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1.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; (Forthcoming)2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mortality of COVID-19 patients who are admitted to a hospital because of the disease remains high. The implementation of evidence-based treatments can improve the quality of care. METHODS: The new clinical practice guideline is based on publications retrieved by a systematic search in the Medline databases via PubMed and in the Cochrane COVID-19 trial registry, followed by a structured consensus process leading to the adoption of graded recommendations. RESULTS: Therapeutic anticoagulation can be considered in patients who do not require intensive care and have an elevated risk of thromboembolism (for example, those with D-dimer levels ≥ 2 mg/L). For patients in intensive care, therapeutic anticoagulation has no benefit. For patients with hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency, prone positioning and an early therapy attempt with CPAP/noninvasive ventilation (CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure) or high-flow oxygen therapy is recommended. Patients with IgG-seronegativity and, at most, low-flow oxygen should be treated with SARS-CoV-2- specific monoclonal antibodies (at present, casirivimab and imdevimab). Patients needing no more than low-flow oxygen should additionally be treated with janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. All patients who need oxygen (low-flow, high-flow, noninvasive ventilation/CPAP, invasive ventilation) should be given systemic corticosteroids. Tocilizumab should be given to patients with a high oxygen requirement and progressively severe COVID-19 disease, but not in combination with JAK inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive ventilation, high-flow oxygen therapy, prone positioning, and invasive ventilation are important elements of the treatment of hypoxemic patients with COVID-19. A reduction of mortality has been demonstrated for the administration of monoclonal antibodies, JAK inhibitors, corticosteroids, tocilizumab, and therapeutic anticoagulation to specific groups of patients.

2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295758

ABSTRACT

In this position paper, a large group of interdisciplinary experts outlines response strategies against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the winter of 2021/2022 in Germany. We review the current state of the COVID-19 pandemic, from incidence and vaccination efficacy to hospital capacity. Building on this situation assessment, we illustrate various possible scenarios for the winter, and detail the mechanisms and effectiveness of the non-pharmaceutical interventions, vaccination, and booster. With this assessment, we want to provide orientation for decision makers about the progress and mitigation of COVID-19.

3.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295101

ABSTRACT

Rationale The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in severe COVID-19 remains a matter of debate. Objectives To determine the utilization and outcome of NIV in COVID-19 in an unbiased cohort. Methods Observational study of confirmed COVID-19 cases of claims data of the Local Health Care Funds comparing patients with non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) between spring versus autumn period 2020. Measurements and Main Results Nationwide cohort of 7490 cases (median/IQR age 70/60–79 years, 66% male) 3851 (51%) patients primarily received IMV without NIV, 1614 (22%) patients received NIV without subsequent intubation, and 1247 (17%) patients had NIV failure (NIV-F), defined by subsequent endotracheal intubation. The proportion of patients who received invasive MV decreased from 74% to 39% during the second period. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with NIV exclusively increased from 10% to 28%, and those failing NIV increased from 9% to 21%. Median length of hospital stay decreased from 26 to 22 days, and duration of MV decreased from 11.6 to 7.6 days. The NIV failure rate decreased from 49% to 42%. Overall mortality remained unchanged (51% versus 53%). Mortality was 39% with NIV-only, 52% with IMV and 66% with NIV-F with mortality rates steadily increasing from 58% in early NIV-F (day 1) to 75% in late NIV-F (>4 days). Conclusion Utilization of NIV rapidly increased during the autumn period, which was associated with a reduced duration of MV, but not with overall mortality. High NIV-F rates are associated with increased mortality, particularly in late NIV-F. Funding Institutional support and physical resources were provided by the University Witten/Herdecke and Kliniken der Stadt Köln and the Federal Association of the Local Health Care Funds. At a Glance Commentary Scientific Knowledge on the Subject Current management of ventilatory support in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure is heterogeneous. Despite increasing use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), defining intubation criteria still remains a matter of uncertainty and discussion, especially with regard to the balance between the NIV benefits and the risk of NIV failure. In addition, robust data concerning the influence of the duration and failure of NIV on intubation and mortality rates are still missing, although the time span between initiation of NIV and subsequent intubation in case of respiratory failure progression is suggested to influence patient outcome. What This Study Adds to the Field This is the first large observational study describing differences of ventilatory strategies between the spring and autumn period of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Germany and provides the in-hospital mortality rate of 7,490 patients who received mechanical ventilation. The increased utilization of NIV from 10% (first period) to 29% (second period) was associated with overall reduced durations of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay, but overall mortality remained comparably high and reached 51%, 53% respectively. Patients succeeding with NIV had lower mortality rates than those getting intubated without preceding NIV attempts, but those failing NIV had higher mortality rates, respectively, and this became even more predominant in late NIV failure. The present observational study shows the increasing role of NIV in the concert of ICU medicine related to COVID-19, but also clearly addresses its risks in addition to its benefits, both impacting on mortality.

6.
Infection ; 49(6): 1331-1335, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474163

ABSTRACT

A third SARS-CoV-2 infection wave has affected Germany from March 2021 until April 24th, until the ´Bundesnotbremse´ introduced nationwide shutdown measures. The ´Bundesnotbremse´ is the technical term which was used by the German government to describe nationwide shutdown measures to control the rising infection numbers. These measures included mainly contact restrictions on several level. This study investigates which effects locally dispersed pre- and post-´Bundesnotbremse´ measures had on the infection dynamics. We analyzed the variability and strength of the rates of the changes of weekly case numbers considering different regions, age groups, and contact restrictions. Regionally diverse measures slowed the rate of weekly increase by about 50% and about 75% in regions with stronger contact restrictions. The 'Bundesnotbremse' induced a coherent reduction of infection numbers across all German federal states and age groups throughout May 2021. The coherence of the infection dynamics after the 'Bundesnotbremse' indicates that these stronger measures induced the decrease of infection numbers. The regionally diverse non-pharmaceutical interventions before could only decelerate further spreading, but not prevent it alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Germany , Humans
8.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291159

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 frequently necessitates inpatient treatment and inpatient mortality is high. Less is known about long-term outcomes in terms of mortality and readmissions. We provide a detailed account of hospitalised COVID-19 patients until 180 days after their initial hospital admission. Methods: An observational study with claims data from the German Local Health Care Funds of adult patients hospitalised in Germany between Feb 1 and April 30, 2020&nbsp;with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and&nbsp;a related principal diagnosis, for whom follow-up data for 180 days after admission or until death was available.&nbsp;A multivariable logistic regression model identified independent risk factors for 180-day mortality. Findings: Of&nbsp;8679 patients with a median age of 72 years,&nbsp;2161 (24·9%) died during the index hospitalisation. 30-day mortality was 23·9% (2073/8679), 90-day 27·9% (2425/8679), and 180-day 29·6% (2566/8679). The latter was&nbsp;52·3% (1472/2817) for patients aged ≥80 years, 23·6% (1621/6865) if not ventilated during index hospitalisation but 53·0% in those ventilated invasively (853/1608). Risk factors for 180-day mortality included coagulopathy, BMI ≥40 and age, while female sex was a protective factor beyond fewer prevalence of comorbidities. Of 6235 patients discharged alive, 1668 patients were readmitted a total of 2551 times within 180 days, resulting in an overall readmission rate of 26·8%. Interpretation: 180 day-follow up data of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in a nationwide&nbsp;cohort representing almost one-third of the&nbsp;German population show considerable long-term mortality and readmission rates, especially among patients with coagulopathy, whereas women have a profound and long-lasting better clinical outcome compared to men. Funding: Funding Institutional support and physical resources were provided by the University Witten/Herdecke and Kliniken der Stadt Köln, the Federal Association of the Local Health Care Funds and the Technical University of Berlin. The latter also received a grant from the Berlin University Alliance (112_PreEP_Corona). Declaration of Interest: Dr. Busse reports grants from Berlin University Alliance, during the conduct of the study;grants from Federal Ministry of Research and Education, grants from Federal Ministry of Health, grants from Innovation Fonds of the Federal Joint Committee, grants from World Health Organization, outside the submitted work, Dr. Schuppert reports grants from Bayer AG, outside the submitted work. Dr. Karagiannidis reports personal fees from Maquet, personal fees from Xenios, personal fees from Bayer, non-financial support from Speaker of the German register of ICUs, grants from German Ministry of Research and Education, during the conduct of the study. Christian Günster, Melissa Spoden, Steffen Weber-Carstens, Gerhard Schillinger, Tanja Rombey and Dr. Hofmann have nothing to disclose. Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Witten/Herdecke University (research ethics board number 92/2020).<br>

10.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 2021 Aug 09.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing vaccination rates against SARS-CoV­2, there is a risk of a renewed wave of infections in autumn 2021 due to the high seasonality of the pathogen, with the associated renewed possible heavy burden on intensive care. In the following manuscript we simulated different scenarios using defined mathematical models to estimate the burden of intensive care treatment by COVID-19 patients within certain limits during the coming autumn. METHODS: The simulation of the scenarios uses a stationary model supplemented by the effect of vaccinations. The age group-specific risk profile for intensive care unit (ICU)-associated disease progression is calculated using third wave ICU admission data from sentinel hospitals, local DIVI registry occupancy data and the corresponding local incidence rates by linear regression with time lag. We simulated vaccination rates of 15% for the over 18-year-old cohort, 70% for the 15-34 year cohort, 75%/80%/85% for the 35-59 year cohort and 85%/90%/95% for the over 60-year-old cohort. The simulations take into account that vaccination provides 100% protection against disease progression requiring intensive care. Regarding protection against infection in vaccinated persons the simulations are depicted for the scenario of 70% protection against infection in vaccinated persons and for the scenario of 85% protection against infection in vaccinated persons. RESULTS: The incidence is proportional to ICU bed occupancy. The proportionality factor is higher than in the second and third waves, so that comparable ICU bed occupancy is only achieved at a higher incidence. A 10% increase in vaccination rates of the over 35-year-olds to 85% and of the over 60-year-olds to 95% leads to a significant reduction in ICU bed occupancy. DISCUSSION: There will continue to be a close and linear relationship between SARS-CoV­2 incidence and ICU bed occupancy in the coming months. Even above incidences of 200/100,000 a considerable burden of ICUs with more than 3000 COVID-19 patients can be expected again, unless the vaccination rate is significantly increased. A few percentage points in the vaccination rate have a significant impact on potential ICU occupancy in the autumn, so efforts to increase vaccination acceptance should be a priority in the coming weeks. For intensive care medicine, the vaccination rate of those over 35 years of age is crucial.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255427, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 frequently necessitates in-patient treatment and in-patient mortality is high. Less is known about the long-term outcomes in terms of mortality and readmissions following in-patient treatment. AIM: The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed account of hospitalized COVID-19 patients up to 180 days after their initial hospital admission. METHODS: An observational study with claims data from the German Local Health Care Funds of adult patients hospitalized in Germany between February 1 and April 30, 2020, with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and a related principal diagnosis, for whom 6-month all-cause mortality and readmission rates for 180 days after admission or until death were available. A multivariable logistic regression model identified independent risk factors for 180-day all-cause mortality in this cohort. RESULTS: Of the 8,679 patients with a median age of 72 years, 2,161 (24.9%) died during the index hospitalization. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 23.9% (2,073/8,679), the 90-day rate was 27.9% (2,425/8,679), and the 180-day rate, 29.6% (2,566/8,679). The latter was 52.3% (1,472/2,817) for patients aged ≥80 years 23.6% (1,621/6,865) if not ventilated during index hospitalization, but 53.0% in case of those ventilated invasively (853/1,608). Risk factors for the 180-day all-cause mortality included coagulopathy, BMI ≥ 40, and age, while the female sex was a protective factor beyond a fewer prevalence of comorbidities. Of the 6,235 patients discharged alive, 1,668 were readmitted a total of 2,551 times within 180 days, resulting in an overall readmission rate of 26.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-day follow-up data of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a nationwide cohort representing almost one-third of the German population show significant long-term, all-cause mortality and readmission rates, especially among patients with coagulopathy, whereas women have a profoundly better and long-lasting clinical outcome compared to men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Readmission/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/trends , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors
12.
Infection ; 2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296979

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This executive summary of a national living guideline aims to provide rapid evidence based recommendations on the role of drug interventions in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The guideline makes use of a systematic assessment and decision process using an evidence to decision framework (GRADE) as recommended standard WHO (2021). Recommendations are consented by an interdisciplinary panel. Evidence analysis and interpretation is supported by the CEOsys project providing extensive literature searches and living (meta-) analyses. For this executive summary, selected key recommendations on drug therapy are presented including the quality of the evidence and rationale for the level of recommendation. RESULTS: The guideline contains 11 key recommendations for COVID-19 drug therapy, eight of which are based on systematic review and/or meta-analysis, while three recommendations represent consensus expert opinion. Based on current evidence, the panel makes strong recommendations for corticosteroids (WHO scale 5-9) and prophylactic anticoagulation (all hospitalized patients with COVID-19) as standard of care. Intensified anticoagulation may be considered for patients with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolisms (VTE) and a low bleeding risk. The IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab may be added in case of high supplemental oxygen requirement and progressive disease (WHO scale 5-6). Treatment with nMABs may be considered for selected inpatients with an early SARS-CoV-2 infection that are not hospitalized for COVID-19. Convalescent plasma, azithromycin, ivermectin or vitamin D3 should not be used in COVID-19 routine care. CONCLUSION: For COVID-19 drug therapy, there are several options that are sufficiently supported by evidence. The living guidance will be updated as new evidence emerges.

13.
Angiogenesis ; 24(4): 755-788, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286153

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is presenting as a systemic disease associated with vascular inflammation and endothelial injury. Severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and there is still an ongoing debate on whether COVID-19 ARDS and its perfusion defect differs from ARDS induced by other causes. Beside pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin-1 ß [IL-1ß] or IL-6), several main pathological phenomena have been seen because of endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction: hypercoagulation reflected by fibrin degradation products called D-dimers, micro- and macrothrombosis and pathological angiogenesis. Direct endothelial infection by SARS-CoV-2 is not likely to occur and ACE-2 expression by EC is a matter of debate. Indeed, endothelial damage reported in severely ill patients with COVID-19 could be more likely secondary to infection of neighboring cells and/or a consequence of inflammation. Endotheliopathy could give rise to hypercoagulation by alteration in the levels of different factors such as von Willebrand factor. Other than thrombotic events, pathological angiogenesis is among the recent findings. Overexpression of different proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) or placental growth factors (PlGF) have been found in plasma or lung biopsies of COVID-19 patients. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces an emergency myelopoiesis associated to deregulated immunity and mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells, leading to features of acquired hematological malignancies or cardiovascular disease, which are discussed in this review. Altogether, this review will try to elucidate the pathophysiology of thrombotic complications, pathological angiogenesis and EC dysfunction, allowing better insight in new targets and antithrombotic protocols to better address vascular system dysfunction. Since treating SARS-CoV-2 infection and its potential long-term effects involves targeting the vascular compartment and/or mobilization of immature immune cells, we propose to define COVID-19 and its complications as a systemic vascular acquired hemopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Myelopoiesis , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/therapy , Neovascularization, Pathologic/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/therapy , Thrombosis/virology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
14.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 6: 100151, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284326

ABSTRACT

Background: The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to substantial differences in incidence rates across Germany. Methods: Assumption-free k-nearest neighbour clustering from the principal component analysis of weekly incidence rates of German counties groups similar spreading behaviour. Different spreading dynamics was analysed by the derivative plots of the temporal evolution of tuples [x(t),x'(t)] of weekly incidence rates and their derivatives. The effectiveness of the different shutdown measures in Germany during the second wave is assessed by the difference of weekly incidences before and after the respective time periods. Findings: The implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions of different extents resulted in four distinct time periods of complex, spatially diverse, and age-related spreading patterns during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Clustering gave three regions of coincident spreading characteristics. October 2020 showed a nationwide exponential growth of weekly incidence rates with a doubling time of 10 days. A partial shutdown during November 2020 decreased the overall infection rates by 20-40% with a plateau-like behaviour in northern and southwestern Germany. The eastern parts exhibited a further near-linear growth by 30-80%. Allover the incidence rates among people above 60 years still increased by 15-35% during partial shutdown measures. Only an extended shutdown led to a substantial decrease in incidence rates. These measures decreased the numbers among all age groups and in all regions by 15-45%. This decline until January 2021 was about -1•25 times the October 2020 growth rates with a strong correlation of -0•96. Interpretation: Three regional groups with different dynamics and different degrees of effectiveness of the applied measures were identified. The partial shutdown was moderately effective and at most stopped the exponential growth, but the spread remained partly plateau-like and regionally continued to grow in a nearly linear fashion. Only the extended shutdown reversed the linear growth. Funding: Institutional support and physical resources were provided by the University Witten/ Herdecke and Kliniken der Stadt Köln, German ministry of education and research 'Netzwerk Universitätsmedizin' (NUM), egePan Unimed (01KX2021).

15.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 116(5): 421-430, 2021 Jun.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The vaccinations against the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2" (SARS-CoV­2) play a decisive role in the global fight against the coronavirus pandemic. In the population, but also among health care workers (HCWs), there were concerns and skepticism about vaccinations even before the corona pandemic. METHODS: An online survey on the attitude of HCWs to vaccination against SARS-CoV­2 was carried out in December (December 3rd-December 12th, 2020) before and in February (February 1st-February 10th, 2021) after the start of the vaccinations. Members of the German Society for Internal Intensive Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine (DGIIN) and the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine (DIVI) were invited by email and on Facebook. RESULTS: In December 2305 and in February 3501 people took part. The approval rate for vaccination increased from 85.2% to 92.1% (p < 0.001). There was also an increase in willingness to vaccinate (63.8% vs. 75.9%; p < 0.001). The female gender, membership of the professional group nursing staff and age < 45 years were significantly associated with a restricted willingness to vaccinate. There was also a decrease in concerns about efficacy, side effects and long-term damage. There was clear skepticism about the vaccine from AstraZeneca (Cambridge, United Kingdom). Before and after the introduction of vaccinations against SARS-CoV­2, an increase in the willingness to vaccinate against SARS-CoV-2 can be shown in German HCWs. Technical experts must bring objectivity into the currently controversial debate through precise and transparent information and thus counteract vaccination skepticism, not only among HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , United Kingdom , Vaccination
16.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186553

ABSTRACT

This correspondence argues that the conclusion given in the article "Conservative management of COVID-19-associated hypoxaemia" is not supported by the data https://bit.ly/3qAn7la.

17.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(Forthcoming)2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since identification of the first cases in December 2019, COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) has spread across the world, giving rise to a global pandemic. METHODS: A literature search was carried out in PubMed, using search terms defined by the authors. Questions important for the management of patients with COVID-19 were identified and discussed, and recommendations or statements on these topics were formulated in a structured consensus process. RESULTS: Determination of the indication for the admission of COVID-19 patients to the hospital should involve consideration of age, comorbidities, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. Every patient admitted without a recent PCR test should be tested immediately. It is recommended that any COVID-19 patient with hypoxemia (SpO2 <90%) despite being given oxygen, dyspnea, or a high respiratory rate be admitted to intensive care. In the case of hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency, an attempt at treatment with high-flow oxygen or non-invasive ventilation is suggested, while patients with severe hypoxemia/high respiratory rate should undergo intubation and invasive ventilation. In the presence of additional risk factors (such as obesity, known thrombophilia, intensive care treatment, or elevated D-dimers), intensified prophylaxis against thromboembolism may be indicated. Treatment with dexamethasone decreases the mortality among patients with severe or critical COVID-19. The important personal protection measures are attention to hygiene and the correct wearing of personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: The principal treatment measures are maintenance of adequate oxygenation, pharmacological prevention of thrombosis, and, in severe cases, administration of dexamethasone.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24256, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024164

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Brochoalvelolar lavages (BALs) from patients suffering from hospitalized infections with SARS-CoV-2, other corona viruses (human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1), Influenza virus type A and B, Haemophilus influenzae and Pneumocystis jirovecii were compared cytopathologically.The aim of the study was to evaluate if the cellular profile detectable in BAL may be specific for the respective pathogens and could lead to diagnosis of COVID-19 even in the absence of PCR results.Differential cytology and flow cytometry datasets of 62 patients were observed and compared.We observed a significant association between individual cell pattern changes and the causing pathogen, but no general cell distribution pattern.The cytology pattern of the BAL fluid in COVID-19 is not specific enough to use it as a sole diagnostic criterion, although it may support clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Haemophilus influenzae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification
20.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(31-32): 528-533, 2020 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reported high mortality of COVID-19 patients in intensive care has given rise to a debate over whether patients with this disease are being intubated too soon and might instead benefit from more non-invasive ventilation. METHODS: This review is based on articles published up to 12 June 2020 that were retrieved by a selective literature search on the topic of invasive and non-invasive ventilation for respiratory failure in COVID-19. Guideline recommendations and study data on patients with respiratory failure in settings other than COVID-19 are also considered, as are the current figures of the intensive care registry of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin). RESULTS: The high mortality figures among patients receiving invasive ventilation that have been reported in studies from abroad cannot be uncritically applied to the current situation in Germany. Study data on ventilation specifically in COVID-19 patients would be needed to do justice to the special pathophysiology of this disease, but such data are lacking. Being intubated too early is evidently associated with risks for the patient, but being intubated too late is as well. A particularly im - portant consideration is the potential harm associated with prolonged spontaneous breathing, with or without non-invasive assistance, as any increase in respiratory work can seriously worsen respiratory failure. On the other hand, it is clearly unacceptable to intubate patients too early merely out of concern that the medical staff might become infected with COVID-19 if they were ventilated non-invasively. CONCLUSION: Nasal high flow, non-invasive ventilation, and invasive ventilation with intubation should be carried out in a stepwise treatment strategy, under appropriate intensive-care monitoring and with the observance of all relevant anti-infectious precautions. Germany is better prepared that other countries to provide COVID-19 patients with appropriate respiratory care, in view of the high per capita density of intensive-care beds and the availability of a nationwide, interdisciplinary intensive care registry for the guidance and coordination of intensive care in patients who need it.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
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