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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(10): ofac507, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097433

ABSTRACT

Background: Estimates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence in young children and risk factors for seropositivity are scarce. Using data from a prospective cohort study of households during the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine period, we estimated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence by age and evaluated risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 Epidemiology and Response in Children (SEARCh) study enrolled 175 Maryland households (690 participants) with ≥1 child aged 0-4 years during November 2020-March 2021; individuals vaccinated against COVID-19 were ineligible. At enrollment, participants completed questionnaires about sociodemographic and health status and work, school, and daycare attendance. Participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in sera. Logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for correlation within households assessed predictors of individual- and household-level SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Results: Of 681 (98.7%) participants with enrollment serology results, 55 (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3%-10.4%) participants from 21 (12.0%) households were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Among seropositive participants, fewer children than adults reported being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection before enrollment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.23; 95% CI, .06-.73). Seropositivity was similar by age (GEE OR vs 0-4 years: 1.19 for 5-17 years, 1.36 for adults; P = .16) and was significantly higher among adults working outside the home (GEE adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4) but not among children attending daycare or school. Conclusions: Before study enrollment, children and adults in this cohort had similar rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured by serology. An adult household member working outside the home increased a household's odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas a child attending daycare or school in person did not.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2127561, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097207

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of maternal and newborn morbidity and maternal death. In Kenya, pregnant and lactating women (PLW) were ineligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines until August 2021. How shifts in policy influence vaccine behaviors, such as health worker recommendations and vaccine uptake, is not well documented. We conducted qualitative interviews with PLW, health workers, and policymakers in Kenya to understand how different stakeholders' perceptions of national policy regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy shaped vaccine behaviors and decision-making. Policymakers and health workers described pervasive uncertainty and lack of communication about the national policy, cited vaccine safety as their primary concern for administering COVID-19 vaccines to PLW, and expressed that PLW were inadequately prioritized in the COVID-19 vaccine program. PLW perceived the restrictive policy as indicative of a safety risk, resulting in vaccine hesitancy and potentially exacerbated inequities in vaccine access. These findings support the need for the development and dissemination of effective vaccine communication guidelines and the prioritization of PLW in COVID-19 vaccination policies and campaigns. To ensure PLW do not face the same inequities in future epidemics, data on infectious disease burdens and vaccine uptake should be collected systematically among pregnant women, and PLW should be included in future vaccine trials.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2227348, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013232

ABSTRACT

Importance: Few studies have prospectively assessed SARS-CoV-2 community infection in children aged 0 to 4 years. Information about SARS-CoV-2 incidence and clinical and virological features in young children could help guide prevention and mitigation strategies. Objective: To assess SARS-CoV-2 incidence, clinical and virological features, and symptoms in a prospective household cohort and to compare viral load by age group, symptoms, and SARS-CoV-2 lineage in young children, older children, and adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 690 participants from 175 Maryland households with 1 or more children aged 0 to 4 years between November 24, 2020, and October 15, 2021. For 8 months after enrollment, participants completed weekly symptom questionnaires and submitted self-collected nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 qualitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing, quantitative RT-PCR testing, and viral lineage determination. For the analyses, SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta lineages were considered variants of interest or concern. Sera collected at enrollment and at approximately 4 months and 8 months after enrollment were assayed for SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid protein antibodies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence, clinical and virological characteristics, and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection by age group and correlations between (1) highest detected viral load and symptom frequency and (2) highest detected viral load and SARS-CoV-2 lineage. Results: Among 690 participants (355 [51.4%] female and 335 [48.6%] male), 256 individuals (37.1%) were children aged 0 to 4 years, 100 (14.5%) were children aged 5 to 17 years, and 334 (48.4%) were adults aged 18 to 74 years. A total of 15 participants (2.2%) were Asian, 24 (3.5%) were Black, 603 (87.4%) were White, 43 (6.2%) were multiracial, and 5 (0.7%) were of other races; 33 participants (4.8%) were Hispanic, and 657 (95.2%) were non-Hispanic. Overall, 54 participants (7.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection during the surveillance period, including 22 of 256 children (8.6%) aged 0 to 4 years, 11 of 100 children (11.0%) aged 5 to 17 years, and 21 of 334 adults (6.3%). Incidence rates per 1000 person-weeks were 2.25 (95% CI, 1.28-3.65) infections among children aged 0 to 4 years, 3.48 (95% CI, 1.59-6.61) infections among children aged 5 to 17 years, and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.52-1.98) infections among adults. Children aged 0 to 17 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more frequently asymptomatic (11 of 30 individuals [36.7%]) compared with adults (3 of 21 individuals [14.3%]), with children aged 0 to 4 years most frequently asymptomatic (7 of 19 individuals [36.8%]). The highest detected viral load did not differ between asymptomatic vs symptomatic individuals overall (median [IQR], 2.8 [1.5-3.3] log10 copies/mL vs 2.8 [1.8-4.4] log10 copies/mL) or by age group (median [IQR] for ages 0-4 years, 2.7 [2.4-4.4] log10 copies/mL; ages 5-17 years: 2.4 [1.1-4.0] log10 copies/mL; ages 18-74 years: 2.9 [1.9-4.6] log10 copies/mL). The number of symptoms was significantly correlated with viral load among adults (R = 0.69; P < .001) but not children (ages 0-4 years: R = 0.02; P = .91; ages 5-17 years: R = 0.18; P = .58). The highest detected viral load was greater among those with Delta variant infections (median [IQR], 4.4 [3.9-5.1] log10 copies/mL) than those with infections from variants not of interest or concern (median [IQR], 1.9 [1.1-3.6] log10 copies/mL; P = .009) or those with Alpha variant infections (median [IQR], 2.6 [2.3-3.4] log10 copies/mL; P = .006). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, SARS-CoV-2 infections were frequently asymptomatic among children aged 0 to 4 years; the presence and number of symptoms did not correlate with viral load. These findings suggest that symptom screening may be insufficient to prevent outbreaks involving young children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006028

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are at greater risk of adverse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection. There are several factors which can influence the ways in which pregnant women perceive COVID-19 disease and behaviorally respond to the pandemic. This study seeks to understand how three key audiences-pregnant and lactating women (PLW), male community members, and health workers-in Kenya conceptualize COVID-19 to better understand determinants of COVID-19 related behaviors. This study used qualitative methods to conduct 84 in-depth interviews in three counties in Kenya. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Emerging themes were organized based on common behavioral constructs thought to influence COVID-19 related behaviors and included myths, risk perception, economic implications, stigma, and self-efficacy. Results suggest that risk perception and behavioral attitudes substantially influence the experiences of PLW, male community members, and health workers in Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health prevention and communication responses targeting these groups should address potential barriers to preventive health behaviors, such as the spread of misinformation, financial constraints, and fear of social ostracization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Lactation , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(8): ofac390, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001405

ABSTRACT

Background: Households are common places for spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We investigated factors associated with household transmission and acquisition of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Households with children age <18 years were enrolled into prospective, longitudinal cohorts and followed from August 2020 to August 2021 in Utah, September 2020 to August 2021 in New York City, and November 2020 to October 2021 in Maryland. Participants self-collected nasal swabs weekly and with onset of acute illness. Swabs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We assessed factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition using a multilevel logistic regression adjusted for household size and clustering and SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a logistic regression adjusted for household size. Results: Among 2053 people (513 households) enrolled, 180 people (8.8%; in 76 households) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Compared with children age <12 years, the odds of acquiring infection were lower for adults age ≥18 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.14-0.87); however, this may reflect vaccination status, which protected against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition (aOR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.91). The odds of onward transmission were similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic primary cases (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.35-2.93) and did not differ by age (12-17 years vs <12 years: aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.20-5.62; ≥18 years vs <12 years: aOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.52-5.83). Conclusions: Adults had lower odds of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 compared with children, but this association might be influenced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, which was primarily available for adults and protective against infection. In contrast, all ages, regardless of symptoms and COVID-19 vaccination, had similar odds of transmitting SARS-CoV-2. Our findings underscore the importance of SARS-CoV-2 mitigation measures for persons of all ages.

6.
JCI Insight ; 7(8)2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807767

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 infections are frequently milder in children than adults, suggesting that immune responses may vary with age. However, information is limited regarding SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in young children.MethodsWe compared receptor binding domain-binding antibody (RBDAb) titers and SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody titers, measured by pseudovirus-neutralizing antibody assay in serum specimens obtained from children aged 0-4 years and 5-17 years and in adults aged 18-62 years at the time of enrollment in a prospective longitudinal household study of SARS-CoV-2 infection.ResultsAmong 56 seropositive participants at enrollment, children aged 0-4 years had more than 10-fold higher RBDAb titers than adults (416 vs. 31, P < 0.0001) and the highest RBDAb titers in 11 of 12 households with seropositive children and adults. Children aged 0-4 years had only 2-fold higher neutralizing antibody than adults, resulting in higher binding-to-neutralizing antibody ratios compared with adults (2.36 vs. 0.35 for ID50, P = 0.0004).ConclusionThese findings suggest that young children mount robust antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 following community infections. Additionally, these results support using neutralizing antibody to measure the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in children aged 0-4 years.FundingCDC (award 75D30120C08737).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Prospective Studies
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Gaps in information about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy have led to substantial global variation in public health guidance regarding the use of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy over the course of the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted systematic screenings of public health authorities' websites across 224 countries and territories every 3 weeks to track the development of policies on COVID-19 vaccine use in pregnancy. Policies were categorised using a 1-5 permissiveness scale, with 1 indicating policies that recommended use, and 5 indicating policies that recommended against use. RESULTS: As of 30 September 2021, 176 countries/territories had issued explicit guidance on COVID-19 vaccine use in pregnancy, with 38% recommending use, 28% permitting use, 15% permitting use with qualifications, 2% not recommending but with exceptions, and 17% not recommending use whatsoever. This represented a significant shift from May 2021, when only 6% of countries/territories with such policies recommended the use of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy (p<0.001). However, no policy positions could be found for 21% of all countries and territories, the vast majority being low and middle income. Policy positions also varied widely by vaccine product, with Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines being most commonly recommended or permitted. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the evolution of policies regarding COVID-19 vaccine use in pregnancy over a 5-month period in 2021, the role of pregnancy-specific data in shaping these policies and how inequities in access for pregnant people persist, both within countries and globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261929, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of COVID-19 vaccine intention among Bangladeshi adults. METHODS: Secondary data from the COVID-19 Beliefs, Behaviors & Norms Survey conducted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Facebook were analyzed. Data were collected from 2,669 adult Facebook users in Bangladesh and was collected between February 15 and February 28, 2021. Binomial logistic regression examined the relationship between COVID-19 vaccination intent and demographic variables, risk perception, preventive behaviors, COVID-19 knowledge, and likelihood of future actions. RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported intent to get the COVID-19 vaccine when it becomes available. Intent to get vaccinated was highest among females, adults aged 71-80, individuals with college or graduate-level degrees, city dwellers, and individuals who perceived that they were in excellent health. Results of the binomial logistic regression indicated that predictors of vaccination intent include age (OR = 1.39), high risk perception of COVID-19 (OR = 1.47), and intent to practice social distancing (OR = 1.22). DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that age, perceived COVID-19 risk, and non-pharmaceutical COVID-19 interventions may predict COVID-19 vaccination intent among Bangladeshi adults. Findings can be used to create targeted messaging to increase demand for and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bangladesh , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Policy , Young Adult
11.
J Infect Dis ; 221(4): 534-543, 2020 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and immunogenicity of live respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) candidate vaccine, LID/ΔM2-2/1030s, with deletion of RSV ribonucleic acid synthesis regulatory protein M2-2 and genetically stabilized temperature-sensitivity mutation 1030s in the RSV polymerase protein was evaluated in RSV-seronegative children. METHODS: Respiratory syncytial virus-seronegative children ages 6-24 months received 1 intranasal dose of 105 plaque-forming units (PFU) of LID/ΔM2-2/1030s (n = 21) or placebo (n = 11). The RSV serum antibodies, vaccine shedding, and reactogenicity were assessed. During the following RSV season, medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) and pre- and postsurveillance serum antibody titers were monitored. RESULTS: Eighty-five percent of vaccinees shed LID/ΔM2-2/1030s vaccine (median peak nasal wash titers: 3.1 log10 PFU/mL by immunoplaque assay; 5.1 log10 copies/mL by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and had ≥4-fold rise in serum-neutralizing antibodies. Respiratory symptoms and fever were common (60% vaccinees and 27% placebo recipients). One vaccinee had grade 2 wheezing with rhinovirus but without concurrent LID/ΔM2-2/1030s shedding. Five of 19 vaccinees had ≥4-fold increases in antibody titers postsurveillance without RSV-MAARI, indicating anamnestic responses without significant illness after infection with community-acquired RSV. CONCLUSIONS: LID/ΔM2-2/1030s had excellent infectivity without evidence of genetic instability, induced durable immunity, and primed for anamnestic antibody responses, making it an attractive candidate for further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Gene Deletion , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Proteins/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Body Temperature , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Infant , Male , Point Mutation , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated , Virus Replication/genetics
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