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1.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-325667

ABSTRACT

Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) infections are rapidly expanding worldwide, often in settings where the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was dominant. We investigated whether neutralizing immunity elicited by Omicron infection would also neutralize the Delta variant and the role of prior vaccination. We enrolled 23 South African participants infected with Omicron a median of 5 days post-symptoms onset (study baseline) with a last follow-up sample taken a median of 23 days post-symptoms onset. Ten participants were breakthrough cases vaccinated with Pfizer BNT162b2 or Johnson and Johnson Ad26.CoV2.S. In vaccinated participants, neutralization of Omicron increased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) FRNT50 of 28 to 378 (13.7-fold). Unvaccinated participants had similar Omicron neutralization at baseline but increased from 26 to only 113 (4.4-fold) at follow-up. Delta virus neutralization increased from 129 to 790, (6.1-fold) in vaccinated but only 18 to 46 (2.5-fold, not statistically significant) in unvaccinated participants. Therefore, in Omicron infected vaccinated individuals, Delta neutralization was 2.1-fold higher at follow-up relative to Omicron. In a separate group previously infected with Delta, neutralization of Delta was 22.5-fold higher than Omicron. Based on relative neutralization levels, Omicron re-infection would be expected to be more likely than Delta in Delta infected individuals, and in Omicron infected individuals who are vaccinated. This may give Omicron an advantage over Delta which may lead to decreasing Delta infections in regions with high infection frequencies and high vaccine coverage.

2.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296585

ABSTRACT

Characterizing SARS-CoV-2 evolution in specific geographies may help predict the properties of variants coming from these regions. We mapped neutralization of a SARS-CoV-2 strain that evolved over 6 months from the ancestral virus in a person with advanced HIV disease. Infection was before the emergence of the Beta variant first identified in South Africa, and the Delta variant. We compared early and late evolved virus to the ancestral, Beta, Alpha, and Delta viruses and tested against convalescent plasma from ancestral, Beta, and Delta infections. Early virus was similar to ancestral, whereas late virus was similar to Beta, exhibiting vaccine escape and, despite pre-dating Delta, strong escape of Delta-elicited neutralization. This example is consistent with the notion that variants arising in immune-compromised hosts, including those with advanced HIV disease, may evolve immune escape of vaccines and enhanced escape of Delta immunity, with implications for vaccine breakthrough and reinfections. Highlights: A prolonged ancestral SARS-CoV-2 infection pre-dating the emergence of Beta and Delta resulted in evolution of a Beta-like serological phenotypeSerological phenotype includes strong escape from Delta infection elicited immunity, intermediate escape from ancestral virus immunity, and weak escape from Beta immunityEvolved virus showed substantial but incomplete escape from antibodies elicited by BNT162b2 vaccination. Graphical abstract:

3.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 381:19-31, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1396980

ABSTRACT

Engineering curriculum primarily relies on the execution of learning strategy in knowledge skill and psychomotor skill. The COVID19 scenario forces a rethinking stochastic approach needed to continue run the courses without compromising the outcomes as agreed and endorsed by the various stakeholders. This work proposes a way in which the engagement of students and curriculum can be approached in the future through a stochastic approach using design thinking strategy. CODE is a design thinking approach used in the alternative shift in running curriculum due to the shift in the full digital mode of operation due the closed down of physical institutions place of learning. The framework, the key components, and the tracking of the performance to align the set outcomes are presented. Analysis on a sample core module from the engineering specific with action plan strategy over a semester is presented with reflections and effectiveness through on the programme outcomes reflections. © 2022, Institute of Technology PETRONAS Sdn Bhd.

4.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 381:1-5, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1396978

ABSTRACT

Due to novel coronavirus (COVID-19), higher learning institutions and schools have opted the online based learning instead of face to face (F2F) for their teaching and learning (T&L) activities. Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) also has no exception to this matter. Beginning May 2020 semester, all T&L in UTP are implemented through online platform such as BigBlueButton (BBB) and Microsoft Team (MS Team). BBB is running on ULearn platform, while MS Team is running via Microsoft team. Active learning (AL) approach have been fully utilized for T&L deliveries. One of the AL techniques is the implementation of pair- quiz as one of assessment method for Statistics and Application subject. Pair-quiz can be considered as novelty in T&L implementation especially during COVID-19 pandemic. From the study, pair-quiz provides better option to the students in securing higher course work marks while improving their understanding on the subject matter. Furthermore, through pair-quiz, the students have become peer helpers to each other. © 2022, Institute of Technology PETRONAS Sdn Bhd.

5.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 382:63-73, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1391728

ABSTRACT

This study aims to highlight the bankruptcy-related challenges and the reasons behind bank failures for the global Islamic banking industry, and to understand the expected impact of Covid-19 on the financial health of the Islamic banking industry. Moreover, the study shows that going bankrupt is a costly process that affects all stakeholders. Evidence shows that in the case of Islamic banking, a Shariah-based bankruptcy prediction model for apprehending the true bankruptcy prediction is over-sighted. It may further sour the existing uncertain situation for the Islamic banking industry with the additional unfavorable impact of Covid-19. As the subjected pandemic has badly affected the flow of the financial system worldwide, Islamic banking is not isolated. Therefore, efficient bankruptcy prediction models equipped with the latest micro and macro-economic factors are compulsory for the sustainability of the Islamic banking industry. © 2022, Institute of Technology PETRONAS Sdn Bhd.

6.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 382:1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1391725

ABSTRACT

A new era in epidemics started due to unhealthy practices, population density, environmental changes, migration and deforestation. The rapidity in the spread is primarily due to globalization as we moved to the industrial revolution where everything is internet-connected. In past 30 years, the trend exhibits an increase in the number of epidemics challenging the social well-being, the economy and to some extent the national security. And this translates to the impact on the industrial growth, the race of future together fighting with the newest of the viruses. This paper analyzes and reviews the outbreaks from the start of the revolutionary steam power generation to the modern days, their impact to generate new values to the society that translated the newer solutions to become new norms. Impact on the outbreaks on the various key sectors and the measures that lead us to overcome is presented. We present the new normal which would become normal in the near future, the post COVID-19 scenario. © 2022, Institute of Technology PETRONAS Sdn Bhd.

7.
HIV Treatment Bulletin ; Supp 6:5-5, 2020.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1098295
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