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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323982

ABSTRACT

Stroke is one of the leading cause of adult disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The immune system actively participates in the pathobiological process of AIS, during the index event and during the repair process despite the limited attention drawn to this aspect in the existing stroke guidelines globally. The similar clinical course and similar circulating innate and adaptive immune cell counts in AIS and COVID-19 has created a renewed interest in these easily available biomarkers innate and adaptive immunological changes in AIS with potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. The current scoping review aimed to assess the significance of circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and their ratio (NLR) in AIS and explore their association with post-stroke recovery trajectory. The Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework was employed to review the published papers on the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and AIS in late November 2020. Only studies published in English from 2000-2020 were included in this scoping review. Fifty-three published papers were reviewed. This review's key finding is that a canonical inflammatory response occurs in AIS just as in the case of COVID-19 and neurological involvements well described in the recent literature. An excessive circulating innate immune cells (neutrophils) and reduced circulating adaptive immune cells (lymphocytes ) are associated with poorer outcomes during the acute interventions ( reperfusion therapies) as well as the recovery trajectory. Main representatives of innate and adaptive immunity follow a canonical course in AIS and COVID-19. Exaggerated circulating innate ( elevated neutrophils and elevated NLR) and reduced adaptive immune response (lymphopenia) correlate with the worse outcome in AIS and COVID-19. This scoping review's findings make the strongest case for a systems biology-based approach to the standard operating procedures in stroke care urgently.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321763

ABSTRACT

Background: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Results: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%) or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Feeling appreciated by the community mitigated this risk in healthcare workers. Conclusions: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.

3.
Gen Psychiatr ; 34(5): e100577, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound and prolonged impact on healthcare services and healthcare workers. AIMS: The Australian COVID-19 Frontline Healthcare Workers Study aimed to investigate the severity and prevalence of mental health issues, as well as the social, workplace and financial disruptions experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single timepoint, online survey was conducted between 27 August and 23 October 2020. Individuals self-identifying as frontline healthcare workers in secondary or primary care were invited to participate. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts and national media. Demographics, home and work situation, health and psychological well-being data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 9518 survey responses were received; of the 9518 participants, 7846 (82.4%) participants reported complete data. With regard to age, 4110 (52.4%) participants were younger than 40 years; 6344 (80.9%) participants were women. Participants were nurses (n=3088, 39.4%), doctors (n=2436, 31.1%), allied health staff (n=1314, 16.7%) or in other roles (n=523, 6.7%). In addition, 1250 (15.9%) participants worked in primary care. Objectively measured mental health symptoms were common: mild to severe anxiety (n=4694, 59.8%), moderate to severe burnout (n=5458, 70.9%) and mild to severe depression (n=4495, 57.3%). Participants were highly resilient (mean (SD)=3.2 (0.66)). Predictors for worse outcomes on all scales included female gender; younger age; pre-existing psychiatric condition; experiencing relationship problems; nursing, allied health or other roles; frontline area; being worried about being blamed by colleagues and working with patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with significant mental health symptoms in frontline healthcare workers. Crisis preparedness together with policies and practices addressing psychological well-being are needed.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 crisis has caused prolonged and extreme demands on healthcare services. This study investigates the types and prevalence of occupational disruptions, and associated symptoms of mental illness, among Australian frontline healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A national cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 27 August and 23 October 2020. Frontline healthcare workers were invited to participate via dissemination from major health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Data were collected on demographics, home and work situations, and validated scales of anxiety, depression, PTSD, and burnout. RESULTS: Complete responses were received from 7846 healthcare workers (82.4%). Most respondents were female (80.9%) and resided in the Australian state of Victoria (85.2%). Changes to working conditions were common, with 48.5% reporting altered paid or unpaid hours, and many redeployed (16.8%) or changing work roles (27.3%). Nearly a third (30.8%) had experienced a reduction in household income during the pandemic. Symptoms of mental illness were common, being present in 62.1% of participants. Many respondents felt well supported by their workplaces (68.3%) and believed that workplace communication was timely and useful (74.4%). Participants who felt well supported by their organisation had approximately half the risk of experiencing moderate to severe anxiety, depression, burnout, and PTSD. Half (50.4%) of respondents indicated a need for additional training in using personal protective equipment and/or caring for patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic occurred commonly in health organisations and were associated with worse mental health outcomes in the Australian health workforce. Feeling well supported was associated with significantly fewer adverse mental health outcomes. Crisis preparedness focusing on the provision of timely and useful communication and support is essential in current and future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 72: 124-130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Australian COVID-19 Frontline Healthcare Workers Study investigated coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours, and their relationship to mental health symptoms experienced by Australian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Australian HCWs were invited to participate a nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Complete responses on demographics, home and work situation, and measures of health and psychological wellbeing were received from 7846 participants. RESULTS: The most commonly reported adaptive coping strategies were maintaining exercise (44.9%) and social connections (31.7%). Over a quarter of HCWs (26.3%) reported increased alcohol use which was associated with a history of poor mental health and worse personal relationships. Few used psychological wellbeing apps or sought professional help; those who did were more likely to be suffering from moderate to severe symptoms of mental illness. People living in Victoria, in regional areas, and those with children at home were significantly less likely to report adaptive coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Personal, social, and workplace predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviour during the pandemic were identified. Use of maladaptive coping strategies and low rates of professional help-seeking indicate an urgent need to understand the effectiveness of, and the barriers and enablers of accessing, different coping strategies.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Help-Seeking Behavior , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations, or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. RESULTS: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%), or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with increased risk of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. Conversely, feeling appreciated by the community protected against these risks in healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Morals , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1327: 49-59, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316237

ABSTRACT

The emerging COVID-19 disease affects not only the physical health but also the emotional and psychological health of patients. This study aimed to explain the experiences of 22 recovered COVID-19 patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, Iran. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. This resulted in emergence of 3 themes "emotional-sensational paradox", "spiritual growth", and "experienced mental-psychological effects", with 11 main categories and 33 subcategories. The results of the study can be used to develop instructions and guidelines for the families of patients as well as healthcare teams to provide effective measures and interventions to minimize the suffering of patients and the damage to mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals , Humans , Iran , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 75(1_suppl): 24-29, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140437

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to understand how chaplains delivered spiritual care to staff during the Covid-19 pandemic. The researchers analyzed data collected from an International Survey of Chaplain Activity and Experience during Covid-19 (N = 1657). The findings revealed positive changes that emerged and new practices evolved around the use of technology as useful tools for maintaining contact with staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Chaplaincy Service, Hospital , Clergy/psychology , Pastoral Care/methods , Pastoral Care/standards , Personnel, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Care Team , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 75(1_suppl): 41-45, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140435

ABSTRACT

This paper focuses on the impact of COVID19 in Australia. Three areas were investigated: professionalism, contrasting hospital and aged care services and "business as usual"? Impact was low overall, the timing being pre-second wave impact. Two areas of weakness were highlighted: depleted spiritual care teams due to standing down non-professional staff and uncertainty about the role of Chaplains in the care of other staff. Further study of second wave impact is recommended.


Subject(s)
Clergy/psychology , Health Services for the Aged , Hospitals , Pastoral Care/standards , Professionalism , Aged , Australia , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
10.
J Pregnancy ; 2021: 8870129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on what is known at this time, pregnant women are at an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 compared to nonpregnant women. Additionally, pregnant women with COVID-19 might have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. To investigate the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mortality of pregnant and postpartum women, we performed a systematic review of available published literature on pregnancies affected by COVID-19. METHODS: Web of Science, SCOPUS, and MEDLINE- databases were searched for original studies concerning the effect of COVID-19 on mortality of pregnant and postpartum women published by July 10, 2020. Meta-analyses of proportions were used to combine data and report pooled proportions. RESULTS: 117 studies with a total of 11758 pregnant women were included. The age ranged between 15 and 48 years. Most subjects were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the third trimester. Disease severity was not reported in 1125 subjects. Maternal mortality was 1.3%. In 100% of fatal cases with adequate data, fever alone or with cough was one of the presenting symptoms. Also, dyspnea (58.3%) and myalgia (50%) were the most common symptoms. Sore throat (8.3%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (anorexia, nausea) (8.3%) were rare. The rate of comorbidities was 20% among COVID-19 deaths. The majority of COVID-19-infected women who died had cesarean section (58.3%), 25% had a vaginal delivery, and 16.7% of patients were not full term. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection in pregnant women was associated with higher rates (and pooled proportions) of cesarean section and mortality. Because new data are continuously being generated and published, the findings of this study can be complete and updated with new researches. The results of this study can guide and improve prenatal counseling of COVID-19-infected pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Female , Global Health , Humans , Maternal Mortality , Models, Statistical , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1286: 199-212, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135135

ABSTRACT

Recent events regarding the COVID-19 pandemic have demonstrated the importance of healthcare workers around the world and the stressful working conditions that are often associated with their profession. The severity of stress can be influenced by a number of factors such as age, seniority gender, family status, and position in the wards. Thus, it is important to monitor signs of stress and other psychiatric symptoms in order to understand the mediating factors and guide appropriate interventions. Here, we describe a cross-sectional study of 17,414 nurses from 31 Iranian cities carried out from 2011 to 2015, using a 22-item tool of work stressors. The tool examined interactive, managerial, and situational domains and the main objective was to identify the main background variables associated with the stress of nurses in critical care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 335-342, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114261

ABSTRACT

Theoretically, human testes are highly expressive organs for angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. This study aimed to investigate whether the causative agent of COVID-19 is found in semen. The databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using a combination of related keywords. All studies with original data, involving detection of SARS-CoV-2 in semen of male patients with COVID-19 or in those who have recovered from it, were included in the study. Six articles, including 136 samples, entered the systematic review. Most of the studies were performed in the recovery phase of COVID-19. In four articles, SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in semen, while in the other two articles semen testing showed the presence of the virus in some samples. Testicular discomfort, testicular cell damage, and spermogram disruption were also reported in some studies. We conclude that the study question cannot be answered with this number of studies. Since most of the samples were mild to moderate forms of COVID-19, it is not yet clear what the presence of the virus in semen will be in severe cases. The long-term effects are also vague. More original articles with better design and in different phases of the disease are needed to draw robust conclusions.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen , Testis
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 299-307, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114258

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China, and quickly became a pandemic. In such situations, pregnant women are suspected of being among the vulnerable groups. The aim of this study was to report clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and obstetrical complications, maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane library, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Web of Sciences from their inception to April 5, 2020. Any study involving pregnant women with COVID-19 which evaluated the effect of the disease on pregnancy outcomes and fetal and neonatal complications was included in the study. The outcomes were the symptoms and laboratory findings, obstetrical complications, mode of delivery, and maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. The search resulted in 69 titles and abstracts, which were narrowed down to 12 studies involving 68 women. The three most common symptoms of patients were fever, cough, and fatigue. The most common laboratory findings were an increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) and lymphopenia. The most common obstetrical complication was preterm labor (33.3%). No maternal deaths were reported. The Cesarean section rate was 83.3% and the vertical transition rate was 2.23%. The findings showed that the clinical symptoms and laboratory measures of pregnant women affected by COVID-19 did not differ from the general population. In general, the prognosis of mothers who suffered from COVID-19 and their newborns was satisfactory. However, there is a need for further rigorous studies to confirm these findings as the pandemic progresses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Cesarean Section , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 287-298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114257

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease has been severe and a cause for major concern around the world. Due to immunological and physiological changes during pregnancy, pregnant women have a higher risk of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to collect and integrate the results of previous studies to get an accurate representation and interpretation of the clinical symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings, and characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19. We conducted a scientific search in main databases with a combination of related MESH terms and keywords. The outcomes included common clinical symptoms at the time of onset of the disease, common laboratory and radiological findings, the rates of vaginal delivery and Cesarean section, Cesarean section indications, maternal complications, and vertical transmission rates. A total of 51 studies comprising 571 pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnea, respectively. Elevated C-reactive protein and ground-glass opacities were the most common laboratory and radiological findings of COVID-19 pneumonia, respectively. A total of 114 Cesarean sections were performed due to COVID-19-related concerns. There were 55 cases of intubation (11.6%) and 13 maternal deaths (2.3%). The vertical transmission rate was 7.9%. We conclude that the characteristics of pneumonia caused by COVID-19 in pregnant women do not appear to be different from those in the general population with COVID-19 infections. However, pregnant women with underlying diseases were more likely to develop COVID-19 than others, and, in those infected with the virus, the rate of Cesarean delivery and preterm birth increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 211-228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114249

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal complication of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19 disease. This scoping review was carried out with international, peer-reviewed research studies and gray literature published up to July 2020 in Persian and English languages. Using keywords derived from MESH, databases including Magiran, IranMedex, SID, Web of Sciences, PubMed, Embase via Ovid, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were searched. After screening titles and abstracts, the full texts of selected articles were evaluated, and those which passed the criteria were analyzed and synthesized with inductive thematic analysis. Study quality was also evaluated using a standard tool. The overall prevalence of ARDS was estimated using a random-effects model. This led to identification of 23 primary studies involving 2880 COVID-19 patients. All articles were observational with a cross-sectional, retrospective, case report, and cohort design with moderate to strong quality. The main findings showed that COVID-19-related ARDS has a high prevalence and is different to ARDS due to other etiologies. Elderly and patients with comorbidities and organ failure should be closely surveyed for respiratory organ indications for several weeks after the onset of respiratory symptoms. There is currently no definitive treatment for ARDS in COVID-19 disease, and supportive therapies and their effects are somewhat controversial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 139-146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114243

ABSTRACT

In the continuing COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most important concerns in reproductive health is the issue of male fertility of recovered patients. In this study, we discuss the potential mechanisms that justify the possible impact of COVID-19 on male fertility. The main point of entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells appears to be through the viral spike protein which permits entry into cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 receptor). In human testes, ACE2 is enriched in Sertoli and Leydig cells and spermatogonia. Also, it seems that there is a mild or severe cytokine storm in patients with severe COVID-19, and such changes may affect fertility. It should also be mentioned that the orchitis caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus may have an important impact on fertility. Prolonged and high fever may lead to changes in testicular temperature and destroy germ cells. In general, there is little evidence for a definite conclusion, but there are facts that suggest that COVID-19 may affect male fertility. It is prudent for men of reproductive age who have recovered from COVID-19 to be evaluated for the presence of the virus in semen and fertility-related items. There is an urgent need to conduct quality studies on, in particular, the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the fertility of recovered males.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Fertility , Humans , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Testis
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 45-51, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114235

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a fatal respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus that quickly became a pandemic. Pregnant women and neonates are two vulnerable groups in COVID-19 infections because the immune system weakens during pregnancy. The present review study was conducted to investigate the rate of vertical transmission in infants born to women with COVID-19 infections and to describe the characteristics of the affected infants. We conducted a search of the various scientific databases using relevant keywords. All English-language studies involving neonates born to women who had COVID-19 infections were included. The main outcomes were rates of vertical transmission and the characteristics of the affected newborns. Out of 13 selected studies, 103 newborns were involved. The rate of vertical transmission was 5.4%. Of the five infected newborns, four were full-term and one was preterm. All were born by Cesarean section. The clinical symptoms were vomiting, fever, lethargy, shortness of breath, and cyanosis. In four newborns, a chest x-ray showed evidence of pneumonia. The most common laboratory finding was leukocytosis and elevated creatine kinase levels. One newborn needed mechanical ventilation. All newborns recovered and were discharged. The findings of this review study showed that the prognosis of newborns of infected mothers was satisfactory, and clinical symptoms of infected neonates did not differ from adults and were nonspecific. Due to the low amount of data regarding this field, further studies with higher sample sizes are required for more definitive conclusions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Neurol ; 11: 600544, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084539

ABSTRACT

Reports of different types of neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are rapidly increasing, including changes of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Here we describe the first reported case of COVID-19 and PRES in Australia diagnosed on basis of MRI brain imaging and confirmed clinically by presence of confusion, delirium, headaches, also associated with hypertension and blood pressure variability and stable long-term kidney problems. He made full recovery as his blood pressure was controlled and clinical status was supported with appropriate supportive therapy. Although traditionally a rare condition, PRES is likely to be more common among patients with COVID-19 pathobiology there is Renin downregulation of ACE2 receptors, involvement of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system, endotheliitis, cytokine storm, and hyper-immune response. Thus we advocate clinical suspicion and early brain imaging with MRI brain among vulnerable patients with known co-morbidities, and diagnosed with COVID-19 given that hypertension and blood pressure variability are often exacerbated by acute SARS-CoV-2 immune reactions. Such acute hypertensive encephalopathy was able to be reversed with timely supportive therapy ensuring re-hydration and re-establishment of blood pressure control.

19.
Front Neurol ; 11: 607221, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084538

ABSTRACT

Clinical reports of neurological manifestations associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS), encephalopathy, seizures, headaches, acute necrotizing encephalitis, cerebral microbleeds, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, peripheral neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies, transverse myelitis, and demyelinating disorders, are increasing rapidly. However, there are comparatively few studies investigating the potential impact of immunological responses secondary to hypoxia, oxidative stress, and excessive platelet-induced aggregation on the brain. This scoping review has focused on the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with peripheral and consequential neural (central) inflammation leading to COVID-19-related ischemic strokes. It also highlights the common biological processes shared between AIS and COVID-19 infection and the importance of the recognition that severe respiratory dysfunction and neurological impairments associated with COVID and chronic inflammation [post-COVID-19 neurological syndrome (PCNS)] may significantly impact recovery and ability to benefit from neurorehabilitation. This study provides a comprehensive review of the pathobiology of COVID-19 and ischemic stroke. It also affirms that the immunological contribution to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is predictive of the neurological sequelae particularly ischemic stroke, which makes it the expectation rather than the exception. This work is of fundamental significance to the neurorehabilitation community given the increasing number of COVID-related ischemic strokes, the current limited knowledge regarding the risk of reinfection, and recent reports of a PCNS. It further highlights the need for global collaboration and research into new pathobiology-based neurorehabilitation treatment strategies and more integrated evidence-based care.

20.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-4595

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a new disease, so we don’t know what comes in next. Due to the fact that information on delayed symptoms is limited, this study was conducted to assess the frequency of delayed symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Methods: This follow-up cross sectional study that was done during February to April, 2020. Two hundred patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19 and were discharged were assessed for delayed symptoms 6 weeks after discharge. Results: The mean age of the participants was 55.58±13.52, and 160 (80%) Of them were male. On admission to hospital, patients reported a mean of 5.63±2.88 symptoms per patient, range from 1 to 14 symptoms. Dyspnea was seen in 119 (59.5%) 0f them as the most frequent symptom. Then weakness, myalgia, and shivering were reported with a frequency of 111 (55.5%), 107 (53.5%), and 103 (51.5%), respectively. six weeks after discharge reassessment was done. None of the patients was readmitted to the hospital. Ninety-four (42%) of them were symptom free. Fatigue was the most frequent delayed symptom with a frequency of 39 (19.5%), and then dyspnea, weakness, and activity intolerance with a frequency of 37 (18.5%), 36 (18%), and 29 (14.5%) were reported, respectively. Conclusion: Fatigue, dyspnea, weakness, anxiety, and activity intolerance were most frequent delayed symptoms, respectively. Majority of patient were symptoms free and those with symptom, had mild to moderate symptoms. The importance of symptoms is not fully recognized. Follow up clinics and in some cases rehabilitation programs may be helpful.

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