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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 124: 143-151, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076183

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Possible immunomodulatory effect of amantadine in patients treated in intensive care unit (ICU), mostly among patients with brain injuries or vascular diseases was observed in several studies. The potential antiviral effect of amantadine against SARS-CoV-2 was discarded in clinical trials; however, immunomodulatory potential was not studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of immunomodulatory amantadine therapy on mortality in patients with respiratory insufficiency due to COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation in ICU. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 241 cases of 141 (58.5%) receiving intravenous amantadine sulfate vs 100 (41.5%) controls on standard of care only was performed. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 72.6%, being notably lower among amantadine treated patients (59.5%, n = 84) compared with controls (91%, n = 91), P-value = 0.001. In multivariate models administration of amantadine was independently associated with lower mortality rate (hazard ratio: 0.220, CI: 0.146-0.333 P-value = 0.001). Furthermore, survival was improved in patients who received amantadine; late administration of amantadine after 5th day was independently associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio: 0.560, CI: 0.313-0.999, P-value = 0.050). CONCLUSION: In patients treated in ICU with severe respiratory failure, administration of amantadine is associated with lower mortality, which may be associated with the potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of this agent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Amantadine/therapeutic use
2.
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045208

ABSTRACT

Introduction Possible immunomodulatory effect of amantadine in patients treated in intensive care units (ICU), mostly among patients with brain injuries or vascular diseases was observed in several studies. Potential antiviral effect of amantadine against SARS CoV-2 was discarded in clinical trials, however immunomodulatory potential was not studied. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of immunomodulatory amantadine therapy on mortality in patients with respiratory insufficiency due to COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation in ICU. Patients and methods Retrospective analysis of 241 cases of 141 (58.5%) receiving intravenous amantadine sulfate vs. 100 (41.5%) controls on standard of care only was performed. Results Overall mortality was 72.6%, being notably lower among amantadine treated patients (59.5%, n=84) compared to controls (91%, n=91), p= 0.001. In multivariate models administration of amantadine was independently associated with lower mortality rate [HR: 0.220 (CI: 0.146 – 0.333), p = 0.001)]. Furthermore, survival was improved in patients who received amantadine late - administration of amantadine after 5th day was independently associated with lower mortality [HR: 0.560 (CI: 0.313 – 0.999), p = 0.050). Conclusions In patients treated in ICU with severe respiratory failure administration of amantadine associated with lower mortality, which may be associated with potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of this agent.

3.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 5027-5033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vibrio vulnificus infections are a growing problem worldwide. In recent years, infections with this bacteria have been reported in Central Europe, especially in the German Baltic coast but also in France and Italy. Climate warming causes the sea temperature to increase every year, which translates to an increased risk of infections from the Vibrio group. Most of these are mild and present as wound infections, but some patients develop life-threatening sepsis from either ingestion of infected mollusks or wound lesions that develop into generalized infections. Illness may be associated with necrotizing fasciitis and may require several weeks of therapy, often based on a surgical operation, demarcation of necrosis or limb amputation. A case such as the one described in this manuscript has not been previously described in Poland and demonstrates the need for a multidisciplinary approach to infection with Vibrio vulnificus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old patient was pricked with an unknown object in the side of a lower limb during his stay at the Polish seaside. He developed a life-threatening infection in the form of severe sepsis with multiple organ failure. He required broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and after obtaining results for Vibrio vulnificus targeted therapy, a surgical operation with skin lesion decompression and fasciotomy was performed. Finally, hyperbaric chamber therapy was given. The patient's general condition improved, and local changes and his vital parameters stabilized. CONCLUSION: Vibrio vulnificus infection may be confused with other causes of skin and subcutaneous tissue infection, although it requires a different approach and different targeted antibiotic therapies. This infection may take the form of a life-threatening disease requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084560

ABSTRACT

Liver injury-expressed as elevated liver enzymes-is common in patients with COVID-19. Little is known about the potential mechanisms of liver damage by SARS-CoV-2. A direct cytopathic effect on hepatocytes as well as injury related to hypoxia or hepatotoxicity are being considered. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical characteristic of COVID-19 disease in patients with normal and abnormal liver enzymes activity. A group of 150 patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in our center, was analyzed. Patients with the known liver comorbidities were excluded (n = 15). Clinical features and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferase values. Liver injury expressed as any alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was noted in 45.6% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The frequencies of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation were lower. It was noted that elevated ALT/AST unfavorably affected other parameters related to liver function such as albumin level; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP); and partly, ALP activity and influenced inflammation-related parameters. The most probable cause of mild hepatitis during COVID-19 was anoxia and immune-mediated damage due to the inflammatory response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A direct cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 on hepatocytes, albeit less probable, can be considered as well. The use of potentially hepatotoxic drugs may contribute to liver damage.

5.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 10(4):672, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1077160

ABSTRACT

Liver injury—expressed as elevated liver enzymes—is common in patients with COVID-19. Little is known about the potential mechanisms of liver damage by SARS-CoV-2. A direct cytopathic effect on hepatocytes as well as injury related to hypoxia or hepatotoxicity are being considered. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical characteristic of COVID-19 disease in patients with normal and abnormal liver enzymes activity. A group of 150 patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in our center, was analyzed. Patients with the known liver comorbidities were excluded (n = 15). Clinical features and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferase values. Liver injury expressed as any alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was noted in 45.6% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The frequencies of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation were lower. It was noted that elevated ALT/AST unfavorably affected other parameters related to liver function such as albumin level;gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP);and partly, ALP activity and influenced inflammation-related parameters. The most probable cause of mild hepatitis during COVID-19 was anoxia and immune-mediated damage due to the inflammatory response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A direct cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 on hepatocytes, albeit less probable, can be considered as well. The use of potentially hepatotoxic drugs may contribute to liver damage.

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