Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929926

ABSTRACT

The precise interaction between the immune system and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical in deciphering the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is also vital for developing novel therapeutic tools, including monoclonal antibodies, antivirals drugs, and vaccines. Viral infections need innate and adaptive immune reactions since the various immune components, such as neutrophils, macrophages, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and B lymphocytes, play different roles in various infections. Consequently, the characterization of innate and adaptive immune reactions toward SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for defining the pathogenicity of COVID-19. In this study, we explain what is currently understood concerning the conventional immune reactions to SARS-CoV-2 infection to shed light on the protective and pathogenic role of immune response in this case. Also, in particular, we investigate the in-depth roles of other immune mediators, including neutrophil elastase, serum amyloid A, and syndecan, in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19.

2.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 38: 101702, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926877

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can damage the endothelial cells of every organ in the body and lead to vasculopathy and vasculitis. It has been shown that various types of vasculitis could be a new manifestation of COVID-19. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare systemic necrotizing vasculitis that affects small vessels. Here we report our experience with a 42-year-old man with a 3-weeks history of fever of unknown origin after two months from COVID-19 recovery presented with loss of appetite, loss of weight, and paresthesia in his lower extremities. After required evaluations including nerve biopsy, EGPA was diagnosed for him.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885415

ABSTRACT

The field of immunometabolism investigates and describes the effects of metabolic rewiring in immune cells throughout activation and the fates of these cells. Recently, it has been appreciated that immunometabolism plays an essential role in the progression of viral infections, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Regarding COVID-19, the aberrant immune response underlying the progression of diseases establishes two major respiratory pathologies, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or pneumonia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Both innate and adaptive immunity (T cell-based) were impaired in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Current findings have deciphered that macrophages (innate immune cells) are involved in the inflammatory response seen in COVID-19. It has been demonstrated that immune system cells can change metabolic reprogramming in some conditions, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infectious disease, including COVID-19. The growing findings on metabolic reprogramming in COVID-19 allow an exploration of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties as future therapies to combat this hyperinflammatory response. The elucidation of the exact role and mechanism underlying this metabolic reprograming in immune cells could help apply more precise approaches to initial diagnosis, prognosis, and in-hospital therapy. This report discusses the latest findings from COVID-19 on host metabolic reprogramming and immunometabolic responses.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324377

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and treatment are significant health organizations' concerns worldwide. Although there is no proven drug license against the virus, a variety of components have under investigation. In this regard, the present study was intended to evaluate the consequences of Sovodak (Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir) treatment in COVID-19 patients compared with Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir). Methods: This study was conducted as a randomized trial using 120 COVID19 confirmed cases between August 19th and September 19th, 2020, in which subjects were classified into two treatment groups, 58 (Sovodak group) and 54 (Kaletra group). Related statistical operations calculated significant outcomes such as survival rate and hazard ratio via SPSS v.16. Sovodak was composed of Sofosbuvir 400mg and Daclatasvir 60mg, and Kaletra included Lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg. Results: We observed that there was no significant difference concerning the comorbidities, death, ICU admission, remission. Besides, Kaletra had a higher rate of discharge versus Sovodak (HR=1.551 (95% CI=1.008-2.386), P-value=0.046), and a better outcome was observed in patients receiving Conclusion: Sovodak compared to Kaletra by Hazard plot. Sovodak (Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir) therapy in COVID19 cases was accompanied by a significantly higher survival rate and better outcome than Kaletra (Lopinavir/ritonavir).

5.
Future Virol ; 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551416

ABSTRACT

This article provides a brief overview of DNA vaccines. First, the basic DNA vaccine design strategies are described, then specific issues related to the industrial production of DNA vaccines are discussed, including the production and purification of DNA products such as plasmid DNA, minicircle DNA, minimalistic, immunologically defined gene expression (MIDGE) and Doggybone™. The use of adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines is then discussed. In addition, different delivery routes and several physical and chemical methods to increase the efficacy of DNA delivery into cells are explained. Recent preclinical and clinical trials of DNA vaccines for COVID-19 are then summarized. Lastly, the advantages and obstacles of DNA vaccines are discussed.

6.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 34: 101534, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482930

ABSTRACT

The hematologic system is one of the vulnerable parts of the human body in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. Lymphopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are among the most frequent consequences of COVID-19. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is one of the common causes of thrombocytopenia in adults. It is defined by thrombocytopenia when platelet counts <105/µl in the absence of anemia and leukopenia. Traditionally, infections, typically viral, have been known as the main culprits of low platelet counts before the involvement of ITP. According to the literature, C virus (HCV), HIV, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are considered secondary causative agents for the development of ITP. In this study, we reported a case that was afflicted with concurrent severe thrombocytopenia diagnosed as ITP and COVID-19 infection.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108192, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433412

ABSTRACT

The mounting evidence regarding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 indicated that the cytokine storm has an axial role in the severity of this disease, which may lead to thrombotic complications, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and myocardial damage, among other consequences. It has recently been demonstrated that statins are known to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and immunomodulatory features; however, their advantage has not been evaluated in COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lovastatin in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19. The case-control study consists of 284 ICU patients, which classified into three groups as follows: 1) the patients who no received lovastatin as a control (92 patients), 2) patients received 20 mg per day lovastatin (99 patients), and 3) patients received 40 mg per day lovastatin (93 patients). Each group's demographic and clinical parameters, along with CRP, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 levels, and mortality rate, were studied in three-time points. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between our study groups in terms of age and sex. (P > 0.05). Besides, in patients, receiving lovastatin the CRP, IL-6, IL-8 levels were significantly decreased from T1 to T3 than to the control group. Our results also showed that the use of lovastatin in COVID-19 patients significantly reduced the length of hospitalization in the ICU compared with the control group. In addition, our results showed that the mortality rate in patients receiving lovastatin was lower when compared to the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Since the cytokine storm is a significant factor in the pathology of SARS-CoV-2, our findings highlighted the potential use of lovastatin to mitigate the inflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lovastatin/pharmacology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/drug effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Lovastatin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Sex Factors
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108137, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428075

ABSTRACT

A growing body of evidence indicates that neutrophil elastase (NE) is involved in the pathogenesis of respiratory infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aimed to analyze the dynamic changes in serum levels of NE associated with inflammation, disease activity, and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19. We measured the serum concentrations of NE, C-Reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)- 4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and vitamin D levels in 83 ICU and 69 non-ICU patients compared with 82 healthy subjects (HS) in three-time points (T1-T3). Serum levels of NE, IL-6, IL-8, and CRP in ICU and non-ICU patients were significantly higher than HS (P < 0.001) in three-time points. Also, serum levels of NE, IL-6, IL-8, and CRP in ICU patients were significantly higher than in non-ICU patients (P < 0.05). On the day of admission (T1), the levels of NE, CRP, IL-6, IL-8 were gradually decreased from T1 to T3. At the same time, IL-4 and IL-10 were gradually increased from T1 to T2 and then reduced to T3. Further analyses demonstrated that the levels of NE, IL-6, and IL-8 in deceased patients were significantly higher than in recovered patients (P < 0.05). The ROC curve analysis demonstrated that markers, including NE, IL-6, and IL-8, were valuable indicators in evaluating the activity of COVID-19. Overall, our results signify the critical role of NE in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and also, further support that NE has a potential therapeutic target for the attenuation of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Leukocyte Elastase/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Elastase/blood , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 34: 101515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410803

ABSTRACT

Hiccups are involuntary and spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm, and multiple etiological factors have been suggested to be involved. Medications, such as dexamethasone, as well as some diseases, such as pneumonia, can cause persistent (>48 h) hiccups. Here, we report a 58-years-old male who had a fever, myalgia, cough, and ground-glass view in the chest computed tomography, and his PCR test for Covid-19 was positive. During the treatment course, persistent hiccups were developed after taking dexamethasone and lasted for six days. All cardiac and neurologic examinations were performed, and all of them were normal. After evaluating all of the possible underlying causes, dexamethasone was replaced by prednisolone. Upon a change in his treatment regimen, hiccups began to stop, and his symptoms also disappeared. Hiccups may occur in patients who have pneumonia and other infectious diseases. Dexamethasone can also stimulate hiccups along with infections.

11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107684, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188658

ABSTRACT

A cell-surface heparan proteoglycan called Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) has multiple roles in healthy and pathogenic conditions, including respiratory viral infection. In this study, we explore the dynamic alternation in the levels of SDC-1 in cases with COVID-19. A total of 120 cases definitely diagnosed with COVID-19 were admitted to the Firoozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from December 1, 2020, to January 29, 2021, and included in our study. Also, 58 healthy subjects (HS) were chosen as the control group. Patients were classified into two groups: 1) ICU patients and (63 cases) 2) non-ICU patients (57 cases). The dynamic changes of serum SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and Vit D levels a well as the disease activity were investigated in three-time points (T1-T3). Our results indicated that the COVID-19 patients had significantly increased SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels than in HS, while the Vit D levels in COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than HS. Further analysis demonstrated that the SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in non-ICU patients. Tracking dynamic changes in the above markers indicated that on the day of admission, the SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels were gradually increased on day 5 (T2) and then gradually decreased on day 10 (T3). ROC curve analysis suggests that markers mentioned above, SDC-1, IL-6, and IL-18 are valuable indicators in evaluating the activity of COVID-19. All in all, it seems that the serum SDC-1 levels alone or combined with other markers might be a good candidate for disease activity monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Syndecan-1/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-18/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Vitamin D/blood
12.
Arch Virol ; 166(7): 1819-1840, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141432

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection accompanied by pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has affected millions of people globally. To date, there are no highly efficient therapies for this infection. Probiotic bacteria can interact with the gut microbiome to strengthen the immune system, enhance immune responses, and induce appropriate immune signaling pathways. Several probiotics have been confirmed to reduce the duration of bacterial or viral infections. Immune fitness may be one of the approaches by which protection against viral infections can be reinforced. In general, prevention is more efficient than therapy in fighting viral infections. Thus, probiotics have emerged as suitable candidates for controlling these infections. During the COVID-19 pandemic, any approach with the capacity to induce mucosal and systemic reactions could potentially be useful. Here, we summarize findings regarding the effectiveness of various probiotics for preventing virus-induced respiratory infectious diseases, especially those that could be employed for COVID-19 patients. However, the benefits of probiotics are strain-specific, and it is necessary to identify the bacterial strains that are scientifically established to be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dysbiosis , Humans , Immunomodulation , Microbiota , Probiotics/classification , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Species Specificity
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107204, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065215

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed significant public health problems for the human populations worldwide after the 1918 influenza A virus (IVA) (H1N1) pandemic. Although numerous efforts have been made to unravel the mechanisms underlying the coronavirus, a notable gap remains in our perception of the COVID-19 pathogenesis. The innate and adaptive immune systems have a pivotal role in the fate of viral infections, such as COVID-19 pandemic. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known as short noncoding RNA molecules and appear as indispensable governors of almost any cellular means. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that miRNAs participate in essential mechanisms of cell biology, regulation of the immune system, and the onset and progression of numerous types of disorders. The immune responses to viral respiratory infections (VRIs), including influenza virus (IV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and rhinovirus (RV), are correlated with the ectopic expression of miRNAs. Alterations of the miRNA expression in epithelial cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic and acute airway infections. Hence, analyzing the role of these types of nucleotides in antiviral immune responses and the characterization of miRNA target genes might contribute to understanding the mechanisms of the interplay between the host and viruses, and in the future, potentially result in discovering therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute COVID-19 infection. In this article, we present a general review of current studies concerning the function of miRNAs in different VRIs, particularly in coronavirus infection, and address all available therapeutic prospects to mitigate the burden of viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106928, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726576

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. There is a gap in our understanding regarding the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19. However, many clinical trials are underway across the world for screening effective drugs against COVID-19. Nevertheless, currently, no proven effective therapies for this virus exists. The vaccines are deemed as a significant part of disease prevention for emerging viral diseases, since, in several cases, other therapeutic choices are limited or non-existent, or that diseases result in such an accelerated clinical worsening that the efficacy of treatments is restricted. Therefore, effective vaccines against COVID-19 are urgently required to overcome the tremendous burden of mortality and morbidity correlated with SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we will describe the latest evidence regarding outstanding vaccine approaches and the challenges for vaccine production.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Development/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2097-2111, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696287

ABSTRACT

The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected millions of people worldwide. To date, there are no proven effective therapies for this virus. Efforts made to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. Respiratory viral infections, such as influenza, predispose patients to co-infections and these lead to increased disease severity and mortality. Numerous types of antibiotics such as azithromycin have been employed for the prevention and treatment of bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infections in patients with a viral respiratory infection (e.g., SARS-CoV-2). Although antibiotics do not directly affect SARS-CoV-2, viral respiratory infections often result in bacterial pneumonia. It is possible that some patients die from bacterial co-infection rather than virus itself. To date, a considerable number of bacterial strains have been resistant to various antibiotics such as azithromycin, and the overuse could render those or other antibiotics even less effective. Therefore, bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection are considered critical risk factors for the severity and mortality rates of COVID-19. Also, the antibiotic-resistant as a result of overusing must be considered. In this review, we will summarize the bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection in some featured respiratory viral infections, especially COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Haemophilus influenzae/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Legionella pneumophila/drug effects , Legionella pneumophila/pathogenicity , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/virology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/pathogenicity
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106885, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695737

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is an etiological agent of pandemic COVID-19, which spreads rapidly worldwide. No proven effective therapies currently exist for this virus, and efforts to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. The rapidly increasing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 virology provides a notable number of possible immunological procedures and drug targets. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this review, we describe the latest information in the context of immunological approaches and emerging current antiviral strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(7): 5365-5376, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617279

ABSTRACT

Emerging of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised interests in the field of biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses; including interactions between host immune reactions specific, and viral factors. Deep knowledge about the interaction between coronaviruses and the host factors could be useful to provide a better support for the disease sufferers and be advantageous for managing and treatment of the lung infection caused by the virus. At this study, we reviewed the updated information on the pathogenesis of the COVID-19 and the immune responses toward it, with a special focus on structure, genetics, and viral accessory proteins, viral replication, viral receptors, the human immune reactions, cytopathic effects, and host-related factors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Autoimmunity , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL