamentally different innate immune pathways in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza infection, and emphasize drivers of severe COVID-19 to focus both mechanistic and therapeutic investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Chemokines , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Am J Transplant ; 22(4): 1253-1260, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583700

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and breakthrough infections are more common. Additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses increase anti-spike IgG in some SOTRs, but it is uncertain whether neutralization of variants of concern (VOCs) is enhanced. We tested 47 SOTRs for clinical and research anti-spike IgG, pseudoneutralization (ACE2 blocking), and live-virus neutralization (nAb) against VOCs before and after a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose (70% mRNA, 30% Ad26.COV2.S) with comparison to 15 healthy controls after two mRNA vaccine doses. We used correlation analysis to compare anti-spike IgG assays and focused on thresholds associated with neutralization. A third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose increased median total anti-spike (1.6-fold), pseudoneutralization against VOCs (2.5-fold vs. Delta), and neutralizing antibodies (1.4-fold against Delta). However, neutralization activity was significantly lower than healthy controls (p < .001); 32% of SOTRs had zero detectable nAb against Delta after third vaccination compared to 100% for controls. Correlation with nAb was seen at anti-spike IgG >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the Euroimmun ELISA and >4 Log10 (AU/ml) on the MSD research assay. These findings highlight benefits of a third vaccine dose for some SOTRs and the need for alternative strategies to improve protection in a significant subset of this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
13.
Future Virol ; 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438394

ABSTRACT

We present here an evidence-based review of the utility, timing, and indications for laboratory test use in the domains of inflammation, cardiology, hematology, nephrology and co-infection for clinicians managing the care of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Levels of IL-6, CRP, absolute lymphocyte count, neutrophils and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio obtained upon admission may help predict the severity of COVID-19. Elevated LDH, ferritin, AST, and d-dimer are associated with severe illness and mortality. Elevated cardiac troponin at hospital admission can alert clinicians to patients at risk for cardiac complications. Elevated proBNP may help distinguish a cardiac complication from noncardiac etiologies. Evaluation for co-infection is typically unnecessary in nonsevere cases but is essential in severe COVID-19, intensive care unit patients, and immunocompromised patients.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 606-615, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe clinical phenotype of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that remains poorly understood. METHODS: Hospitalized children <18 years of age with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (N = 53) were recruited into a prospective cohort study; 32 had confirmed COVID-19, with 16 meeting the US Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C. Differences in nasopharyngeal viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, and cytokine/chemokine profiles were examined, including after adjustments for age and sex. RESULTS: The median ages for those with and without MIS-C were 8.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 5.5-13.9) and 2.2 years (IQR, 1.1-10.5), respectively (P = .18), and nasopharyngeal levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (median 63 848.25 copies/mL versus 307.1 copies/mL, P = .66); 75% of those with MIS-C were antibody positive compared with 44% without (P = .026). Levels of 14 of 37 cytokines/chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1RA, IL-2RA, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, IP-10, macrophage-inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, MCP-2, MIP-1ß, eotaxin) were significantly higher in children with MIS-C compared to those without, irrespective of age or sex (false discovery rate <0.05; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The distinct pattern of heightened cytokine/chemokine dysregulation observed with MIS-C, compared with acute COVID-19, occurs across the pediatric age spectrum and with similar levels of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , Serologic Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Load
15.
AIDS ; 35(11): 1872-1874, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358526

ABSTRACT

In this study of 12 people with HIV (PWH) who received the first dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain antibodies were detectable in all participants; lower antibody levels were seen in those with lower CD4+ counts, and vaccine reactions were generally mild.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
16.
AIDS ; 35(14): 2399-2401, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309676

ABSTRACT

This study of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 14 persons with HIV (PWH) demonstrated uniformly high anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody titres after two doses, despite varied titres after a single dose. The majority of vaccine reactions were mild and no adverse events occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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