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1.
International Journal of Social Welfare ; 32(3):352-368, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20237665

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the household income of families with children. Our specific interest was the earned income losses during the COVID‐19 pandemic, and how social transfers have mitigated those losses. We assessed the monthly income levels by comparing the information on the year prior to pandemic to income levels during COVID‐19 pandemic. We found that the pandemic affected all studied subgroups of families with children, with the most negative economic influence in May 2020. In addition, our results indicate that in Finland the social transfers protected fairly well against the negative economic impacts of the pandemic among families with children, especially among vulnerable families (those with lowest income level prior COVID‐19, with low parental education, single‐parent families and families with non‐Finnish‐born parents). The information gained from this analysis can be useful in economic recovery during and after COVID‐19 pandemic, and when preparing for future challenges. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Social Welfare is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 846, 2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clear evidence of an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among smokers has not been established. We aimed to investigate associations between cigarette smoking or use of snus (snuff) and other nicotine-containing products and a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, taking test behavior into account. METHODS: Current tobacco use and testing behavior during the pandemic were recorded by adult participants from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study and The Norwegian Influenza Pregnancy Cohort. SARS-CoV-2 infection status was obtained from The Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS) in May 2021 (n = 78,860) and antibody measurements (n = 5581). We used logistic regression models stratified by gender and adjusted for age, education, region, number of household members, and work situation. RESULTS: Snus use was more common among men (26%) than women (9%) and more prevalent than cigarette smoking. We found no clear associations between cigarette smoking or snus and a COVID-19 diagnosis among men. Associations among women were conflicting, indicating that cigarette smoke was negatively associated with a diagnosis (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.35, 0.75), while no association was found for snus use (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.86, 1.34). Compared with non-users of tobacco, both cigarette smokers and snus users had increased odds of being tested for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking, but not snus use, was negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in women. The lack of an association between snus use and SARS-CoV-2 infection in this population with prevalent snus use does not support the hypothesis of a protective effect of nicotine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Products , Tobacco, Smokeless , Adult , Male , Pregnancy , Child , Humans , Female , Nicotine , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use , Norway/epidemiology
3.
Scand J Public Health ; 51(5): 735-743, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between tobacco smoking and the risk of COVID-19 and its adverse outcomes is controversial, as studies reported contrasting findings. Bias due to misclassification of the exposure in the analyses of current versus non-current smoking could be a possible explanation because former smokers may have higher background risks of the disease due to co-morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of this potential bias by separating non-, former, and current smokers when assessing the risk or prognosis of diseases. METHODS: We analysed data from 43,400 participants in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, Sweden, with information on smoking obtained prior to the pandemic. We estimated the risk of COVID-19, hospital admissions and death for (a) former and current smokers relative to non-smokers, (b) current smokers relative to non-current smokers, that is, including former smokers; adjusting for potential confounders (aRR). RESULTS: The aRR of a COVID-19 diagnosis was elevated for former smokers compared with non-smokers (1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.00-1.15); including hospital admission with any COVID-19 diagnosis (aRR= 1.23; 95% CI = 1.03-1.48); or with COVID-19 as the main diagnosis (aRR=1.23, 95% CI= 1.01-1.49); and death within 30 days with COVID-19 as the main or a contributory cause (aRR=1.40; 95% CI=1.00-1.95). Current smoking was negatively associated with risk of COVID-19 (aRR=0.79; 95% CI=0.68-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Separating non-smokers from former smokers when assessing the disease risk or prognosis is essential to avoid bias. However, the negative association between current smoking and the risk of COVID-19 could not be entirely explained by misclassification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smokers , Humans , Tobacco , Public Health , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20335, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133614

ABSTRACT

Empirical evidence, primarily based on hospital-based or voluntary samples, suggests that current smokers have a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than never smokers. In this study, we used nationally representative data to examine the association between tobacco use and the risk of having a confirmed COVID-19 case. We explored several forms of tobacco use, contributing to separate the role of nicotine from smoking. We used data from 44,199 participants from three pooled national health surveys in Finland (FinSote 2018-2020). The primary outcome was a confirmed COVID-19 case. We examined current smoking, moist smokeless tobacco (snus), e-cigarettes with and without nicotine and nicotine replacement therapy products. Current daily smokers had a relative risk of 1.12 of a confirmed COVID-19 case (95% CI 0.65; 1.94) in fully adjusted models compared with never smokers. Current snus use was associated with a 68% higher risk of a confirmed COVID-19 case (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02; 2.75) than never users. We did not find conclusive evidence of associations between e-cigarettes with and without nicotine and nicotine replacement therapy products and the risk of confirmed COVID-19 cases. Our findings suggest that nicotine might not have a protective role in the risk of COVID-19 as previously hypothesized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Finland/epidemiology , Nicotine , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
5.
International Journal of Social Welfare ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2136874

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the household income of families with children. Our specific interest was the earned income losses during the COVID‐19 pandemic, and how social transfers have mitigated those losses. We assessed the monthly income levels by comparing the information on the year prior to pandemic to income levels during COVID‐19 pandemic. We found that the pandemic affected all studied subgroups of families with children, with the most negative economic influence in May 2020. In addition, our results indicate that in Finland the social transfers protected fairly well against the negative economic impacts of the pandemic among families with children, especially among vulnerable families (those with lowest income level prior COVID‐19, with low parental education, single‐parent families and families with non‐Finnish‐born parents). The information gained from this analysis can be useful in economic recovery during and after COVID‐19 pandemic, and when preparing for future challenges. [ FROM AUTHOR]

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