Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
1.
Health Science Reports ; 5(5), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013525

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim Death certificate (DC) data provides a basis for public health policies and statistics and contributes to the evaluation of a pandemic's evolution. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the COVID-19-related DC completion. Methods A descriptive-analytical study was conducted to review a total of 339 medical records and DCs issued for COVID-19 cases from February 20 to September 21, 2020. A univariate analysis (chi(2) as an unadjusted analysis) was performed, and multiple logistic regression models (odd ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] as adjusted analyses) were used to evaluate the associations between variables. Results Errors in DCs were classified as major and minor. All of the 339 examined DCs were erroneous;more than half of DCs (57.8%) had at least one major error;all of them had at least one minor error. Improper sequencing (49.3%), unacceptable underlying causes of death (UCOD) (33.3%), recording more than one cause per line (20.1%), listing general conditions instead of specific terms (11.2%), illegible handwriting (8.3%), competing causes (6.2%), and mechanisms (3.8%) were most common major errors, respectively. Absence of time interval (100%), listing mechanism allying with UCOD (51.6%), using abbreviations (45.4%), missing major comorbidities (16.5%), and listing major comorbidities in part I (16.5%) were most common minor errors, respectively. Conclusion The rate of both major and minor errors was high. Using automated tools for recording and selecting death cause(s), promoting certifiers' skills on DC completion, and applying quality control mechanisms in DC documentation can improve death data and statistics.

2.
Journal of Pediatrics Review ; 10:439-444, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979950

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in December 2019. The disease can manifest in various respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms and clinical findings. The signs and symptoms of this disease in children are not entirely known yet. Ground-glass opacity and pleural effusion in the chest computed tomography scan have been reported in infected patients. The pleural effusion has been reported in a few cases. The present case report describes a pediatric patient with the chief complaints of fever, diarrhea, and vomiting who presented to an emergency department with a differential diagnosis of a gastrointestinal infection. However, he was diagnosed with COVID-19, which was complicated by respiratory distress and pleural effusion.

3.
Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine ; 10(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969951

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Knowledge of the safety of vaccines is crucial, both to prevent and cure them and to decrease the public hesitation in receiving vaccines. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically review the adverse events reported for inactivated vaccines and Novavax. Methods: In this systematic review, the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Science were searched on September 15, 2021. Then we identified the eligible studies using a two-step title/ and full-text screening process. Data on the subjects, studies, and types of adverse events were extracted and entered in a word table, including serious, mild, local, and systemic adverse events as well as the timing of side effects’ appearance. Results: Adverse effects of inactivated coronavirus vaccines side effects were reported from phases 1, 2, and 3 of the vaccine trials. The most common local side effects included injection site pain and swelling, redness, and pruritus. Meanwhile, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain and diarrhea were among the most common systemic adverse effects. Conclusion: This systematic review indicates that inactivated COVID-19 vaccines, including Sinovac, Sinopharm, and Bharat Biotech, as well as the protein subunit vaccines (Novavax) can be considered as safe choices due to having milder side effects and fewer severe life-threatening adverse events

4.
Journal of School of Public Health & Institute of Public Health Research ; 19(4):413-422, 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957775

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroepidemiological history of SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic children in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of children younger than 14 years old were collected during the period autumn-winter 2020 and spring 2021 and tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody using the EUROIMMUN ELISA kit. In addition, questionnaires were used to collect demographic and infection status information in the participants. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software.

5.
ARCHIVES OF ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE ; 10(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939547

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Controversies existed regarding the duration of COVID-19 vaccines' protection and whether receiving the usual vaccine doses would be sufficient for long-term immunity. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the studies regarding the COVID-19 vaccines protection three months after getting fully vaccinated and assess the need for vaccine booster doses. Methods: The relevant literature was searched using a combination of keywords on the online databases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane on September 17th, 2021. The records were downloaded and the duplicates were removed. Then, the records were evaluated in a two-step process, consisting of title/ and full-text screening processes, and the eligible records were selected for the qualitative synthesis. We only included original studies that evaluated the efficacy and immunity of COVID-19 vaccines three months after full vaccination.This review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement to ensure the reliability of results. Results: Out of the 797 retrieved records, 12 studies were included, 10 on mRNA-based vaccines and two on inactivated vaccines. The majority of included studies observed acceptable antibody titers in most of the participants even after 6 months;however,it appeared that the titers could also decrease in a considerable portion of people. Due to the reduction in antibody titers and vaccine protection, several studies suggested administering the booster dose, especially for older patients and those with underlying conditions, such as patients with immunodeficiencies. Conclusion: Studies indicated that vaccine immunity decreases over time, making people more susceptible to contracting the disease. Besides, new variants are emerging, and the omicron variant is continuing to spread and escape from the immune system, indicating the importance of a booster dose.

6.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 21(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939347

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the pediatric population. Objectives: Due to limited data, this study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of favipiravir in the hospitalized pediatric population diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: The present retrospective cohort study was conducted on pediatric patients aged 1-18 years with a diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Favipiravir was administrated at a dose of 60 mg/kg/day (max: 3200 mg/day) on the first day and then 23 mg/kg/day (max: 1200 mg/day) for 7 to 14 days. The patients were evaluated regarding the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, duration of hospital stay, and mortality. Safety was measured by the occurrence of related adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Results: A total of 95 patients were included in the study. Favipiravir was administered to 25 patients. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation was reported in 4 (16.00%) and 11 (15.71%) patients in the favipiravir and control groups, respectively (P = 1.000). The median duration of hospital stays was significantly higher in patients who received favipiravir than in the controls (P = 0.002). No difference was observed in the mortality rate (P = 0.695). The ADRs, including decreased appetite, hypotension, and chest pain, were more prevalent in patients who received favipiravir than in the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of favipiravir in the pediatric population is associated with higher ADR occurrence with no pos-itive effect on the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, hospital stay, and mortality. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary for better judgment.

8.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 10(2), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879614

ABSTRACT

Due to our mistake in entering the affiliation and name of Mojgan Sarmadi in our article (Article ID: 110201, DOI: 10.5812/pedinfect.110201), we would like to apologize for any inconvenience made to our author and her affiliated organization, which is "National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Oral Immunity and Infection Unit, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, US". We declare the correct affiliation of Mojgan Sarmadi is a private practice. © 2022, Author(s).

9.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 10(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863200

ABSTRACT

Context: COVID-19 and influenza coinfection may increase mortality and morbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recognizing the differences and similarities between COVID-19 and influenza helps us diagnose and treat these 2 diseases. Accordingly, we aimed to compare virologic, clinical, paraclinical, and radiological features and prophylactic and therapeutic management of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infections. We also provided an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza coinfection in children. Evidence Acquisition: Electronic databases, including Cochrane Collaboration, PubMed, Google Scholar, and EMBASE, were searched for the articles published in English language using the following keywords: “influenza virus,” “SARS-CoV-2 virus,” “COVID-19,” “comparison,” “coinfection,” “management,” “treatment,” “antiviral therapy,” “vaccines,” “children,” and “adults.” Boolean op-erations (AND and OR) were used to refine the search. No date limitation was applied. Results: SARS-CoV-2 and influenza are both RNA viruses with different receptors. The reproductive rate of SARS-CoV-2 is higher than influenza. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly adults, have higher rates of anosmia/ageusia. Organ involvement occurs more frequently in COVID-19 cases, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs especially in children. Disease severity, excessive immune response, and mortality are higher in SARS-CoV-2. Radiological peripheral lesions and ground-glass appearance are characteristic of COVID-19 infection. It is important to rule out influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with respiratory problems during the pandemic. Timely prescription of currently available antiviral drugs is essential. Conclusions: Treatment of patients suspected of having a coinfection is determined by the patient’s condition and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluation.

11.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789631

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) characterizes a monophasic ascending, symmetrical paralysis, with areflexia, progressing over days to weeks. Normally, as a post-infectious autoimmune procedure, it leads to destroying myelin. Scattered reports exist regarding the concurrent evidence of COVID-19 infection and adults with possible GBS. However, few former cases were reported in children. Here in, we report an 11 years-old boy with GBS concurrent with COVID-19 infection. © 2021, Author(s).

12.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789630

ABSTRACT

Serious, and sometimes, deadly complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are devastating. Whereas most manifestations of COVID-19 are respiratory (fever, dry cough, fatigue, pneumonia), it is getting to be progressively recognized that numerous organ functions can be affected by this disease, and the nervous system is one of them as neurological complications can affect up to 36% of adult patients. However, the prevalence and pathophysiology of these complications have yet to be fully elucidated in children. Here, we discuss an infant with neurological symptoms manifested as chronic isolated aseptic meningitis associated with COVID-19, which was unresponsive to ordinary treatments and dramatically responsive to dexamethasone. Immune-mediated reactions may have had a major pathophysiologic role in this case. © 2021, Author(s).

13.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789625

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known as the most recent pandemic condition declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is widely believed that this infection is less frequent and severe in children, but few mortality reports are available in this age group population. Case Presentation: We described nine pediatric patients with probable or confirmed COVID-19 who died due to disease complications. Their age ranged between seven months and 14 years. All had underlying diseases, and three of them had been hospitalized before the COVID-19 diagnosis due to their previous medical conditions. Cough and respiratory symptoms were the most common symptoms observed in these patients. Bilateral ground-glass opacities were common radiologic findings. Conclusions: Although COVID-19 is less common in the pediatric group, all ages are vulnerable to this infection, and mortality may occur, especially in patients with underlying diseases. We emphasize that children with underlying diseases and COVID-19 should be hospitalized and monitored tightly during treatment. © 2021, Author(s).

14.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics ; 32(2), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789624

ABSTRACT

Context: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 can involve multiple organs, especially the heart, in some children with prior COVID-19 infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines provide valuable case definitions for MIS-C, as utilized in this study. We aimed to identify and summarize the echocardiographic findings of MIS-C based on these case definitions. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane databases. An additional source was also utilized to extend the identified records. The articles underwent a two-step screening process. Then, eligible articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Results: We identified 33 eligible studies, recruiting 1,392 patients with MIS-C. Male patients were the majority, with 791 (56.8%) cases. The mean age of the patients was 8.3 ± 5.9 years, while 28.5% of the children were identified with underlying conditions. The most common echocardiographic findings were left ventricular systolic dysfunction (34.91%), valvular regurgitation (29.08%), pericardial involvement (22.58%), and coronary abnormalities (18.0%). Conclusions: MIS-C is a rare complication of COVID-19 in children. Early cardiologic investigations, especially echocardiography, can reveal manifestations, including myocardial dysfunction, coronary abnormalities, valvular pathologies, and pericardial involvement. © 2022, Author(s).

15.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695862

ABSTRACT

Most universities stopped face-to-face instruction in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and completed the spring 2020 semester through online instruction and assessment. The online courses continued in summer 2020, fall 2020, and spring 2021 semesters. Rapid transition to online courses posed challenges for both students and instructors. Some students lacked access to high-speed internet and had unstable internet connection during lectures and exams. A significant challenge for instructors has been to engage students in online activities and maintain academic integrity. This paper analyzes the challenges faced by students and instructors during the COVID-19 pandemic and the approaches adopted to overcome them. The paper describes alternative methods used to assess student learning and the use of online proctored exams. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

16.
Contributions to Economics ; : 83-99, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1669716

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly influenced entrepreneurship and new venture creation to this point. Besides, it has caused consumer lifestyle modifications as well as alterations in business products and services, leading to paradigm shifts in the market. In this respect, startups have been also coping with numerous challenges and prospects in this period, and COVID-19 has even resulted in the rise and fall of many companies. This condition has been far more for early-stage startups, particularly the ones in their infancy life cycle. On the other hand, thanks to the changes in people’s lifestyles, digital and online businesses have gained much popularity. For this purpose, the present study aimed to identify and analyze opportunities and threats encountering early-stage digital startups during the COVID-19 pandemic. Accordingly, in-depth interviews were conducted with a total number of 30 members working in 13 startup teams, and their data were finally examined using thematic analysis. Ultimately, 13 opportunities and 19 threats within 4 categories of “market and marketing,” “startup team,” “operational and management issues,” and “financial and economic activities” were introduced. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

17.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 14(11):5, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1614204

ABSTRACT

Background: The knowledge of antibody's significance and frequency in patients cured of severe acute respiratory syndrome coro Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in patients exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Healthcare professionals infected with SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled in this study. The levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected 15 days after the onset of symptoms and five months later. Results: A total of 167 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were evaluated, including 119 (71.3%) females and 48 (28.7%) males. Of the 88 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive patients, 55 (62.5%) had IgG-positive antibodies, and of the 79 reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR-negative patients, 12 (16.9%) had IgG-positive antibodies. Out of 23 anosmia cases, 19 (82.6%) had positive antibodies. There was a significant relationship between anosmia and positive antibody (P = 0.001), but there was no correlation between antibody titers and gender and other disease symptoms. Immortally, 63 (94%) cases demonstrated high levels of anti-SARSCoV-2 IgG antibodies after five months of infection. Moreover, 6.5% (N = 11) of the total population were re-infected with COVID-19 Conclusions: Overall, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies detection maybe an appropriate method to identify suspected patients with a negative RT-PCR test. Antibodies can remain high in most infected patients for up to five months after infection. Moreover, anosmia seems to be a valuable diagnostic factor, and the healthcare system should implement isolation measures for patients with anosmia.

18.
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine ; 255(2):127-134, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1601661

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D attenuates inflammatory responses to viral respiratory infections. Hence, vitamin D deficiency may be a highly significant prognostic factor for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. To evaluate the complications and mortality in different vitamin D status groups in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, we conducted this retrospective study on 646 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 16th March 2020 until 25th February 2021. Overall, patients with vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency were 16.9%, 43.6% and 39.5%, respectively. The presence of comorbidity, length of hospitalization, ICU admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement and overall complications were significantly more in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p-value < 0.001). 46.8% (51/109) of vitamin D deficient patients died due to the disease, whilst the mortality rate among insufficient and sufficient vitamin D groups was 29.4% (83/282) and 5.5% (14/255), respectively. In univariate analysis, age > 60 years (odds ratio (OR) = 6.1), presence of comorbidity (OR = 10.7), insufficient vitamin D status (OR = 7.2), and deficient vitamin D status (OR = 15.1) were associated with increase in COVID-19 mortality (p-value < 0.001). Finally, the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities indicated vitamin D deficiency as an independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 3.3, p-value = 0.002). Vitamin D deficiency is a strong risk factor for mortality and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin D supplementation may be able to prevent or improve the prognosis of COVID-19 during this pandemic.

20.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 9(3):4, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1273652

ABSTRACT

Diarrhea and vomiting with or without fever are common symptoms in children, while one of the most common clinical findings of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is gastrointestinal symptoms. Therefore, there is a need to develop an algorithm for dealing with a patient with gastroenteritis in the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL