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1.
Influenza & Other Respiratory Viruses ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1807133

ABSTRACT

Background Methods Results Conclusions The relative burden of COVID‐19 has been less severe in Japan. One reason for this may be the uniquely strict restrictions imposed upon bars/restaurants. To assess if this approach was appropriately targeting high‐risk individuals, we examined behavioral factors associated with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in the community.This multicenter case–control study involved individuals receiving SARS‐CoV‐2 testing in June–August 2021. Behavioral exposures in the past 2 weeks were collected via questionnaire. SARS‐CoV‐2 PCR‐positive individuals were cases, while PCR‐negative individuals were controls.The analysis included 778 individuals (266 [34.2%] positives;median age [interquartile range] 33 [27–43] years). Attending three or more social gatherings was associated with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.00 [95% CI 1.31–3.05]). Attending gatherings with alcohol (aOR 2.29 [1.53–3.42]), at bars/restaurants (aOR 1.55 [1.04–2.30]), outdoors/at parks (aOR 2.87 [1.01–8.13]), at night (aOR 2.07 [1.40–3.04]), five or more people (aOR 1.81 [1.00–3.30]), 2 hours or longer (aOR 1.76 [1.14–2.71]), not wearing a mask during gatherings (aOR 4.18 [2.29–7.64]), and cloth mask use (aOR 1.77 [1.11–2.83]) were associated with infection. Going to karaoke (aOR 2.53 [1.25–5.09]) and to a gym (aOR 1.87 [1.11–3.16]) were also associated with infection. Factors not associated with infection included visiting a cafe with others, ordering takeout, using food delivery services, eating out by oneself, and work/school/travel‐related exposures including teleworking.We identified multiple behavioral factors associated with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection, many of which were in line with the policy/risk communication implemented in Japan. Rapid assessment of risk factors can inform decision making. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Influenza & Other Respiratory Viruses is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3253-3261, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542847

ABSTRACT

A coronavirus brought the first pandemic attack of this century as a flu virus did a hundred years ago. This greatest pandemic of the century brings us new opportunities to understand and explore the dynamics of a contagious disease. Nearly two years later, we are still collecting the evidence to understand the disease. Some basic epidemiological properties are still urgently needed. Not only the origin of the virus but also Ro value, possible transmission routes, epidemiologic curves, case fatality rates, seasonality, severity and mortality risk factor, effects on the risk groups, differences between countries and so on still require strong evidence prior to making final suggestions. In this review, we tried to evaluate the epidemiological evidence to scrutinize where exactly we are in this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi ; 109(11):2323-2326, 2020.
Article in Japanese | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1511923
5.
JMA J ; 4(3): 191-197, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353052

ABSTRACT

Case management of COVID-19 is critically important to save lives and reduce the fear and anxiety evoked by this disease in communities. However, most healthcare systems have been overwhelmed in many parts of the world. It is also essential to screen patients to be able to identify those who are likely to suffer from severe disease, to ensure more effective use of medical resources. Disease severity can be determined based on simple vital signs; some laboratory markers are useful adjuncts. Treatment for COVID-19 is largely supportive although a number of repurposed drugs have been evaluated for its efficacy in clinical trials. For example, dexamethasone has now been considered as a standard therapy for severe cases, while remdesivir and tocilizumab are promising agents in selected patient groups.

7.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e540, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198065

ABSTRACT

The risk of encountering human-to-human infections, including emerging infectious diseases, should be adequately and appropriately addressed in the emergency department. However, guidelines based on sufficient evidence on infection control in the emergency department have not been developed anywhere in the world. Each facility examines and implements its own countermeasures. The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine has established the "Committee for Infection Control in the Emergency Department" in cooperation with the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, Japanese Society for Infection Prevention and Control, Japanese Society for Emergency Medicine, and Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology. A joint working group has been established to consider appropriate measures. This group undertook a comprehensive and multifaceted review of infection control measures for emergency outpatients and related matters, and released a checklist for infection control in emergency departments. This checklist has been prepared such that even small emergency departments with few or no emergency physicians can control infection by following the checklist, without committing any major errors. The checklist includes a control system for infection control, education, screening, and vaccination, prompt response to suspected infections, and management of the risk of infection in facilities. In addition, the timing of the check and interval at which the check is carried out are specified as categories. We hope that this checklist will contribute to improving infection control in the emergency department.

8.
The Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine ; 109(11):2323-2326, 2020.
Article in Japanese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-946743

ABSTRACT

In the event of an outbreak of an emerging viral infection, healthcare organizations have a role to provide patients with the best practicable care at the time, while preventing nosocomial infection. The Guide to Clinical Practice for Infectious Diseases of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been revised since its publication in March 2020. It is believed that it has played a role as a communication tool between government agencies and medical institutions.

9.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
10.
Turk J Med Sci ; 50(SI-1): 563-570, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823155

ABSTRACT

It seems that coronaviruses take an important place in the 21th century history. Five of seven human coronavirus was isolated in this century. Unfortunately, last three of them entered our life with a fear of outbreak, pandemic or death. Last human coronavirus which emerged world from Wuhan China, SARS CoV-2 and its clinical expression, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) recently taken a significant place in our daily practice. Initial reports showed that, its origin was bats. It transmitted human to human by droplet and contact routes, but some doubt about airborne, fecal or intrauterine transmission also should be removed. Its R0 value is 2.3 but it could be as high as 5.7. Its case fatality rate was 6.3, but it was different in different ages and counties, and it could be over 15%. According to early models total 10­12 weeks is required to control an outbreak in the community. While different countries show different daily case numbers, total number of case, case mortality rates or R0, it seems they show a similar epidemic curve. Every day we learn new data about the current outbreak. Since the outbreak is not over yet, every detail should be evaluated carefully and the updates should be followed closely to monitor the epidemiological properties of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636249

ABSTRACT

The clinical performances of six molecular diagnostic tests and a rapid antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were clinically evaluated for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in self-collected saliva. Saliva samples from 103 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (15 asymptomatic and 88 symptomatic) were collected on the day of hospital admission. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva was detected using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) laboratory-developed test (LDT), a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, three direct RT-qPCR kits, and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The viral antigen was detected by a rapid antigen immunochromatographic assay. Of the 103 samples, viral RNA was detected in 50.5 to 81.6% of the specimens by molecular diagnostic tests, and an antigen was detected in 11.7% of the specimens by the rapid antigen test. Viral RNA was detected at significantly higher percentages (65.6 to 93.4%) in specimens collected within 9 days of symptom onset than in specimens collected after at least 10 days of symptoms (22.2 to 66.7%) and in specimens collected from asymptomatic patients (40.0 to 66.7%). Self-collected saliva is an alternative specimen option for diagnosing COVID-19. The RT-qPCR LDT, a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, direct RT-qPCR kits (except for one commercial kit), and RT-LAMP showed sufficient sensitivities in clinical use to be selectively used in clinical settings and facilities. The rapid antigen test alone is not recommended for an initial COVID-19 diagnosis because of its low sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoassay/standards , Immunoassay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Young Adult
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