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1.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 94, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), rapidly improving acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mostly defined by early extubation, had been recognized as an increasingly prevalent subphenotype (making up 15-24% of all ARDS cases), associated with good prognosis (10% mortality in ARDSNet trials). We attempted to determine the prevalence and prognosis of rapidly improving ARDS and of persistent severe ARDS related to COVID-19. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in three intensive care units (ICU) during the second pandemic wave in Greece. We defined rapidly improving ARDS as extubation or a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2:FiO2) greater than 300 on the first day following intubation. We defined persistent severe ARDS as PaO2:FiO2 of equal to or less than 100 on the second day following intubation. RESULTS: A total of 280 intubated patients met criteria of ARDS with a median PaO2:FiO2 of 125.0 (interquartile range 93.0-161.0) on day of intubation, and overall ICU-mortality of 52.5% (ranging from 24.3 to 66.9% across the three participating sites). Prevalence of rapidly improving ARDS was 3.9% (11 of 280 patients); no extubation occurred on the first day following intubation. ICU-mortality of patients with rapidly improving ARDS was 54.5%. This low prevalence and high mortality rate of rapidly improving ARDS were consistent across participating sites. Prevalence of persistent severe ARDS was 12.1% and corresponding mortality was 82.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly improving ARDS was not prevalent and was not associated with good prognosis among patients with COVID-19. This is starkly different from what has been previously reported for patients with ARDS not related to COVID-19. Our results on both rapidly improving ARDS and persistent severe ARDS may contribute to our understanding of trajectory of ARDS and its association with prognosis in patients with COVID-19.

2.
Nutrients ; 14(7):1416, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762378

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted from SARS CoV-2 coronavirus infection, contributed toa rapid increasein hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions [...]

3.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580548

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the new coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) highlighted the need for appropriate feeding practices among critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to describe feeding practices of intubated COVID-19 patients during their second week of hospitalization in the First Department of Critical Care Medicine, Evaggelismos General Hospital, and evaluate potential associations with all cause 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. We enrolled adult intubated COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between September 2020 and July 2021 and prospectively monitored until their hospital discharge. Of the 162 patients analyzed (52.8% men, 51.6% overweight/obese, mean age 63.2 ± 11.9 years), 27.2% of patients used parenteral nutrition, while the rest were fed enterally. By 30 days, 34.2% of the patients in the parenteral group had died compared to 32.7% of the patients in the enteral group (relative risk (RR) for the group receiving enteral nutrition = 0.97, 95% confidence interval = 0.88-1.06, p = 0.120). Those in the enteral group demonstrated a lower duration of hospital stay (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.97, p = 0.036) as well as mechanical ventilation support (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.99, p = 0.043). Enteral feeding during second week of ICU hospitalization may be associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization and stay in mechanical ventilation support among critically ill intubated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Enteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Parenteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Critical Illness , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Enteral Nutrition/mortality , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Parenteral Nutrition/methods , Parenteral Nutrition/mortality , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444284

ABSTRACT

There is an ongoing need for new therapeutic modalities against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mast cell histamine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 as a regulator of proinflammatory, fibrotic, and thrombogenic processes. Consequently, mast cell histamine and its receptors represent promising pharmacological targets. At the same time, nutritional modulation of immune system function has been proposed and is being investigated for the prevention of COVID-19 or as an adjunctive strategy combined with conventional therapy. Several studies indicate that several immunonutrients can regulate mast cell activity to reduce the de novo synthesis and/or release of histamine and other mediators that are considered to mediate, at least in part, the complex pathophysiology present in COVID-19. This review summarizes the effects on mast cell histamine of common immunonutrients that have been investigated for use in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Histamine/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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