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BMJ Open ; 12(2): e058171, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799217


INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 first struck New York City in the spring of 2020, resulting in an unprecedented strain on our healthcare system and triggering multiple changes in public health policy governing hospital operations as well as therapeutic approaches to COVID-19. We examined inpatient mortality at our centre throughout the course of the pandemic. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of clinical characteristics, treatments and outcome data of all patients admitted with COVID-19 from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021. Patients were grouped into 3-month quartiles. Hospital strain was assessed as per cent of occupied beds based on a normal bed capacity of 1491. RESULTS: Inpatient mortality decreased from 25.0% in spring to 10.8% over the course of the year. During this time, use of remdesivir, steroids and anticoagulants increased; use of hydroxychloroquine and other antibiotics decreased. Daily bed occupancy ranged from 62% to 118%. In a multivariate model with all year's data controlling for demographics, comorbidities and acuity of illness, percentage of bed occupancy was associated with increased 30-day in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 (0.7% mortality increase for each 1% increase in bed occupancy; HR 1.007, CI 1.001 to 1.013, p=0.004) CONCLUSION: Inpatient mortality from COVID-19 was associated with bed occupancy. Early reduction in epicentre hospital bed occupancy to accommodate acutely ill and resource-intensive patients should be a critical component in the strategic planning for future pandemics.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Bed Occupancy , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288910


AIMS: The association between cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and hypertension, and worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients has been previously demonstrated. However, the effect of a prior diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction on COVID-19 outcomes has not yet been established. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied all adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to our institution from March 1st to 2nd May 2020. Patients were grouped based on the presence or absence of HF. We used competing events survival models to examine the association between HF and death, need for intubation, or need for dialysis during hospitalization. Of 4043 patients admitted with COVID-19, 335 patients (8.3%) had a prior diagnosis of HF. Patients with HF were older, had lower body mass index, and a significantly higher burden of co-morbidities compared to patients without HF, yet the two groups presented to the hospital with similar clinical severity and similar markers of systemic inflammation. Patients with HF had a higher cumulative in-hospital mortality compared to patients without HF (49.0% vs. 27.2%, p < 0.001) that remained statistically significant (HR = 1.383, p = 0.001) after adjustment for age, body mass index, and comorbidities, as well as after propensity score matching (HR = 1.528, p = 0.001). Notably, no differences in mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, or renal replacement therapy were observed among HF patients with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of HF is a risk factor of death, substantially increasing in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19.

J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(24): e018475, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970883


Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a proinflammatory state with high mortality. Statins have anti-inflammatory effects and may attenuate the severity of COVID-19. Methods and Results An observational study of all consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a single center located in Bronx, New York, was conducted from March 1, 2020, to May 2, 2020. Patients were grouped as those who did and those who did not receive a statin, and in-hospital mortality was compared by competing events regression. In addition, propensity score matching and inverse probability treatment weighting were used in survival models to examine the association between statin use and death during hospitalization. A total of 4252 patients were admitted with COVID-19. Diabetes mellitus modified the association between statin use and in-hospital mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus on a statin (n=983) were older (69±11 versus 67±14 years; P<0.01), had lower inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, 10.2; interquartile range, 4.5-18.4 versus 12.9; interquartile range, 5.9-21.4 mg/dL; P<0.01) and reduced cumulative in-hospital mortality (24% versus 39%; P<0.01) than those not on a statin (n=1283). No difference in hospital mortality was noted in patients without diabetes mellitus on or off statin (20% versus 21%; P=0.82). Propensity score matching (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94; P<0.01) and inverse probability treatment weighting (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P<0.01) showed a 12% lower risk of death during hospitalization for statin users than for nonusers. Conclusions Statin use was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 in patients with diabetes mellitus. These findings, if validated, may further reemphasize administration of statins to patients with diabetes mellitus during the COVID-19 era.

COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors