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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 840668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793031

ABSTRACT

Background: This is the first study, that aimed: a) to compare immune response, namely the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls, and b) to investigate changes in thyroid function in healthy subjects with no history of thyroid dysfunction before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech). Methods: The entire study consisted of two sub-studies. In the first sub-study, NAbs levels after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination were compared between 56 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and 56 age and gender-matched healthy controls from the day of the first dose until a period of up to three months after the second dose. In the second sub-study, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH) and thyroid auto-antibodies levels (anti-TG, anti-TPO) of 72 healthy subjects with no history of thyroid disease were examined before (D1) and one month after completion of the second dose (D50). Results: Among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, the median neutralizing inhibition on D22, immediately before second dose, was 62.5%. One month later (D50), values increased to 96.7%, while three months after the second dose NAbs titers remained almost the same (94.5%). In the healthy group, median NAbs levels at D22 were 53.6%. On D50 the median inhibition values increased to 95.1%, while after three months they were 89.2%. The statistical analysis did not show significant differences between two groups (p-values 0.164, 0.390, 0.105 for D22, D50 and three months). Regarding changes in thyroid function, the mean value for T4 before vaccination was 89.797 nmol/L and one month after the second dose was 89.11 nmol/L (p-value=0.649). On D1 the mean T3 value was 1.464 nmol/L, which dropped to 1.389 nmol/L on D50 (p-value = 0.004). For TSH, mean levels were 2.064 mIU/ml on D1 and fell to 1.840 mIU/ml one month after the second dose (p-value=0.037). Despite decrease, all thyroid hormone levels remained within the normal range. No changes were found for anti-TPO or anti-TG. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that patients with autoimmune thyroiditis present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) with healthy subjects, while vaccination may affect thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , /genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/metabolism , Vaccination
2.
Frontiers in endocrinology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733325

ABSTRACT

Background This is the first study, that aimed: a) to compare immune response, namely the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls, and b) to investigate changes in thyroid function in healthy subjects with no history of thyroid dysfunction before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech). Methods The entire study consisted of two sub-studies. In the first sub-study, NAbs levels after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination were compared between 56 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and 56 age and gender-matched healthy controls from the day of the first dose until a period of up to three months after the second dose. In the second sub-study, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH) and thyroid auto-antibodies levels (anti-TG, anti-TPO) of 72 healthy subjects with no history of thyroid disease were examined before (D1) and one month after completion of the second dose (D50). Results Among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, the median neutralizing inhibition on D22, immediately before second dose, was 62.5%. One month later (D50), values increased to 96.7%, while three months after the second dose NAbs titers remained almost the same (94.5%). In the healthy group, median NAbs levels at D22 were 53.6%. On D50 the median inhibition values increased to 95.1%, while after three months they were 89.2%. The statistical analysis did not show significant differences between two groups (p-values 0.164, 0.390, 0.105 for D22, D50 and three months). Regarding changes in thyroid function, the mean value for T4 before vaccination was 89.797 nmol/L and one month after the second dose was 89.11 nmol/L (p-value=0.649). On D1 the mean T3 value was 1.464 nmol/L, which dropped to 1.389 nmol/L on D50 (p-value = 0.004). For TSH, mean levels were 2.064 mIU/ml on D1 and fell to 1.840 mIU/ml one month after the second dose (p-value=0.037). Despite decrease, all thyroid hormone levels remained within the normal range. No changes were found for anti-TPO or anti-TG. Conclusions This study provided evidence that patients with autoimmune thyroiditis present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) with healthy subjects, while vaccination may affect thyroid function.

3.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667045

ABSTRACT

Along with their level of protection against COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies decline over time following vaccination with BNT162b2. However, relevant data on AZD1222 are scarce. In this context, the aim of this study was to compare SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels at one, three and six months after second vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and the ChAdOx1 (AZD1222) viral vector vaccine (NCT04743388). The measurements were performed with the GenScript's cPassTM SARS-CoV-2 NAbs Detection Kit (GenScript, Inc.; Piscataway, NJ, USA). Overall, data from 282 individuals were included (BNT162b2 n = 83, AZD1222 n = 199). Both vaccines induced strong NAbs responses at 1 month following vaccination. Interestingly, NAb activity seemed superior with BNT162b2 compared with AZD1222. A gradual decline in NAbs titers was evident at 3 and 6 months post vaccination with both vaccines. However, the superiority of NAb response with BNT162b2 over AZD1222 remained consistent at all time points examined. Furthermore, the elimination rate of the NAb titer was higher throughout during the study period for those vaccinated with AZD1222 compared with BNT162b2. Age, gender, body mass index or comorbidities did not have a significant impact on NAbs levels over time. Our results may inform public health policies regarding the timing of booster COVID-19 vaccine shots.

4.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625623

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine plays a critical role in COVID-19 prevention. Although BNT162b2 is highly effective against COVID-19, a time-dependent decrease in neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is observed. The aim of this study was to identify the individual features that may predict NAbs levels after vaccination. Machine learning techniques were applied to data from 302 subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis of mixed data (FAMD), k-means clustering, and random forest were used. PCA and FAMD showed that younger subjects had higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than older subjects. The effect of age is strongest near the vaccination date and appears to decrease with time. Obesity was associated with lower antibody response. Gender had no effect on NAbs at nine months, but there was a modest association at earlier time points. Participants with autoimmune disease had lower inhibitory levels than participants without autoimmune disease. K-Means clustering showed the natural grouping of subjects into five categories in which the characteristics of some individuals predominated. Random forest allowed the characteristics to be ordered by importance. Older age, higher body mass index, and the presence of autoimmune diseases had negative effects on the development of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2, nine months after full vaccination.

6.
Hemasphere ; 6(1): e677, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598646

ABSTRACT

The sustainability of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) vaccine-induced immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to be determined to inform public health decisions on vaccination programs and prevention measures against COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-S-receptor binding domain (RBD IgGs) against SARS-CoV-2 after full vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for up to 9 months in healthy individuals (NCT04743388). The assessments were performed at the following time points after the second vaccination: 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. The measurements were performed with the GenScript's cPassTM SARS-CoV-2 NAbs Detection Kit (GenScript, Inc.; Piscataway, NJ) and the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (Roche Diagnostics GmbH; Mannheim, Germany). Three hundred nine participants with a median age of 48 years were included. A gradual decline in both NAbs and anti-S-RBD IgGs became evident from 2 weeks to 9 months postvaccination. Both NAbs and anti-S-RBD IgGs levels were significantly lower at 9 months compared with the previous timepoints. Interestingly, age was found to exert a statistically significant effect on NAbs elimination only during the first-trimester postvaccination, as older age was associated with a more rapid clearance of NAbs. Furthermore, simulation studies predicted that the median NAb value would fall from 66% at 9 months to 59% and 45% at 12 and 18 months postvaccination, respectively. This finding may reflect a declining degree of immune protection against COVID-19 and advocates for the administration of booster vaccine shots especially in areas with emerging outbreaks.

8.
Life (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463742

ABSTRACT

Elucidating long-term immunity following COVID-19 vaccination is essential for decision-making regarding booster shots. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) against SARS-CoV-2 up to six months after the second vaccination dose with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Nabs levels were measured on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 8, 22 (before the second shot), 36, 50, and 3 and 6 months after the second vaccination (NCT04743388). Three hundred and eight healthy individuals without malignant disease were included in this study. At six months, 2.59% of the participants had a Nabs value less than 30%, while 11.9% had Nabs values of less than 50%. Importantly, 58% of the subjects had Nabs values of more than 75%. Nabs were initially eliminated at a relatively slow rate, but after three months their elimination was 5.7 times higher. Older age was inversely associated with Nabs levels at all examined timepoints. Interestingly, a population modeling analysis estimated that half of the subjects will have Nabs values less than 73.8% and 64.6% at 9 and 12 months, respectively, post vaccination completion. In conclusion, we found a persistent but declining anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity at six months following full vaccination with BNT162b2 in healthy individuals, which was more pronounced among older persons. These data may inform the public health policies regarding the prioritization of booster vaccine shots.

9.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335013

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-S-RBD IgGs up to three months after the second vaccination dose with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. NAbs and anti-S-RBD levels were measured on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 8, 22 (before the second shot), 36, 50, and three months after the second vaccination (D111) (NCT04743388). 283 health workers were included in this study. NAbs showed a rapid increase from D8 to D36 at a constant rate of about 3% per day and reached a median (SD) of 97.2% (4.7) at D36. From D36 to D50, a slight decrease in NAbs values was detected and it became more prominent between D50 and D111 when the rate of decline was determined at -0.11 per day. The median (SD) NAbs value at D111 was 92.7% (11.8). A similar pattern was also observed for anti-S-RBD antibodies. Anti-S-RBDs showed a steeper increase during D22-D36 and a lower decline rate during D36-D111. Prior COVID-19 infection and younger age were associated with superior antibody responses over time. In conclusion, we found a persistent but declining anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity at 3 months following full vaccination with BNT162b2 in healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289048

ABSTRACT

It is unclear whether the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine can induce the development of anti-PF4 antibodies in vaccinated individuals who have not developed thrombosis. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against heparin/PF4 in adults who received a first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine, and correlate them with clinical data and antibody responses to the vaccine. We detected non-platelet activating anti-PF4 antibodies in 67% (29/43) of the vaccinated individuals on day 22 following the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine, though these were detected in low titers. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the presence of anti-PF4 IgG antibodies and the baseline clinical characteristics of the patients. Our findings suggest that the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine can elicit anti-PF4 antibody production even in recipients without a clinical manifestation of thrombosis. The presence of anti-PF4 antibodies was not sufficient to provoke clinically evident thrombosis. Our results offer an important insight into the ongoing investigations regarding the underlying multifactorial pathophysiology of thrombotic events induced by the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine.

12.
Xenobiotica ; 51(6): 643-656, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180349

ABSTRACT

Colchicine is widely investigated for cardioprotection of COVID-19 patients since it can prevent the phenomenon of 'cytokine storm' and may reduce the complications arising from COVID-19. Despite the potentially beneficial effects of colchicine, there is no consensus on the appropriate dosage regimen and numerous schemes are currently used.In this study, simulations were performed to identify the ability of dosage regimens to attain plasma levels in CVOID-19 patients, known to be generally safe and efficacious. Since renal and hepatic impairment, as well as, drug-drug interactions have been identified to be the most significant factors increasing colchicine toxicity, the impact of these interactions was assessed in the simulations.Some dosage regimens lead to high colchicine concentrations, while others result in sub-therapeutic levels. Additional dosage schemes were proposed in this study aiming to be applied in patients with clearance insufficiency. Colchicine administration of 0.5 mg twice daily, can be considered safe and effective. In cases of clearance impairment, doses as low as 0.25 mg thrice or twice daily should be applied.Colchicine is a narrow therapeutic index drug and dosage regimens tailored to patients' needs should be designed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colchicine , Drug Interactions , Humans , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Xenobiotica ; 51(2): 127-138, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772878

ABSTRACT

During the recent COVID-19 outbreak hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been proposed as a safe and effective therapeutic option. However, a wide variety of dosing schemes has been applied in the clinical practice and tested in clinical studies. An extended literature survey was performed investigating the pharmacokinetics, the efficacy and safety of HCQ in COVID-19 treatment. Population pharmacokinetic models were retrieved from the literature and after evaluation and assessment one was selected in order to perform simulations. The most commonly applied dosing schemes were explored for patients with different weights and different levels of HCQ clearance impairment. Model-based simulations of HCQ concentrations revealed that high initial doses followed by low and sparse doses may offer significant benefits to patients by decreasing the viral load without reaching levels considered to produce adverse effects. For instance, the dosing scheme proposed for a 70 kg adult with moderate COVID-19 symptoms would be 600 mg upon diagnosis, 400 mg after 12 h, 300 mg after 24 h, 200 mg after 36 h, followed by 200 mg BID for 4 d, followed by 200 mg OD for 5 d. Based on the results from simulations performed and the currently published knowledge regarding HCQ in COVID-19 treatment, this study provides evidence that a high loading dose followed by sparse doses could offer significant benefits to the patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Computer Simulation , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics
14.
Saf Sci ; 129: 104842, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398999

ABSTRACT

Currently no specific medicinal treatment exists against the new SARS-CoV2 and chloroquine is widely used, since it can decrease the length of hospital stay and improve the evolution of the associated COVID-19 pneumonia. However, several safety concerns have been raised from chloroquine use due to the lack of essential information regarding its dosing. The aim of this study is to provide a critical appraisal of the safety information regarding chloroquine treatment and to apply simulation techniques to unveil relationships between the observed serious adverse events and overdosing, as well as to propose optimized dosage regimens. The dose related adverse events of chloroquine are unveiled and maximum tolerated doses and concentration levels are quoted. Among others, treatment with chloroquine can lead to severe adverse effects like prolongation of the QT interval and cardiomyopathy. In case of chloroquine overdosing, conditions similar to those produced by SARS-CoV2, such as pulmonary oedema with respiratory insufficiency and circulatory collapse, can be observed. Co-administration of chloroquine with other drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, like azithromycin, can further increase the risk of QT prolongation and cardiomyopathy. For elder patients there is a high risk for toxicity and dose reduction should be made. This study unveils the risks of some widely used dosing regimens and binds the observed serious adverse events with dosing. Based on simulations, safer alternative dosage regimens are proposed and recommendations regarding chloroquine dosing are made.

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