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1.
Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007819

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Lengthy wait times for cataract surgery can negatively impact patients’ quality of life and increase the incidence of falls and depression. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant challenges to the delivery of elective cataract surgeries. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cataract surgery wait times in the Alberta Health Services’ Edmonton Zone were studied by examining the wait times before and during the pandemic. Methods : This study was conducted based on a retrospective population-based design. Data was compiled from a centralized database related to hospital-based cataract surgery (Royal Alexandra, Fort Saskatchewan, and Westview Health Centre) between April 2019 and March 2022 (i.e., three fiscal years). Results : The average wait time for cataract surgery increased from 14.4±1.4 weeks in 2019/20 to 18.2±2.7 weeks in 2020/21 (p=0.005) and then decreased to 11.5±1.3 in 2021/22 (p<0.001). The completed surgeries decreased from 13,103 in 2019/20 to 9,308 (p=0.09) and 10,365 (p=0.1) during the next two years. The annual operating room time for scheduled cases was reduced to 4,463 hours (p=0.42) and 4,552 hours (p=0.15) during the pandemic compared to 5,541 hours before the pandemic. However, the average waitlist size decreased from 6,629 at the end of 2019/20 to 6,122 (p=0.029) and 4,011 (p<0.001) during the next two years. Conclusion : The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significantly increased average wait times for elective cataract surgery during the first year of the pandemic. Due to the reduction of the waitlist size, the wait times decreased during the second year of the pandemic.

3.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-338256

ABSTRACT

Omicron (B.1.1.529) shows extensive escape from vaccine immunity, although vaccination reduces severe disease and death1. Boosting with vaccines incorporating variant spike sequences could possibly broaden immunity2. One approach to choose the variant may be to measure immunity elicited by vaccination combined with variant infection. Here we investigated Omicron neutralization in people infected with the Beta (B.1.351) variant and subsequently vaccinated with Pfizer BNT162b2. We observed that Beta infection alone elicited poor Omicron cross-neutralization, similar to what we previously found3 with BNT162b2 vaccination alone or in combination with ancestral or Delta virus infection. In contrast, Beta infection combined with BNT162b2 vaccination elicited neutralization with substantially lower Omicron escape.

4.
European Journal of Immunology ; 51:346-346, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1716979
5.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327015

ABSTRACT

Omicron has been shown to be highly transmissible and have extensive evasion of neutralizing antibody immunity elicited by vaccination and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Omicron infections are rapidly expanding worldwide often in the face of high levels of Delta infections. Here we characterized developing immunity to Omicron and investigated whether neutralizing immunity elicited by Omicron also enhances neutralizing immunity of the Delta variant. We enrolled both previously vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the Omicron infection wave in South Africa soon after symptom onset. We then measured their ability to neutralize both Omicron and Delta virus at enrollment versus a median of 14 days after enrollment. Neutralization of Omicron increased 14-fold over this time, showing a developing antibody response to the variant. Importantly, there was an enhancement of Delta virus neutralization, which increased 4.4-fold. The increase in Delta variant neutralization in individuals infected with Omicron may result in decreased ability of Delta to re-infect those individuals. Along with emerging data indicating that Omicron, at this time in the pandemic, is less pathogenic than Delta, such an outcome may have positive implications in terms of decreasing the Covid-19 burden of severe disease.

6.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326997

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has multiple Spike (S) protein mutations that contribute to escape from the neutralizing antibody responses, and reducing vaccine protection from infection. The extent to which other components of the adaptive response such as T cells may still target Omicron and contribute to protection from severe outcomes is unknown. We assessed the ability of T cells to react with Omicron spike in participants who were vaccinated with Ad26.CoV2.S or BNT162b2, and in unvaccinated convalescent COVID-19 patients (n = 70). We found that 70-80% of the CD4 and CD8 T cell response to spike was maintained across study groups. Moreover, the magnitude of Omicron cross-reactive T cells was similar to that of the Beta and Delta variants, despite Omicron harbouring considerably more mutations. Additionally, in Omicron-infected hospitalized patients (n = 19), there were comparable T cell responses to ancestral spike, nucleocapsid and membrane proteins to those found in patients hospitalized in previous waves dominated by the ancestral, Beta or Delta variants (n = 49). These results demonstrate that despite Omicron’s extensive mutations and reduced susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies, the majority of T cell response, induced by vaccination or natural infection, crossrecognises the variant. Well-preserved T cell immunity to Omicron is likely to contribute to protection from severe COVID-19, supporting early clinical observations from South Africa.

7.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-326698

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 variants have mutations at key sites targeted by antibodies. However, it is unknown if antibodies elicited by infection with these variants target the same or different regions of the viral spike as antibodies elicited by earlier viral isolates. Here we compare the specificities of polyclonal antibodies produced by humans infected with early 2020 isolates versus the B.1.351 variant of concern (also known as Beta or 20H/501Y.V2), which contains mutations in multiple key spike epitopes. The serum neutralizing activity of antibodies elicited by infection with both early 2020 viruses and B.1.351 is heavily focused on the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). However, within the RBD, B.1.351-elicited antibodies are more focused on the "class 3" epitope spanning sites 443 to 452, and neutralization by these antibodies is notably less affected by mutations at residue 484. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 variants can elicit polyclonal antibodies with different immunodominance hierarchies.

8.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-325667

ABSTRACT

Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) infections are rapidly expanding worldwide, often in settings where the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was dominant. We investigated whether neutralizing immunity elicited by Omicron infection would also neutralize the Delta variant and the role of prior vaccination. We enrolled 23 South African participants infected with Omicron a median of 5 days post-symptoms onset (study baseline) with a last follow-up sample taken a median of 23 days post-symptoms onset. Ten participants were breakthrough cases vaccinated with Pfizer BNT162b2 or Johnson and Johnson Ad26.CoV2.S. In vaccinated participants, neutralization of Omicron increased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) FRNT50 of 28 to 378 (13.7-fold). Unvaccinated participants had similar Omicron neutralization at baseline but increased from 26 to only 113 (4.4-fold) at follow-up. Delta virus neutralization increased from 129 to 790, (6.1-fold) in vaccinated but only 18 to 46 (2.5-fold, not statistically significant) in unvaccinated participants. Therefore, in Omicron infected vaccinated individuals, Delta neutralization was 2.1-fold higher at follow-up relative to Omicron. In a separate group previously infected with Delta, neutralization of Delta was 22.5-fold higher than Omicron. Based on relative neutralization levels, Omicron re-infection would be expected to be more likely than Delta in Delta infected individuals, and in Omicron infected individuals who are vaccinated. This may give Omicron an advantage over Delta which may lead to decreasing Delta infections in regions with high infection frequencies and high vaccine coverage.

9.
Blood ; 138:4120, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582391

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Daratumumab in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone (DVd) demonstrated a superior overall response rates (ORR) and progression free survival (PFS) compared to Vd in the CASTOR phase 3 trial for patients with RRMM. On this basis, DVd was recommended in March 2019 for UK patients with RRMM that had 1 prior line (PL). Discrepancies in outcomes between patients treated in clinical trials compared to routine practice is well recognised due to a combination of patient, disease and treatment-related factors. In addition, bortezomib is often administered once-weekly in routine practice to minimise neuropathy, while CASTOR used bi-weekly bortezomib dosing. As a result, the real-world outcomes of patients treated with DVd are yet to be determined. The primary aims of this analysis was to assess the ORR and PFS for patients with RRMM with 1PL treated with DVd in routine practice. Secondary aims were to assess OS, time to next treatment (TTNT), and efficacy in different sub-groups (high risk cytogenetics, previous proteasome inhibitor (PI) exposure, refractoriness of prior therapies, bi-weekly vs weekly bortezomib schedule, and previous treatment free interval (TFI)). Methods: This was a retrospective analysis from 14 centres (academic and community hospitals;7 within the West Midlands Research Consortium (WMRC)) treated with DVd between March 2019 and June 2021. Patients received daratumumab (IV and then SC from June 2020) weekly in cycles 1-3, on day 1 of a 3-week cycle during cycles 4-8, and then monthly from cycle 9 to progression. SC Bortezomib was predominantly given weekly for cycles 1-8 although 5 centres used bi-weekly dosing for selected patients with aggressive disease. Adverse events were graded as per CTCAE criteria. Results: 288 patients were included, with a median age of 69 years (range 20-88) (Table 1). Patients received a median of 1 PL (range 1-2) with 93% (269) 1PL, 7% (18) 2 PL (due to COVID-19 measures). The majority had an ECOG performance status of 0-2 (98%) and most received weekly bortezomib (n=201). This population differed from those with 1PL treated on CASTOR in being older, more were ISS 3 (31% vs 19%, p=0.0145), and more had prior bortezomib exposure (71% vs 51%, p=0.0003), 4% were PI refractory, 9% had a GFR of <30ml/min (<20ml/min was an exclusion from CASTOR), and 2% had an ECOG performance status of ≥3. The ORR was 76%, with >VGPR in 54% (Table 2), with no significant difference in response between patients receiving biweekly vs weekly bortezomib (85% vs 83%;p=0.71). The median time to response was 1.6m. With a median follow up of 15m, the median PFS was 14m (95% CI 11.6-16). High cytogenetic risk patients had inferior outcomes: median PFS 10m (95% CI 6-14) for high risk vs not reached for standard risk (p=0.043);as did those with advanced ISS: median PFS was not reached, 15 and 12m for stage I, II and III respectively (p=0.05). For 15 patients with extramedullary disease (EMD), the median PFS was 3m (95% CI 1-5). Median PFS for patients who were PI refractory was shorter (10m vs 15m for PI sensitive patients (p=0.006)). There was no difference in median PFS for patients with prior PI exposure vs no prior PI (15 vs 13m;p=0.75), or according to weekly or bi-weekly bortezomib schedule (11 vs 15m;p=0.14). The median TTNT was 21m (95% CI 17-25). Overall, the median duration of treatment was 8m and 25 patients (9%) stopped treatment to receive a second autologous stem cell transplant. Those that had a prior TFI of >12m had a longer median PFS of 21m vs 10m (p=0.0004). The median OS has not been reached, with an estimated 2-year OS of 74%. For patients with high risk cytogenetics the median OS was 16m (95% CI 9-23;vs not reached for standard risk;p=0.0006), with estimated 2-year OS in the high risk group of 36%. There was no difference in OS for patients treated with biweekly vs weekly bortezomib (not reached for either;p=0.38). DVd was generally well tolerated with 6% stopping due to adverse events (CASTOR 9.5%). Grade 3 or 4 toxicity occurred in 62 (22%) most comm nly neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, with any grade infusion reactions reported in 27 (9%). Conclusions: These real-world data of DVd at 1 st relapse demonstrated good tolerability and high response rates with a weekly bortezomib schedule despite a more heterogenous population. However, high risk patients by cytogenetics, ISS or EMD had inferior outcomes as did those treated within 12 months from first line treatment. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Cook: Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria;Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria;Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria;Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Oncopeptides: Consultancy, Honoraria;Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria;Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Pratt: Binding Site: Consultancy;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy;Gilead: Consultancy;Janssen: Consultancy;Takeda: Consultancy;Amgen: Consultancy. Kishore: Celgene: Other: Attending fees;Jannsen: Other: Attending fees;Sanofi: Other: Attending fees;Takeda: Other: Attending fees. Yong: Amgen: Honoraria;Autolus: Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;Janssen: Honoraria, Research Funding;Sanofi: Honoraria, Research Funding;GSK: Honoraria;Takeda: Honoraria. Popat: Abbvie, Takeda, Janssen, and Celgene: Consultancy;Takeda: Honoraria, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES;GlaxoSmithKline: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;AbbVie, BMS, Janssen, Oncopeptides, and Amgen: Honoraria;Janssen and BMS: Other: travel expenses.

10.
Blood ; 138:196, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582296

ABSTRACT

[Formula presented] Background: Anti-CD20 B cell depleting agents are amongst the most commonly used immunotherapeutics employed in the treatment of haematological malignancy and autoimmune diseases. By inducing peripheral B cell aplasia, anti-CD20 depleting agents are hypothesised to significantly impair serological responses to neoantigens, including the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein within SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Seropositivity following SARS-CoV-2 is the strongest, measurable correlate of protection from severe COVID-19. Understanding the kinetics of B cell reconstitution and vaccine responsiveness following exposure to B cell depleting agents is essential to maximise vaccine efficacy in patients vulnerable to severe COVID-19. Methods: 80 patients with underlying haematological malignancy and 38 patients with underlying rheumatological disease previously treated with anti-CD20 B cell depleting agents were studied following their second dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (median time to sampling: 46.5d, IQR: 33.8-63.3). Lymphocyte subset (CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56/16) enumeration was performed using 6 colour flow cytometry (BD Trucount). Total anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (The Binding Site, Human Anti-IgG/A/M SARS-CoV-2-ELISA). The relationship between immune reconstitution following B cell depletion and vaccine responsiveness was explored. Results: In the haematology cohort (median age 70y, IQR 60.3-76.0, 62.5% male), overall seropositivity following vaccination was 60.0%. Individuals on active chemotherapy had significantly lower seroprevalence than those vaccinated following the completion of chemotherapy (22.7% vs 74.1%, p<0.0001). In the rheumatology cohort (median age 65y, IQR 58.3-70.8, 39.9% male), overall seropositivity was 69.4%. In both cohorts, vaccine non-responders had significantly smaller populations of peripheral CD19+ B cells (haematology: 0.20 vs 0.02 x10 9/L, p=0.004, rheumatology: 0.07 vs 0.01 x10 9/L, p=0.03). The magnitude of the antibody response following vaccination did not differ between recipients of Tozinameran and Vaxzeveria in either cohort. Vaccine responsiveness was lower in the first 6 months following B cell depletion therapy;42.9% in the haematology cohort and 33.3% in the rheumatology cohort, increasing to 100% and 75% respectively in individuals receiving their second dose 6-12 months following B cell depletion (Figure 1). B cell reconstitution in the 7-12 month window following B cell depletion was faster in haematology compared to rheumatology patients (77.8% v 22.2% achieving normal B cell count, p=0.005) and associated with improved vaccine responsiveness. However, persistent immunodeficiency occurred in some haematology patients following completion of treatment: 25% of patients who had completed therapy at least 36 months previously failed to respond to vaccination. In this cohort of vaccine non-responders, 83.3% of individuals had B cell numbers within the normal range. These patients had all previously been treated for follicular lymphoma suggesting a specific mechanism for long-range secondary immunodeficiency in these patients. Conclusions: Serological responsiveness to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is poor during active chemotherapy for haematological malignancy and in the first 6 months following B cell depletion, regardless of underlying disease. Vaccine responsiveness significantly improves in the 7-12 month window following B cell depletion. Compared to haematology patients, B cell reconstitution is slower in rheumatology patients and associated with reduced vaccine responsiveness, possibly due to the use of additional concurrent disease-modifying anti-rheumatic therapies. Furthermore, long-term secondary immunodeficiency occurs in a minority of haematology patients. To maximise the efficacy from SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccination and optimal utilisation of available vaccine doses, immunisations should be delivered at least 6 months following the administration of anti-CD20 depleting drugs. Figure 1: Kinetics of return f vaccine responsiveness following B cell depletion in haematology and rheumatology patients. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Paneesha: Roche: Honoraria;Janssen: Honoraria;Gilead: Honoraria;Bristol Myers Squibb: Honoraria;AbbVie: Honoraria;Celgene: Honoraria. Drayson: Abingdon Health: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company.

11.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296585

ABSTRACT

Characterizing SARS-CoV-2 evolution in specific geographies may help predict the properties of variants coming from these regions. We mapped neutralization of a SARS-CoV-2 strain that evolved over 6 months from the ancestral virus in a person with advanced HIV disease. Infection was before the emergence of the Beta variant first identified in South Africa, and the Delta variant. We compared early and late evolved virus to the ancestral, Beta, Alpha, and Delta viruses and tested against convalescent plasma from ancestral, Beta, and Delta infections. Early virus was similar to ancestral, whereas late virus was similar to Beta, exhibiting vaccine escape and, despite pre-dating Delta, strong escape of Delta-elicited neutralization. This example is consistent with the notion that variants arising in immune-compromised hosts, including those with advanced HIV disease, may evolve immune escape of vaccines and enhanced escape of Delta immunity, with implications for vaccine breakthrough and reinfections. Highlights: A prolonged ancestral SARS-CoV-2 infection pre-dating the emergence of Beta and Delta resulted in evolution of a Beta-like serological phenotypeSerological phenotype includes strong escape from Delta infection elicited immunity, intermediate escape from ancestral virus immunity, and weak escape from Beta immunityEvolved virus showed substantial but incomplete escape from antibodies elicited by BNT162b2 vaccination. Graphical abstract:

12.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296584

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, first identified in South Africa, may compromise the ability of vaccine and previous infection (1) elicited immunity to protect against new infection. Here we investigated whether Omicron escapes antibody neutralization elicited by the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in people who were vaccinated only or vaccinated and previously infected. We also investigated whether the virus still requires binding to the ACE2 receptor to infect cells. We isolated and sequence confirmed live Omicron virus from an infected person in South Africa. We then compared neutralization of this virus relative to an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain with the D614G mutation. Neutralization was by blood plasma from South African BNT162b2 vaccinated individuals. We observed that Omicron still required the ACE2 receptor to infect but had extensive escape of Pfizer elicited neutralization. However, 5 out of 6 of the previously infected, Pfizer vaccinated individuals, all of them with high neutralization of D614G virus, showed residual neutralization at levels expected to confer protection from infection and severe disease (2). While vaccine effectiveness against Omicron is still to be determined, these data support the notion that high neutralization capacity elicited by a combination of infection and vaccination, and possibly by boosting, could maintain reasonable effectiveness against Omicron. If neutralization capacity is lower or wanes with time, protection against infection is likely to be low. However, protection against severe disease, requiring lower neutralization levels and involving T cell immunity, would likely be maintained.

13.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):89, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250005

ABSTRACT

Background: New SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in the spike glycoprotein have arisen independently at multiple locations and may have functional significance. The combination of mutations in the 501Y.V2 variant first detected in South Africa include the N501Y, K417N, and E484K mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) as well as mutations in the N-terminal domain (NTD). Here we address whether the 501Y.V2 variant could escape the neutralizing antibody response elicited by natural infection with earlier variants. Methods: We were the first to outgrow two variants of 501Y.V2 from South Africa, designated 501Y.V2.HV001 and 501Y.V2.HVdF002. We examined the neutralizing effect of convalescent plasma collected from adults hospitalized with COVID-19 using a microneutralization assay with live (authentic) virus. Whole genome sequencing of the infecting virus of the plasma donors confirmed the absence of the spike mutations which characterize 501Y.V2. We infected with 501Y.V2.HV001 and 501Y.V2.HVdF002 and compared plasma neutralization to first wave virus which contained the D614G mutation but no RBD or NTD mutations. Results: We observed a reduction in antibody activity ranging from 6-fold to knockout for the 501Y.V2 (B.1.351) relative to the B.1.1 variant derived from the first wave of the pandemic in South Africa. Conclusion: This observation indicates that 501Y.V2 may escape the neutralizing antibody response elicited by prior natural infection. It raises a concern of potential reduced protection against re-infection and by vaccines designed to target the spike protein of earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants.

16.
Southern Medical Journal ; 113(12):798-799, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1046893
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