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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335196

ABSTRACT

Summary The detailed mechanisms of COVID-19 infection pathology remain poorly understood. To improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathology, we performed a multi-omics analysis of an immunologically naïve SARS-CoV-2 clinical cohort from the plasma of uninfected controls, mild, and severe infections. A comparison of healthy controls and patient samples showed activation of neutrophil degranulation pathways and formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) complexes that were activated in a subset of the mild infections and more prevalent in severe infections (containing multiple NET proteins in individual patient samples). As a potential mechanism to suppress NET formation, multiple redox enzymes were elevated in the mild and severe symptom population. Analysis of metabolites from the same cohort showed a 24- and 60-fold elevation in plasma L-cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, which is a substrate of the powerful antioxidant glutathione, in mild and severe patients, respectively. Unique to patients with mild infections, the carnosine dipeptidase modifying enzyme (CNDP1) was up-regulated. The strong protein and metabolite oxidation signatures suggest multiple compensatory pathways working to suppress oxidation and NET formation in SARS-CoV-2 infections.

2.
Influenza & Other Respiratory Viruses ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1807133

ABSTRACT

Background Methods Results Conclusions The relative burden of COVID‐19 has been less severe in Japan. One reason for this may be the uniquely strict restrictions imposed upon bars/restaurants. To assess if this approach was appropriately targeting high‐risk individuals, we examined behavioral factors associated with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in the community.This multicenter case–control study involved individuals receiving SARS‐CoV‐2 testing in June–August 2021. Behavioral exposures in the past 2 weeks were collected via questionnaire. SARS‐CoV‐2 PCR‐positive individuals were cases, while PCR‐negative individuals were controls.The analysis included 778 individuals (266 [34.2%] positives;median age [interquartile range] 33 [27–43] years). Attending three or more social gatherings was associated with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.00 [95% CI 1.31–3.05]). Attending gatherings with alcohol (aOR 2.29 [1.53–3.42]), at bars/restaurants (aOR 1.55 [1.04–2.30]), outdoors/at parks (aOR 2.87 [1.01–8.13]), at night (aOR 2.07 [1.40–3.04]), five or more people (aOR 1.81 [1.00–3.30]), 2 hours or longer (aOR 1.76 [1.14–2.71]), not wearing a mask during gatherings (aOR 4.18 [2.29–7.64]), and cloth mask use (aOR 1.77 [1.11–2.83]) were associated with infection. Going to karaoke (aOR 2.53 [1.25–5.09]) and to a gym (aOR 1.87 [1.11–3.16]) were also associated with infection. Factors not associated with infection included visiting a cafe with others, ordering takeout, using food delivery services, eating out by oneself, and work/school/travel‐related exposures including teleworking.We identified multiple behavioral factors associated with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection, many of which were in line with the policy/risk communication implemented in Japan. Rapid assessment of risk factors can inform decision making. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Influenza & Other Respiratory Viruses is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Jpn J Radiol ; 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782926

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Using CT findings from a prospective, randomized, open-label multicenter trial of favipiravir treatment of COVID-19 patients, the purpose of this study was to compare the utility of machine learning (ML)-based algorithm with that of CT-determined disease severity score and time from disease onset to CT (i.e., time until CT) in this setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March to May 2020, 32 COVID-19 patients underwent initial chest CT before enrollment were evaluated in this study. Eighteen patients were randomized to start favipiravir on day 1 (early treatment group), and 14 patients on day 6 of study participation (late treatment group). In this study, percentages of ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticulation, consolidation, emphysema, honeycomb, and nodular lesion volumes were calculated as quantitative indexes by means of the software, while CT-determined disease severity was also visually scored. Next, univariate and stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine relationships between quantitative indexes and time until CT. Moreover, patient outcomes determined as viral clearance in the first 6 days and duration of fever were compared for those who started therapy within 4, 5, or 6 days as time until CT and those who started later by means of the Kaplan-Meier method followed by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. RESULTS: % GGO and % consolidation showed significant correlations with time until CT (p < 0.05), and stepwise regression analyses identified both indexes as significant descriptors for time until CT (p < 0.05). When divided all patients between time until CT of 4 days and that of more than 4 days, accuracy of the combined quantitative method (87.5%) was significantly higher than that of the CT disease severity score (62.5%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: ML-based CT texture analysis is equally or more useful for predicting time until CT for favipiravir treatment on COVID-19 patients than CT disease severity score.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331427

ABSTRACT

Background Little is known about the population prevalence of antibodies against emerging immune escape variants of SARS-CoV-2. Methods A population-based prevalence study was conducted in Yokohama City, the most populous municipality of Japan. Quantitative measurements of immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP-IgG) and qualitative measurements of neutralization antibodies against the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants were performed. Results Of 6,000 randomly selected residents aged 20–74, 1,277 participated in the study during a period from January 30 to February 28, 2022. Of them, 3% had prior diagnosis of COVID-19, 96% received at least two-doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and 94% were positive for SP-IgG. The positive rates of neutralizing antibodies were 28% to Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants in a random sample of 10% of participants (n=123) and 100% to BA.1 and BA.2 among participants who received the third vaccination at least 7 days before (n=66). Conclusions In this population-based prevalence study in Japan, most had SP-IgG antibodies but the overall neutralizing antibody positive rate was 28% against the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants. The population-level insufficient humoral immunity against the Omicron variants may explain the outbreak of COVID-19 during this period in Japan.

5.
Vaccine ; 40(19): 2652-2655, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764021

ABSTRACT

To evaluate vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated immunity at 6 months after completion of two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination, immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP IgG), 50% neutralizing antibody (NT50), and spot-forming cell (SFC) counts were evaluated by interferon-γ releasing ELISpot assay of 98 healthy subjects (median age, 43 years). The geometric mean titers of SP IgG and NT50 decreased from 95.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 79.8-113.4) to 5.7 (95% CI 4.9-6.7) and from 680.4 (588.0-787.2) to 130.4 (95% CI 104.2-163.1), respectively, at 3 weeks and 6 months after the vaccination. SP IgG titer was negatively correlated with age and alcohol consumption. Spot-forming cell counts at 6 months did not correlate with age, gender, and other parameters of the patients. SP IgG, NT50, and SFC titers were elevated in the breakthrough infected subjects. Although the levels of vaccine-induced antibodies dramatically declined at 6 months after vaccination, a certain degree of cellular immunity was observed irrespective of the age.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 811004, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715006

ABSTRACT

The successive emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants has presented a major challenge in the management of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. There are growing concerns regarding the emerging variants escaping vaccines or therapeutic neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants that are sporadically proliferating in vaccine-advanced countries. Subsequently, we created HiBiT-tagged virus-like particles displaying spike proteins derived from the variants to analyze the neutralizing efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and several therapeutic antibodies. We found that the Mu variant and a derivative of the Delta strain with E484K and N501Y mutations significantly evaded vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies. This trend was also observed in the Beta and Gamma variants, although they are currently not prevalent. Although 95.2% of the vaccinees exhibited prominent neutralizing activity against the prototype strain, only 73.8 and 78.6% of the vaccinees exhibited neutralizing activity against the Mu and the Delta derivative variants, respectively. A long-term analysis showed that 88.8% of the vaccinees initially exhibited strong neutralizing activity against the currently circulating Delta strain; the number decreased to 31.6% for the individuals at 6 months after vaccination. Notably, these variants were shown to be resistant to several therapeutic antibodies. Our findings demonstrate the differential neutralization efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and monoclonal antibodies against circulating variants, suggesting the need for pandemic alerts and booster vaccinations against the currently prevalent variants.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322550

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been difficult to distinguish between mild, moderate, and severe cases at an early stage for COVID-19 patients, making it challenging to decide an optimized treatment for each patient. This machine learning system could predict the clinical course and be used to develop a novel method to provide optimal treatment based on risk. Method: We applied machine learning techniques to international clinical data from a large cohort of patients with COVID-19 at 15 hospitals in Japan and three hospitals in New York City from January 1, 2020 to March 30, 2021. We analyzed clinical information of over 2000 COVID-19 patients comprising various races and ethnicities and built a severity and mortality prediction model. Furthermore, using a severity index with machine learning allowed early detection of patients most at-risk for developing severe illness to support the decision for the patient to receive optimized therapy. Findings: We developed an international COVID-19 early prediction model for use at the time of hospital admission that predicts disease severity and mortality with high accuracy, 0.88 (AUC). Using the novel method of severity-matched analysis to assess treatment effectiveness, in the high-risk group, the Kaplan–Meier estimates of mortality by Day 30 were 26% in the dexamethasone treatment group and 63% in the non-treatment group. The Kaplan–Meier estimates of mortality were low at 3% with remdesivir and dexamethasone in combination and 49% with no remdesivir and dexamethasone treatment by Day 30. There may be an add-on effect of remdesivir to conventional dexamethasone. Interpretation: The severity prediction index can be calculated, which can assist with an optimized treatment for COVID-19 patients in each risk group. The severity-matched treatment system could support the recommendation of optimized treatments, such as dexamethasone, remdesivir, or heparin, in high-risk groups by calculating the severity index predicted at the time of the first visit.Trial Registration Details: The trial registration number was 2020142NI. Funding Information: K.T., K.I., and Y.D. received funding from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) (19fk0108153h0001). K.T. received funding from AMED (19jm0610015h0001). K.T. received funding from the Healthy Longevity Global Grand Challenge, Catalyst Award.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests. Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was centrally reviewed by the Institutional Review Board of Tokyo University. The requirement for consent was waived given the retrospective and non-interventional nature of the study.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317164

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread worldwide. Because of the absence of reliable rapid diagnostic systems, patients with COVID-19 symptoms are suspected of disease. Computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected COVID-19 may be reasonable for triaging, and CT-first triage strategies have been proposed. However, clinical evaluation of a CT-first triage protocol is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the real-world efficacy and limitations of a CT-first triage strategy in patients with suspected COVID-19. Methods: : This was a single-center cohort study evaluating outpatients with suspected COVID-19 who underwent a medical examination at Yokohama City University Hospital and who were prospectively registered between 9 February and 5 May 2020. We treated patients according to the CT-first triage protocol. CT findings were classified into five categories according to the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS). With the CT-first triage protocol, patients with a suspicious clinical history, symptoms, or suspicious findings on chest CT were allocated to the COVID-19 suspected group. The primary outcome was efficacy of the CT-first triage protocol for outpatients with suspected COVID-19. We conducted additional analyses of the isolation time of outpatients with suspected COVID-19 and reached final diagnoses. Results: : In total, 108 outpatients with suspected COVID-19 were examined at our hospital. Forty-eight patients (44.9%) were categorized as CO-RADS 1, 26 patients (24.3%) as CO-RADS 2, 14 patients (13.1%) as CO-RADS 3, 6 patients (5.6%) as CO-RADS 4, and 13 patients (12.1%) as CO-RADS 5. One patient was excluded because of pregnancy. Using the CT-first triage protocol, 48 (44.9%) patients were suspected of having COVID-19. Nine patients (18.8%) in this group were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using polymerase chain reaction;no patients in the group not suspected of having COVID-19 were diagnosed with COVID-19 during follow up. The protocol significantly shortened the duration of isolation for the not-suspected versus the suspected group (70.5 vs. 1037.0 minutes, P < .001). Conclusions: : Our CT-first triage protocol was acceptable for triaging outpatients with suspected COVID-19. This protocol will be helpful for appropriate triage, especially in areas where polymerase chain reaction is limited.

9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686556

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological contact tracing is a powerful tool to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in persons with a close contact history with COVID-19-affected patients. However, it remains unclear whom and when should be PCR tested among the close contact subjects. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 817 close contact subjects, including 144 potentially SARS-CoV-2-infected persons. The patient characteristics and contact type, duration between the date of the close contact and specimen sampling, and PCR test results in PCR positive and negative persons were compared. Results: We found that male gender {adjusted odds ratio 1.747 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.180-2.608]}, age ≥ 60 [1.749 (95% CI 1.07-2.812)], and household contact [2.14 (95% CI 1.388-3.371)] are independent risk factors for close contact SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptomatic subjects were predicted 6.179 (95% CI 3.985-9.61) times more likely to be infected compared to asymptomatic ones. We could observe PCR test positivity between days 1 and 17 after close contact. However, no subject could be found with a Ct-value <30, considered less infective, after day 14 of close contact. Conclusions: Based on our results, we suggest that contact tracing should be performed on the high-risk subjects between days 3 and 13 after close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(2): ofab626, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650181

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection elicits varying degrees of protective immunity conferred by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). In this study, we report the persistence of nAb responses over 12 months after infection despite their decreasing trend noticed from 6 months. Methods: The study included sera from 497 individuals who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 between January and August 2020. Samples were collected at 6 and 12 months after onset. The titers of immunoglobulin (Ig)G to the viral nucleocapsid protein (NP) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. The nAb titer was determined using lentivirus-based pseudovirus or authentic virus. Results: Antibody titers of NP-IgG, RBD-IgG, and nAbs were higher in severe and moderate cases than in mild cases at 12 months after onset. Although the nAb levels were likely to confer adequate protection against wild-type viral infection, the neutralization activity to recently circulating variants in some of the mild cases (~30%) was undermined, implying the susceptibility to reinfection with the variants of concerns (VOCs). Conclusions: Coronavirus disease 2019 convalescent individuals have robust humoral immunity even at 12 months after infection albeit that the medical history and background of patients could affect the function and dynamics of antibody response to the VOCs.

11.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 273-278, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Levels of 50% neutralizing titer (NT50) reflect the a vaccine-induced humoral immunity after the vaccination against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Measurements of NT50 are difficult to implement in large quantities. A high-throughput laboratory test is expected for determining the level of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We analyzed samples from 168 Japanese healthcare workers who had completed two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. We analyzed immunoglobulin G (IgG) index values against spike protein (SP) using automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system AIA-CL and analyzed the background factors affecting antibody titer. SP IgG index was compared with 50% neutralization titers. RESULTS: The median SP IgG index values of the subjects (mean age = 43 years; 75% female) were 0.1, 1.35, 60.80, and 97.35 before and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the first dose, respectively. At 4 and 6 weeks after the first dose, SP IgG titers were found to have positive correlation with NT50 titer (r = 0.7535 in 4 weeks; r = 0.4376 in 6 weeks). Proportions of the SP IgG index values against the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants compared with the original strain were 2.029, 0.544, 1.017, and 0.6096 respectively. Older age was associated with lower SP IgG titer index 6 weeks after the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: SP IgG index values were rised at 3 weeks after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination and have positive correlation with NT50. SP IgG index values were lower in the older individuals and against Beta and Delta strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100734, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective vaccine against a novel viral pathogen, it is important to understand the longitudinal antibody responses against its first infection. Here we performed a longitudinal study of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients. METHODS: Sequential blood samples were collected from 39 individuals at various timepoints between 0 and 154 days after onset. IgG or IgM titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein were determined by using an ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by using a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS: The IgG titers to the RBD of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein peaked at about 20 days after onset, gradually decreased thereafter, and were maintained for several months after onset. Extrapolation modeling analysis suggested that the IgG antibodies were maintained for this amount of time because the rate of reduction slowed after 30 days post-onset. IgM titers to the RBD decreased rapidly and disappeared in some individuals after 90 days post-onset. All patients, except one, possessed neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2, which they retained at 90 days after onset. The highest antibody titers in patients with severe infections were higher than those in patients with mild or moderate infections, but the decrease in antibody titer in the severe infection cohort was more remarkable than that in the mild or moderate infection cohort. INTERPRETATION: Although the number of patients is limited, our results show that the antibody response against the first SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients is typical of that observed in an acute viral infection. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

16.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1212-1217, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many health care workers around the world tackled with COVID-19, however sadly, the infection of many medical care workers were reported. To reduce the risk of infection, we launched selected team (Team COVID) of non-specialists and brought in active telemedicine method and computed tomography (CT)-first protocol. We describe our actual practice and the health status of medical doctors dealing with COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Between April 17, 2020 and May 24, 2020, 10 doctors worked with COVID-19 patients as part of Team COVID. The Team COVID doctors used a CT-first triage protocol for outpatients and telemedicine for inpatients and outpatients. We evaluated paired serum-specific antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 at the initial and end of the study duration and PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 at the end of the study duration. Furthermore, 36-item short-form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire (SF-36) at the beginning and end of the study period were evaluated. RESULTS: Ten doctors worked as Team COVID: seven internal medicine doctors and three surgeons. During the study period, Team COVID treated 165 individuals in the outpatient clinic and isolated hospitalized patients for 315 person-days. There were no positive results of serum-specific antibody testing and PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Team COVID doctors. Furthermore, the SF-36 showed no deterioration in physical and mental QOL status. No in-hospital infection occurred during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The Team COVID fulfilled the treatment using the active telemedicine and CT-first triage protocol without in hospital infection and excess stress. The combination strategy seems acceptable for both the protection and stress relief among the medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triage
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276013

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26161, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258818

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to spread worldwide. Because of the absence of reliable rapid diagnostic systems, patients with symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 are treated as suspected of the disease. Use of computed tomography findings in Coronavirus disease 2019 are expected to be a reasonable method for triaging patients, and computed tomography-first triage strategies have been proposed. However, clinical evaluation of a computed tomography-first triage protocol is lacking.The aim of this study is to investigate the real-world efficacy and limitations of a computed tomography-first triage strategy in patients with suspected Coronavirus disease 2019.This was a single-center cohort study evaluating outpatients with fever who received medical examination at Yokohama City University Hospital, prospectively registered between 9 February and 5 May 2020. We treated according to the computed tomography-first triage protocol. The primary outcome was efficacy of the computed tomography-first triage protocol for patients with fever in an outpatient clinic. Efficacy of the computed tomography-first triage protocol for outpatients with fever was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. We conducted additional analyses of the isolation time of feverish outpatients and final diagnoses.In total, 108 consecutive outpatients with fever were examined at our hospital. Using the computed tomography-first triage protocol, 48 (44.9%) patients were classified as suspected Coronavirus disease 2019. Nine patients (18.8%) in this group were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using polymerase chain reaction; no patients in the group considered less likely to have Coronavirus disease 2019 tested positive for the virus. The protocol significantly shortened the duration of isolation for the not-suspected versus the suspected group (70.5 vs 1037.0 minutes, P < .001).Our computed tomography-first triage protocol was acceptable for screening patients with suspected Coronavirus disease 2019. This protocol will be helpful for appropriate triage, especially in areas where polymerase chain reaction is inadequate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Clinical Protocols , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Young Adult
19.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 661187, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241181

ABSTRACT

Objective: There is scarce evidence regarding the long-term persistence of neutralizing antibodies among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. This study determined neutralizing antibody titers (NT50) and antibodies against spike protein (SP) or nucleocapsid protein (NP) antigens approximately 6 months after the diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: COVID-19 survivors in Japan were recruited. Serum samples and data related to patients' characteristics and COVID-19 history were collected. NT50 and titers of antibodies against NP and SP antigens were measured at 20-32 weeks after the first positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results. Factors associated with NT50 were identified using the multivariable linear regression and the correlations among NT50 and titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total immunoglobulins (Igs) against NP and SP were assessed by Spearman's correlation. Results: Among 376 participants (median [range] days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, 180 (147-224); median [range] years of age, 50 (20-78); 188 [50%] male), most tested positive for NT50 (n = 367, 98%), SP-IgG (n = 344, 91%), SP-total Ig (n = 369, 98%), NP-IgG (n = 314, 84%), and NP-total Ig (n = 365, 97%). Regression analysis indicated that higher BMI, fever, and the requirement of mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were significantly associated with higher NT50. Anti-SP antibodies correlated moderately with NT50 (Spearman's correlation: 0.63 for SP IgG; 0.57 for SP-total Ig), while the correlation was weak for anti-NP antibodies (0.37 for NP IgG; 0.32 for NP-total Ig). Conclusions: Most COVID-19 survivors had sustained neutralizing antibodies and tested positive for SP-total Ig and NP-total Ig approximately 6 months after infection.

20.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 34, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183584

ABSTRACT

REMAP-CAP, a randomized, embedded, multifactorial adaptive platform trial for community-acquired pneumonia, is an international clinical trial that is rapidly expanding its scope and scale in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Japan is now joining REMAP-CAP with endorsement from Japanese academic societies. Commitment to REMAP-CAP can significantly contribute to population health through timely identification of optimal COVID-19 therapeutics. Additionally, it will promote the establishment of a national and global network of clinical trials to tackle future pandemics of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, in collaboration with multiple stakeholders, including front-line healthcare workers, governmental agencies, regulatory authorities, and academic societies.

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