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2.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1072-1075, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988378

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which began in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019, is spreading around the world and causing many deaths, mainly from pneumonia. Currently, there are no specific drugs to treat COVID-19, and existing antiviral drugs are being used as an alternative. One of these is favipiravir, a new type of influenza drug. However, its efficacy, dosage, and duration of administration are still under study. In this case study, we administered favipiravir to patients with COVID-19 and determined the viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the COVID-19 pathogen, using semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR in sputum samples. We report on two patients in whom the viral load increased again after completion of 10 days of favipiravir treatment and a transient relapse of symptoms was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reverse Transcription , Amides , China , Humans , Pyrazines , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
4.
JGH Open ; 5(1): 160-162, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888090

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 rarely causes lower gastrointestinal bleeding even though its RNA has been detected in patient's stool. Urgent colonoscopy in a COVID-19 patient with massive bloody stool requires various procedural and equipment considerations. Here, we present a case of colonoscopic hemostasis of a cecal hemorrhagic ulceration in a patient on heparin for COVID-19 coagulopathy. We also share various management methods for the prevention of COVID-19 contamination. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and subsequently underwent hemodiafiltration. Heparin was initiated for COVID-19 coagulopathy. At day 42, the patient experienced 2000 mL of bloody stool. An operator performed urgent colonoscopy with three assistants in a negative-pressure room with full personal protective equipment. A hemorrhagic ulceration was detected at the cecum, and endoscopic hemostasis was performed. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytomegalovirus. Postprocedure, the endoscopic systems were thoroughly cleaned, and specific measures for endoscope reprocessing and disinfection were performed to prevent contamination with COVID-19.

5.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(1): 78-80, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638125

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is associated with mortality and severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Protecting against infection in health care workers at high risk of COVID-19 is critical. This report investigates the usefulness and safety of remote continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in a patient with diabetes and severe interstitial pneumonia caused by the coronavirus disease. The Dexcom G4 Platinum CGM system® was used to monitor blood glucose (BG) levels from outside the patient's isolation room. Continuous insulin infusion rates and boluses were determined based on the patient's BG levels. Real-time CGM made it possible to track BG trends and prevent dramatic variations in BG, although the rate of insulin infusion changed dynamic. Furthermore, the need for health care workers to enter the isolation room was minimized because the Dexcom G4 Platinum CGM system can evaluate from a distance of up to 6.0 m.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Male , Renal Dialysis
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