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1.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 26(1): 105-111, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dysgeusia and anosmia have been liked to COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of dysgeusia and anosmia in COVID-19 patients treated at the University of Florida Health Center and establish the odds of having an olfactory and gustatory disorder with a confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study utilizing the University of Florida Health Center patients' registry i2b2 platform to search for ICD 10 diagnoses of COVID-19 infection and taste and smell disturbances. We assessed the odds ratio for patients with dysgeusia and anosmia having a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection using a logistic regression model adjusting for gender, race, age, and comorbidity conditions. P < 0.05 was deemed significant. RESULTS: Out of 889 individuals that tested positive for COVID-19, 12.88% were diagnosed with taste and smell disturbances. The odds ratio for COVID-19 for people with dysgeusia and anosmia was 39.107. After adjusting for sex, age, and race, it was 41.9, 37, and 34.2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Taste and smell disturbances in COVID-19 are not anecdotal. It is paramount that oral and maxillofacial surgeons include taste and smell disturbances in the history and physical examination as these symptoms are suspicious of active COVID-19 infection. Patients presenting with an olfactory and gustatory disorder should undergo further evaluations for COVID-19 infection and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should enhance the personal protective equipment used when treating these patients to prevent further spread of the infection and protect other healthcare members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nutrition ; 90: 111361, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322296
3.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2021 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reactivation of herpes family viruses in immunocompromised patients may result in detrimental outcomes for the hosts; therefore, herpes simplex virus-1 and varicella zoster virus infections in the context of COVID-19 may have clinical and prognostic implications. Several reports associated this human herpes virus with COVID-19 infection and have claimed that it can be an indicator for latent COVID-19 infection. However, since most of these were case reports, it is impossible to assess the prevalence of these associations. METHODS: The University of Florida patient registry i2b2 with ICD-10 diagnosis codes was used for retrieval of patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 and each of the other viruses over the period of October 2015-June 2020. RESULTS: The prevalence of the herpes simplex-1 occurrence in the COVID-19 group was 2.81% compared to 0.77% in the hospital population odds ratio of 5.27. When adjusted for gender, race, and age, the odds were 5.18, 4.48, and 4.61, respectively. After adjustment for respiratory disease, endocrine disease, obesity, diabetes, circulatory disease, and smoking, the odds were 1.94, 3.18, 1.37, 3.54, 3.7, and 5.1, respectively. The prevalence of the varicella zoster virus in COVID-19 patients was 1.8% compared to 0.43% in the hospital population, odds ratio of 5.26 before adjustment, and 5.2, 5.47, and 4.76 after adjusting for gender, age, and race, respectively. When adjusted for respiratory disease, endocrine disease, obesity, diabetes, and circulatory and neurological diseases, the odds were 1.3, 2.2, 1.48, 2.33, 2.85, and 2.6, respectively. CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex-1 and varicella zoster viruses are strongly associated with COVID-19 infection.

4.
Quintessence Int ; 52(8): 714-718, 2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Candida albicans in considered to be a marker of immunosuppression in serious chronic condition such as HIV and cancer patients on immunosuppresion medications. The new COVID-19 pandemic has caused acute respiratory distress syndrome in many patients, which poses a risk of super-infections including Candida strains causing oral candidiasis as well as invasive fungal infections. The aim of the study was to examine the association between COVID-19 and oral and general candidiasis. METHOD AND MATERIALS: The i2b2 data repository platform was used to analyze the interrelations between COVID-19, oral candidiasis, and total candidiasis in a hospital population. ICD diagnoses codes were used to generate queries on total numbers and demographic data on COVID-19, oral candidasis, total candidasis, and COVID-19 with each form of candidasis. RESULTS: From the 889 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 106 (12%) were diagnosed with candidiasis at large and 14 (1.6%) had oral candidiasis. The odds ratio (OR) for COVID-19 in the presence of oral candidiasis was 2.01 (95% CI 1.1870 to 3.4143, P = .094) and the OR for COVID-19 in the presence of candidiasis was 3.73 (95% CI 3.0419 to 4.5847, P < .0001 ). African American were disproportionally affected and comprised about 40% of the COVID-19/candidiasis groups. CONCLUSIONS: Total candidiasis was significantly associated with increased risk for COVID-19, whereas oral candidiasis showed an insignificant trend. The dental practitioner should be aware of the importance of unexplained oral and systemic candidiasis as a potential harbinger of T and B cell immunosuppression associated with viral in-fections. COVID-19 may be a risk factor for total candidiasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidiasis, Oral , Candidiasis , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dentists , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Professional Role , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 26(1): 105-111, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217439

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dysgeusia and anosmia have been liked to COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of dysgeusia and anosmia in COVID-19 patients treated at the University of Florida Health Center and establish the odds of having an olfactory and gustatory disorder with a confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study utilizing the University of Florida Health Center patients' registry i2b2 platform to search for ICD 10 diagnoses of COVID-19 infection and taste and smell disturbances. We assessed the odds ratio for patients with dysgeusia and anosmia having a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection using a logistic regression model adjusting for gender, race, age, and comorbidity conditions. P < 0.05 was deemed significant. RESULTS: Out of 889 individuals that tested positive for COVID-19, 12.88% were diagnosed with taste and smell disturbances. The odds ratio for COVID-19 for people with dysgeusia and anosmia was 39.107. After adjusting for sex, age, and race, it was 41.9, 37, and 34.2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Taste and smell disturbances in COVID-19 are not anecdotal. It is paramount that oral and maxillofacial surgeons include taste and smell disturbances in the history and physical examination as these symptoms are suspicious of active COVID-19 infection. Patients presenting with an olfactory and gustatory disorder should undergo further evaluations for COVID-19 infection and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should enhance the personal protective equipment used when treating these patients to prevent further spread of the infection and protect other healthcare members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrition ; 84: 111106, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionally affected a variety of patients with underlying risk factors such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and black race. Vitamin D deficiency, which can result in a compromised immune response, has been also linked to increased risk and increased morbidities associated with COVID-19. In the absence of large-scale longitudinal studies to determine the strength of association between vitamin deficiency and COVID-19, cross-sectional studies of large patient cohorts can be used. METHODS: We used the i2b2 patient's registry platform at the University of Florida Health Center to generate a count of patients using the international classification of diseases (ICD)-10 diagnosis codes for the period of October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2020. Logistic regression of the aggregates was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be positive for COVID-19 (indicated by the ICD-10 diagnostic code COVID19) than patients with no deficiency (P < 0.001). The association decreased slightly after adjusting for sex (odds ratio [OR] = 4.58; P < 0.001) and malabsorption (OR = 4.46; P < 0.001), respectively. The association decreased significantly but remained robust (P < 0.001) after adjusting for race (OR = 3.76; P < 0.001), periodontal disease status (OR = 3.64; P < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 3.28; P < 0.001), and obesity (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001), respectively. In addition, patients with vitamin D deficiency were 5 times more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than patients with no deficiency after adjusting for age groups (OR = 5.155; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with increased risk for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Young Adult
7.
Journal of Environmental Engineering ; 147(4), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1039669

ABSTRACT

The transport of virus-laden particles was investigated numerically in an archetypical supermarket configuration of area 1,200  m2 and ceiling height of 4.5  m. The particles were tracked using a Lagrangian particle tracking code coupled with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model Ansys Fluent. Air transport was assumed to occur due to indoor ventilation. Flow dynamics were simulated using the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach. The movement and spreading of 5- and 20-μm particles were studied with 0%, 25%, and 100% attachment efficiencies on surfaces in the supermarket. We found that the indoor airflows can significantly enhance the transport of particles (e.g., >15  m for 5  μm, and >5  m for 20  μm);therefore, the 6-ft (2.0  m) social distance recommended by health experts would not be sufficient to prevent the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We found that the attachment on surfaces reduces the transport of particles significantly within the supermarket, and that an attachment efficiency of 25% results in transport similar to that resulting from 100% efficiency. This suggests that the type of surfaces is not crucial in terms of air transport of particles. We support the existing approaches for reducing exposure between people through the adoption of one-way movement within an aisle. However, we also propose placing display shelves within the aisles in a staggered way to form baffles that would both increase the surface area and block the transport of airborne particles. We found that virus-laden particles could be sucked into the ventilation system through return vents, and could pose potential infection risks for the buildings connected to the same ventilation system. Hence, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and pleated filters with a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) greater than 12 are recommended.

9.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 50(1): 114-117, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868216

ABSTRACT

The ACE2 receptor, the binding sites for the COVID-19, is expressed abundantly in the oral cavity, raising the question of whether the mouth is a target for the virus in addition to organs such as kidneys and lungs. Recently, a flurry of individual case reports on oral manifestation of COVID-19 including ulceration, blistering lesions, and stomatitis were published. However, it is not clear whether the oral presentations that are not unique to the virus are indeed related to the virus and appear at a higher prevalence than in the general population. We used the i2b2 platform of hospital patient's registry to determine the odds ratio for COVID-19 in patients that were diagnosed with recurrent aphthous stomatitis, an entity restricted to the oral cavity. The overall odds ratio for COVID-19 in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis before adjustments was 14 and after adjustment for gender, race, and age was 13.9, 6.5, and 2.93, respectively. The odds ratio remained increased after adjustments of the comorbidities such as respiratory disease, endocrine disease, obesity, diabetes, circulatory disease, and smoking and was 3.66, 7.46, 4.6, 10.54, 7.37, and 7.52, respectively. When adjusted for recurrent aphthous stomatitis, the respiratory disease had an odd ratio of 8.56 to be associated with COVID-19. African American race and age-group 18-34 were additional significant risk factors. The present study has demonstrated a significant association between COVID-19 and RAS; however, additional longitudinal and laboratory studies are necessary to establish a cause and effect relationship between these 2 conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stomatitis, Aphthous , Humans , Odds Ratio , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomatitis, Aphthous/epidemiology
10.
Oral Dis ; 28 Suppl 1: 991-993, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852470
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