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1.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716364

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378256

ABSTRACT

The food retail environment has been directly linked to disparities in dietary behaviors and may in part explain racial and ethnic disparities in pregnancy-related deaths. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, is associated with improved healthy food and beverage access due to its requirement for minimum stock of healthy foods and beverages in WIC-eligible stores. The selection and authorization criteria used to authorize WIC vendors varies widely from state to state with little known about the specific variations. This paper reviews and summarizes the differences across 16 of these criteria enacted by 89 WIC administrative agencies: the 50 states, the District of Columbia, five US Territories, and 33 Indian Tribal Organizations. Vendor selection and authorization criteria varied across WIC agencies without any consistent pattern. The wide variations in criteria and policies raise questions about the rational for inconsistency. Some of these variations, in combination, may result in reduced access to WIC-approved foods and beverages by WIC participants. For example, minimum square footage and/or number of cash register criteria may limit vendors to larger retail operations that are not typically located in high-risk, under-resourced communities where WIC vendors are most needed. Results highlight an opportunity to convene WIC stakeholders to review variations, their rationale, and implications thereof especially as this process could result in improved policies to ensure and improve healthy food and beverage access by WIC participants. More work remains to better understand the value of state WIC vendor authorization authority, particularly in states that have provided stronger monitoring requirements. This work might also examine if and how streamlining WIC vendor criteria (or at least certain components of them) across regional areas or across the country could provide an opportunity to advance interstate commerce and promote an equitable supply of food across the food system, while ensuring the protection for local, community-oriented WIC vendors.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance , Child , Commerce , District of Columbia , Female , Food Supply , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , United States , United States Department of Agriculture
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