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1.
Giovanetti, M.; Slavov, S. N.; Fonseca, V.; Wilkinson, E.; Tegally, H.; Patané, J. S. L.; Viala, V. L.; San, E. J.; Rodrigues, E. S.; Santos, E. V.; Aburjaile, F.; Xavier, J.; Fritsch, H.; Adelino, T. E. R.; Pereira, F.; Leal, A.; Iani, F. C. M.; de Carvalho Pereira, G.; Vazquez, C.; Sanabria, G. M. E.; Oliveira, E. C.; Demarchi, L.; Croda, J.; Dos Santos Bezerra, R.; Paola Oliveira de Lima, L.; Martins, A. J.; Renata Dos Santos Barros, C.; Marqueze, E. C.; de Souza Todao Bernardino, J.; Moretti, D. B.; Brassaloti, R. A.; de Lello Rocha Campos Cassano, R.; Mariani, Pdsc, Kitajima, J. P.; Santos, B.; Proto-Siqueira, R.; Cantarelli, V. V.; Tosta, S.; Nardy, V. B.; Reboredo de Oliveira da Silva, L.; Gómez, M. K. A.; Lima, J. G.; Ribeiro, A. A.; Guimarães, N. R.; Watanabe, L. T.; Barbosa Da Silva, L.; da Silva Ferreira, R.; da Penha, M. P. F.; Ortega, M. J.; de la Fuente, A. G.; Villalba, S.; Torales, J.; Gamarra, M. L.; Aquino, C.; Figueredo, G. P. M.; Fava, W. S.; Motta-Castro, A. R. C.; Venturini, J.; do Vale Leone de Oliveira, S. M.; Gonçalves, C. C. M.; do Carmo Debur Rossa, M.; Becker, G. N.; Giacomini, M. P.; Marques, N. Q.; Riediger, I. N.; Raboni, S.; Mattoso, G.; Cataneo, A. D.; Zanluca, C.; Duarte Dos Santos, C. N.; Assato, P. A.; Allan da Silva da Costa, F.; Poleti, M. D.; Lesbon, J. C. C.; Mattos, E. C.; Banho, C. A.; Sacchetto, L.; Moraes, M. M.; Grotto, R. M. T.; Souza-Neto, J. A.; Nogueira, M. L.; Fukumasu, H.; Coutinho, L. L.; Calado, R. T.; Neto, R. M.; Bispo de Filippis, A. M.; Venancio da Cunha, R.; Freitas, C.; Peterka, C. R. L.; de Fátima Rangel Fernandes, C.; Navegantes, W.; do Carmo Said, R. F.; Campelo de, A. E. Melo C. F.; Almiron, M.; Lourenço, J.; de Oliveira, T.; Holmes, E. C.; Haddad, R.; Sampaio, S. C.; Elias, M. C.; Kashima, S.; Junior de Alcantara, L. C.; Covas, D. T..
Nat Microbiol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1991610

ABSTRACT

The high numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Brazil have made Latin America an epicentre of the pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 established sustained transmission in Brazil early in the pandemic, but important gaps remain in our understanding of virus transmission dynamics at a national scale. We use 17,135 near-complete genomes sampled from 27 Brazilian states and bordering country Paraguay. From March to November 2020, we detected co-circulation of multiple viral lineages that were linked to multiple importations (predominantly from Europe). After November 2020, we detected large, local transmission clusters within the country. In the absence of effective restriction measures, the epidemic progressed, and in January 2021 there was emergence and onward spread, both within and abroad, of variants of concern and variants under monitoring, including Gamma (P.1) and Zeta (P.2). We also characterized a genomic overview of the epidemic in Paraguay and detected evidence of importation of SARS-CoV-2 ancestor lineages and variants of concern from Brazil. Our findings show that genomic surveillance in Brazil enabled assessment of the real-time spread of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

2.
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy ; 43:S539, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1859755

ABSTRACT

Backgroung: COVID-19 pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) has affected an increasing number of people worldwide, with death rates higher than previous viral epidemics. It is possible that NK cells, known to have great cytokine secreting potential are competent at the onset of the condition and that in some individuals, the viral load is able to exhaust them. Balance between tolerant (CD27- CD11b-), secretory (CD27+ CD11b-/ CD27+ CD11b+) and cytotoxic (CD27- CD11b+) NK cells involved in the inflammatory response and their anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity are still not well established. Strategies that can restore function of NK cells against the virus are worth investigating. Here, we aimed to characterize NK cells frequency, functional subtypes and maturation in early phase of COVID-19 patients, by Multiparametric Flow Cytometry (MFC). Methods: Peripheral blood from 15 COVID-19 patients in early stage of infection (day 1-14, confirmed by RT-PCR), categorized according comorbidities in: G1 (not oncologic;n = 6), G2 (oncologic;n = 3), G3 (hematologic neoplasms;n = 3) and G4 (without comorbidities;n = 3), and 10 healthy samples enrolled the study. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected from electronic medical records. Samples were stained with CD45, CD19, CD3, CD56, CD11b, CD27, acquired on a FACS Canto II (BD Biosciences) and data analyzed with FlowJo V10 software. Results: A lower frequency of lymphocytes was observed in the disease when compared to controls (P < 0.0001) and frequency of NK cells were similar in both groups (P = 0.6605). Although frequency of CD27- CD11b- NK cells was lower in the disease (P = 0.0109), there was a significantly higher frequency of CD27+ CD11b- NK cells in COVID-19 samples when compared to controls (P < 0.0001), featuring a mostly immature profile in the disease. On the other hand, no statistical significance was observed regarding the frequencies of CD27+ CD11b+ (P = 0.1370) and CD27- CD11b+ NK cells with a more mature profile (P = 0.3094). Amongst disease groups, no statistical significance was found regarding frequency of NK cells and G1 showed lower frequency of CD27- CD11b- NK cells (P = 0.0226), while G3 group had an increased frequency of CD27+ CD11b- NK cells (P = 0.0238) when compared to the other groups and controls. Finally, no statistical significance was found in the frequency of CD27+ CD11b+ (P = 0.6691) and CD27- CD11b+ (P = 0.6270) NK cells between disease groups and controls. Conclusion: Although the frequency of NK cells did not show a significant difference between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, our findings showed a possible change in their maturation profile, which seems to be inversely proportional to normal, with the frequency of CD27+ CD11b- NK cells considerably higher in the disease. This phenotype is directly associated with secretory function of a more immature NK cell and is responsible for triggering inflammatory responses that could lead to severe respiratory failure, what seems to be consistent with COVID-19 profile. A high frequency of cytotoxic cells was observed, which seemed to be similar to what we found in normal heathy samples. Even though unregulated maturation might be associated to a dysfunctional mature NK cell, additional studies of cytotoxicity and activation of NK cells in COVID-19 are required to affirm whether there is functional exhaustion or hyperactivation of the cytotoxic subtypes of these cells.

3.
Giovanetti, M.; Slavov, S. N.; Fonseca, V.; Wilkinson, E.; Tegally, H.; Patané, J. S. L.; Viala, V. L.; San, J. E.; Rodrigues, E. S.; Vieira Santos, E.; Aburjaile, F.; Xavier, J.; Fritsch, H.; Ribeiro Adelino, T. E.; Pereira, F.; Leal, A.; Campos de Melo Iani, F.; de Carvalho Pereira, G.; Vazquez, C.; Mercedes Estigarribia Sanabria, G.; de Oliveira, E. C.; Demarchi, L.; Croda, J.; Dos Santos Bezerra, R.; Oliveira de Lima, L. P.; Martins, A. J.; Dos Santos Barros, C. R.; Marqueze, E. C.; de Souza Todao Bernardino, J.; Moretti, D. B.; Brassaloti, R. A.; de Lello Rocha Campos Cassano, R.; Drummond Sampaio Corrêa Mariani, P.; Kitajima, J. P.; Santos, B.; Proto-Siqueira, R.; Cantarelli, V. V.; Tosta, S.; Brandão Nardy, V.; Reboredo de Oliveira da Silva, L.; Astete Gómez, M. K.; Lima, J. G.; Ribeiro, A. A.; Guimarães, N. R.; Watanabe, L. T.; Barbosa Da Silva, L.; da Silva Ferreira, R.; MP, F. da Penha, Ortega, M. J.; Gómez de la Fuente, A.; Villalba, S.; Torales, J.; Gamarra, M. L.; Aquino, C.; Martínez Figueredo, G. P.; Fava, W. S.; Motta-Castro, A. R. C.; Venturini, J.; do Vale Leone de Oliveira, S. M.; Cavalheiro Maymone Gonçalves, C.; Debur Rossa, M. D. C.; Becker, G. N.; Presibella, M. M.; Marques, N. Q.; Riediger, I. N.; Raboni, S.; Coelho, G. M.; Cataneo, A. H. D.; Zanluca, C.; Dos Santos, C. N. D.; Assato, P. A.; Allan da Silva da Costa, F.; Poleti, M. D.; Chagas Lesbon, J. C.; Mattos, E. C.; Banho, C. A.; Sacchetto, L.; Moraes, M. M.; Tommasini Grotto, R. M.; Souza-Neto, J. A.; Nogueira, M. L.; Fukumasu, H.; Coutinho, L. L.; Calado, R. T.; Neto, R. M.; Bispo de Filippis, A. M.; Venancio da Cunha, R.; Freitas, C.; Leonel Peterka, C. R.; Rangel Fernandes, C. F.; de Araújo, W. N.; do Carmo Said, R. F.; Almiron, M.; Campelo de Albuquerque, E. Melo C. F.; Lourenço, J.; de Oliveira, T.; Holmes, E. C.; Haddad, R.; Sampaio, S. C.; Elias, M. C.; Kashima, S.; de Alcantara, L. C. J.; Covas, D. T..
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-332259

ABSTRACT

Brazil has experienced some of the highest numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths globally and from May 2021 made Latin America a pandemic epicenter. Although SARS-CoV-2 established sustained transmission in Brazil early in the pandemic, important gaps remain in our understanding of virus transmission dynamics at the national scale. Here, we describe the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 using near-full genomes sampled from 27 Brazilian states and a bordering country - Paraguay. We show that the early stage of the pandemic in Brazil was characterised by the co-circulation of multiple viral lineages, linked to multiple importations predominantly from Europe, and subsequently characterized by large local transmission clusters. As the epidemic progressed under an absence of effective restriction measures, there was a local emergence and onward international spread of Variants of Concern (VOC) and Variants Under Monitoring (VUM), including Gamma (P.1) and Zeta (P.2). In addition, we provide a preliminary genomic overview of the epidemic in Paraguay, showing evidence of importation from Brazil. These data reinforce the usefulness and need for the implementation of widespread genomic surveillance in South America as a toolkit for pandemic monitoring that provides a means to follow the real-time spread of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with possible implications for public health and immunization strategies.

4.
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy ; 42:401, 2020.
Article in Spanish | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-893818
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