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1.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855574

ABSTRACT

The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral involvement and, secondarily, the likely variables in patients with confirmed COVID-19 accompanied by mucormycosis infection. The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive sort that was performed at a tertiary centre. The non-probability convenience sampling approach was used to determine the sample size. Between May 2021 and July 2021, all patients who presented to our tertiary care centre with suspected mucormycosis were considered for the investigation. The research only included individuals with proven mucormycosis after COVID-19. The features of the patients, the frequency of intraoral signs/symptoms, and the possible variables were all noted. Of the 333 COVID-19-infected patients, 47 (14%) were diagnosed with confirmed mucormycosis. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 59.7 (11.9) years. Of the 47 patients with confirmed mucormycosis, 34% showed sudden tooth mobility, 34% expressed toothache, 8.5% reported palatal eschar, 34% presented with jaw pain, 8.5% had tongue discoloration, and 17% had temporomandibular pain. About 53% of the patients were known cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 89% of patients had a history of hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection, 89.3% underwent oxygen support therapy, and 89.3% were administered intravenous steroids during hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection. About 14% of the suspected cases attending the mucormycosis out-patient department (OPD) had been confirmed with definite mucormycosis. Oral involvement was seen in 45% of cases of CAM (COVID-associated mucormycosis). The most frequent oral symptoms presented in CAM were sudden tooth mobility and toothache. Diabetes and steroids were the likely contributing factors associated with CAM.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810358

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a group of infections, caused by multiple fungal species, which affect many human organs and is lethal in immunocompromised patients. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the current wave of mucormycosis is a challenge to medical professionals as its effects are multiplied because of the severity of COVID-19 infection. The variant of concern, Omicron, has been linked to fatal mucormycosis infections in the US and Asia. Consequently, current postdiagnostic treatments of mucormycosis have been rendered unsatisfactory. In this hour of need, a preinfection cure is needed that may prevent lethal infections in immunocompromised individuals. This study proposes a potential vaccine construct targeting mucor and rhizopus species responsible for mucormycosis infections, providing immunoprotection to immunocompromised patients. The vaccine construct, with an antigenicity score of 0.75 covering, on average, 92-98% of the world population, was designed using an immunoinformatics approach. Molecular interactions with major histocompatibility complex-1 (MHC-I), Toll-like receptors-2 (TLR2), and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), with scores of -896.0, -948.4, and -925.0, respectively, demonstrated its potential to bind with the human immune receptors. It elicited a strong predicted innate and adaptive immune response in the form of helper T (Th) cells, cytotoxic T (TC) cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages. The vaccine cloned in the pBR322 vector showed positive amplification, further solidifying its stability and potential. The proposed construct holds a promising approach as the first step towards an antimucormycosis vaccine and may contribute to minimizing postdiagnostic burdens and failures.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765701

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the educational system has focused more on the holistic development of an individual. Modern technology has changed the educational environment to provide students with better academic opportunities. Along with the education system, teaching techniques and learning tools have also changed with digital evolution. This research was undertaken to assess the academic performance of interactive teaching methods in offline and online platforms in Periodontics among BDS undergraduates at a dental college in India. This prospective study was conducted among 49 students: Group I (n = 24, online class through Zoom) and Group II (n = 25, offline classes). The subject was divided into three modules and was covered in one week. The topics covered, teaching methods, lectures, and activities were similar for both groups. A formative assessment mark was obtained from written tests during the module, whereas the summative assessment mark was recorded from exams conducted towards the end of the module. In the results, a statistically significant difference was not observed in terms of formative assessment between Group I (77.88 ± 12.89) and Group II (77.80 ± 16.09) (p = 0.98). In addition, a statistically significant difference was not observed in terms of summative assessment between Group I (80.54 ± 8.39) and Group II (80.28 ± 11.57) (p = 0.93). Overall, this study suggests that interactive teaching methods in both offline and online platforms in Periodontics showed equivalent performance by the undergraduate dental students.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , Students , Humans , India , Learning , Prospective Studies , Teaching
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709582

ABSTRACT

In addition to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, bacterial co-infection plays an essential role in the incidence and progression of SARS-CoV-2 infections by increasing the severity of infection, as well as increasing disease symptoms, death rate and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The current study was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, among hospitalized COVID-19 patients to see the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and the AMR rates among different isolated bacteria. Clinical samples for the laboratory diagnosis were collected from 1165 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, of which 423 were found to be positive for various bacterial infections. Most of the isolated bacteria were Gram-negative rods (n = 366), followed by Gram-positive cocci (n = 57). A significant association (p < 0.05) was noted between the hospitalized COVID-19 patients and bacterial co-infections. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) showed high resistance against tetracycline (61.7%), Streptococcus pyogenes against penicillin (100%), E. coli against Amp-clavulanic acid (88.72%), Klebsiella pneumoniae against ampicillin (100%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa against ciprofloxacin (75.40%). Acinetobacter baumannii was 100% resistant to the majority of tested antibiotics. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 14.7%. The topmost symptoms of >50% of COVID-19 patients were fever, fatigue, dyspnea and chest pain with a significant association (p < 0.05) in bacterial co-infected patients. The current study results showed a comparatively high prevalence of AMR, which may become a severe health-related issue in the future. Therefore, strict compliance of antibiotic usage and employment of antibiotic stewardship programs at every public or private institutional level are recommended.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the knowledge about guidelines related to COVID-19 infection control procedures among dental health care professionals (DHCPs) in the Jazan region. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving DHCPs (dental students, interns, and dentists) of the Jazan region between January and March 2021. A questionnaire with 35 items was developed and circulated online among the DHCPs. The dimensionality of the questionnaire was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The level of awareness (LOA) was compared across the genders, level of professional experience, and exposure to guidelines. Participants were considered to have high LOA when they responded to 26 or more items correctly. RESULTS: A total of 363 DHCPs participated in the survey. The questionnaire was found to be valid and reliable. EFA revealed a distinct three-factor structure. Moreover, 61.2% of the respondents had high LOA related to COVID-19 infection prevention. Among those who had high LOA, dentists (65.5%) were relatively more than the students (62.5%) and interns (46.2%). Among the six guideline statements related explicitly to operative dentistry, more than 50% of the respondents were aware of 3 guideline statements, while less than 50% of the respondents were aware of the remaining statements. CONCLUSIONS: Most DHCP had a high LOA for general COVID-19 infection prevention and control guidelines. Dentists, males, and those who read the guidelines had higher LOA than their counterparts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dentists , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210156, 2022. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1677609

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Over the past year and a half dental education has been conducted primarily online due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. During the pandemic, we have spent many hours a day on our computers, mobile phones, and tablets to gather information and participate in online seminars and classrooms. Health consequences resulting from the overuse of these devices include carpal tunnel syndrome as well as computer vision syndrome (CVS). Computer vision syndrome, also known as digital eye strain, has several associated features such as eye burning, strained vision, dry eye, blurred vision, and associated neck and shoulder pain. Several predisposing factors have been linked with CVS, but often this problem gets ignored. The management of this syndrome is aimed at educating dentists on computer use, position, and the surrounding environment. Considering all this, we must ensure that we spend some time away from these devices every day to avoid any significant vision problems. The objective of preparing this manuscript was to provide a brief overview of the increased prevalence of computer vision syndrome and its associated features.


Subject(s)
Vision Disorders/prevention & control , Artificial Intelligence , Dentists , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Microcomputers , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Education, Dental , Screen Time , India
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637732

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The Indian population faces numerous challenges to attain better oral hygiene due to a lack of oral health literacy. For the past 10 years, the prevalence of dental-related conditions in India has become a considerable problem in every state of India. A health-education-based oral health promotion strategy will be an ideal choice for the Indian population instead of endorsing conventional oral health promotion. The use of unsuitable tools to measure may lead to misleading and vague findings that might result in a flawed plan for cessation programs and deceitful effectiveness. Therefore, the research aimed to develop and validate an instrument that can assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of adults in India. Materials and Methods: This study was carried among adults in India, who live in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A questionnaire was fabricated and then validated using content, face, as well as construct. The knowledge domain was validated using item response theory analysis (IRT), whereas exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to validate the behavior domain and attitude. Results: Four principal sections, i.e., knowledge, attitude, demography and behavior, were used to fabricate a questionnaire following validation. Following analysis of item response theory on the knowledge domain, all analyzed items in the domain were within the ideal range of difficulty and discrimination. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.65 for the attitude and 0.66 for the behavior domain. A Bartlett's test of sphericity was conducted and demonstrated that outcomes for both domains were highly significant (p < 0.001). The factor analysis resulted in three factors with a total of eight items in the attitude domain and three factors with a total of seven items in the behavior domain depicting satisfactory factor loading (>0.3). Across the three factors, i.e., knowledge, attitude and behavior, internal consistency reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha, and the values obtained were 0.67, 0.87, 0.67, and 0.88, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this study that assessed validity and reliability showed that the developed questionnaire had an acceptable psychometric property for measuring oral health KAB among adults in India.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health , Adult , Humans , India , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581078

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health issue that plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. It also becomes a serious threat to the successful treatment of many bacterial infections. The widespread and irrelevant use of antibiotics in hospitals and local clinics is the leading cause of AMR. Under this scenario, the study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, from 2 August 2021 to 31 October 2021 to discover the prevalence of bacterial infections and AMR rates in COVID-19 patients admitted in surgical intensive care units (SICUs). Clinical samples were collected from the patients and we proceeded to identify bacterial isolates, followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The data of other comorbidities were also collected from the patient's medical record. The current study showed that the most common pathogens were E. coli (32%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (17%). Most E. coli were resistant to ciprofloxacin (16.8%) and ampicillin (19.8%). Klebsiella pneumoniae were more resistant to ampicillin (13.3%) and amoxycillin (12.0%). The most common comorbidity was chronic kidney disease (CKD) and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Around 17 different types of antibiotic, the carbapenem, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycoside, and quinolones, were highly prevalent in ICU patients. The current study provides valuable data on the clinical implication of antibiotics consumed by COVID-19 patients in SICUs and the AMR rates, especially with different comorbidities.

9.
Int J Dent ; 2021: 9963329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460064

ABSTRACT

In the Southeast Asian region, various policies have been advocated by health regulatory bodies that entail protective measures such as face masks, gloves, maintaining distance in public areas, and more. These protective measures are aimed at helping reverse the growth rate of the coronavirus. Dentists in this region have incorporated several changes to their practices to help minimize risks of person-to-person transmission inside dental offices. This narrative review aimed to provide an in-depth overview of the current situation in the Southeast Asian region regarding the use of teledentistry during the pandemic. Teledentistry involves the transfer of patient information across remote distances for online consultation and treatment planning. A few years back, it used to be a lesser-known entity but has seen an exponential rise in its incorporation into dental practices all around the Association of Southeast Nations (ASEAN) region. Many clinics in the Southeast Asian region have started using online consultations to ensure that patients can be diagnosed or followed up during their treatment. Teledentistry is the clear answer in the coming months as it will help reduce the risk of virus transmission and help patients get access to oral healthcare and dentists to see their patients. This article reviews the current pandemic situation in the ASEAN region, the recent evidence, and the scope of teledentistry. It also provides recommendations for the future and sheds light on the different types of teledentistry and how it can be incorporated into practices by regulatory authorities in this region.

10.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211042980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the truthfulness of patients about their pre-appointment COVID-19 screening tests at a dental clinic. METHODS: A total of 613 patients were recruited for the study from the dental clinic at the Faculty of Dentistry, Najran University, Saudi Arabia. The data collection was done in three parts from the patients who visited the hospital to receive dental treatment. The first part included the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the COVID-19 swab tests performed within the past 14 days. The second part was the clinical examination, and the third part was a confirmation of the swab test taken by the patient by checking the Hesen website using the patient ID. After data collection, statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 26.0. Descriptive analysis was done and expressed as mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage (%). A cross-tabulation, also described as a contingency table, was used to identify trends and patterns across data and explain the correlation between different variables. RESULTS: It was seen from the status of the swab test within 14 days of the patient's arrival at the hospital for the dental treatment that 18 (2.9%) patients lied about the pre-treatment swab test within 14 days, and 595 (97.1%) were truthful. The observed and expected counts showed across genders and diagnosis a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001), and there was no significant difference seen across different age groups (p = 0.064) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dental healthcare workers are worried and assume a high risk of COVID-19 infection as the patients are not truthful about the pre-treatment COVID-19 swab test. Routine rapid tests on patients and the healthcare staff are a feasible option for lowering overall risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Truth Disclosure/ethics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Dental Offices/ethics , Dental Offices/organization & administration , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Patient Compliance/psychology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare workers in general are at a high risk of potential infections with COVID-19, especially those who work with aerosol generating procedures. Dentists fall in this category, as not only do they operate with aerosol generating procedures but also operate within a face-to-face contact area. METHODS: A structured self-administered questionnaire was developed at Najran University and provided to the participants for data collection. The data collected included information on risk perception and incorporation of measures for protection against COVID-19 to gauge the attitude of dentists during this period. Also, clinical implementation of various protective measures was reviewed. RESULTS: Of the n = 322 dentists that answered the questions, 50% were general dentists and 28.9% were dentists working at specialist clinics, while the remaining 21.1% of dentists were employed in academic institutions. Among the newer additions to the clinic, 36.3% of dentists answered that they had added atomizers to their practices, followed by 26.4% of dentists that had incorporated the use of UV lamps for sterilization. We found that 18.9% dentists were using HEPA filters in their clinics, while 9.9% of dentists were making use of fumigation devices to control the risk of infection. One-way ANOVA was also carried out to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.049) between groups of dentists utilizing HEPA filters, UV lamps, atomizers, and fumigation devices to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV2 across their workplaces. CONCLUSION: Dentists are aware of recently updated knowledge about the modes of transmission of COVID-19 and the recommended infection control measures in dental settings. A better understanding of the situation and methods to prevent it will ensure that the dental community is able to provide healthcare services to patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Dentists , Humans , Perception , RNA, Viral , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 6677929, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005566

ABSTRACT

Fixed orthodontic treatment has been compromised at many levels during the pandemic period, as clinics underwent a prolonged lockdown and patients could not be treated regularly. With the end of the pandemic nowhere in sight, may be it is time to put newer tools, such as clear aligner therapy, for better use. Fixed orthodontic appliances by nature are not always self-limiting, which, if left unmonitored over a long period may cause undesirable side effects, pain, and discomfort. The undesired tooth movements that may occur with arch wire-guided mechanics in addition to problems with cut wires or removed brackets may be minimized with the use of aligners. While the benefits of using aligners are for all to see, they do require extensive planning and careful evaluation of the progress. This article reviews the advantages of using aligners during the pandemic period and how it can be beneficial in helping orthodontists resume their practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malocclusion/therapy , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable , Tooth Movement Techniques/instrumentation , Dental Care , Humans , Hygiene , Pain/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
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