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1.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 35(1):103-108, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2326241

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic continues its deadly reign all over the world. Devising effective strategies for detecting and controlling the infection has become ever more critical. Effective prevention and control of the pandemic is entirely dependent on human behavior in terms of practicing preventive and curative measures. During the second wave of COVID-19, people's perceptions of preventive and curative measures changed.Objective: To study healthcare-seeking behavior of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.Methods: Hospitalized patients due to COVID-19 in the month of March, April and May of 2021 were included in the study. Their attendants/close relatives were contacted telephonically to know about the admitted patients' healthcare-seeking behavior. Verbal consent was taken from attendants before the commencement of the interview, followed by informing them about the purpose of the interview.Results: Amongst the subjects, there were more males than females (67.5 vs 32.4%), age ranged between 18 to 88 with a mean value of 56.61 +/- 14.7 years. Self-medication was significantly associated with study subjects' mortality (p=0.03).Conclusion: Elderly people were having higher mortality rate than their younger counterparts. People were hesitant to visit primary care physicians after having symptoms of COVID-19.

2.
Delineating Health and Health System: Mechanistic Insights into Covid 19 Complications ; : 349-368, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2325852

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, various studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus in spreading to extrapulmonary sites, thereby leading to multiorgan failure and eventually death in highly susceptible individuals. The scourge of the virus world over has led to a severe impact (direct and indirect) on the mental health of individuals belonging to all age groups. In this context, the role of gut microbiota in influencing mental health via the gut-brain axis holds immense significance. Recent evidences have highlighted the possible link between COVID-19 infection, gut dysbiosis, and various psychological and neurological abnormalities. Thus, maintenance of a healthy gut microbiome becomes imperative given the absence of a definite cure to such a dangerous illness as COVID-19. Various strategies such as regular intake of a healthy diet and personalized nutrition, co-supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, and psychobiotics, should be adopted wherein gut microbiota profile can be manipulated for providing multiple benefits to the host. Religiously following such practices will not only enrich the gut with beneficial microbes and boost host immunity but also prove to be a strong prophylactic measure in reducing the incidence/severity of diseases such as COVID-19 virulence and result in improved prognosis of infected individuals. © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021.

3.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10):S527-S528, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2307726
4.
Social Issues and Policy Review ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2307671
5.
Virtual Economics ; 5(2):95-113, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2303563

ABSTRACT

Virtual digital assets including cryptocurrencies, non-fungible tokens and decentralized financial asset have been initially used as an alternative currency but are currently being purchased as an asset and hedging instruments. Exponentially growing trading volume witnesses the growing inclination of investors towards these assets, and this calls for volatility analysis of these assets. In this reference, the present study assessed and compared the volatility of returns from investment in virtual digital assets, equity and commodity market. Daily closing prices of selected cryptocurrencies, non-fungible tokens and decentralized financial assets, stock indices and commodities have been analysed forthe post-covid period. Since returns were observed to be heteroscedastic, autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic models have been used to assess the volatility. The results indicate a low correlation of commodity investment with all other investment opportunities. Also, Tether and Dai have been observed to be negatively correlated with stock market. This indicates the possibility of minimizing risk through portfolio diversification. In terms of average returns, virtual digital assets are discerned to be better options than equity stock or commodity yet the variance scenario of these investment avenues is not very rosy. The volatility parameters reveal that unlike commodity market, virtual digital assets have got a significant impact of external shocks in the short-run. Further, the long run persistency of shocks is observed to be higher for the UK stock market, followed by Ethereum, Tether and Dai. The present analysis is crucial as the decision about its acceptance as legal tender money is still sub-judice in some countries. The results are expected to provide insight to regulatory bodies about these assets. © Author(s) 2022.

6.
Natural Products Journal ; 13(4):11-41, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2298289

ABSTRACT

Hyssopus officinalis is a traditional medicinal plant that belongs to the family Lamiaceae, which has been used for centuries for various purposes like carminative, expectorant, and cough reliever. It has been used for the treatment of numerous diseases in patients such as ulcers, asthma, jaundice, leprosy, dropsy, bronchitis, COPD, diabetes, AIDS, bacterial and fungal infections as an herbal remedy due to its fewer side effects and is more efficacies than other traditional medicine. Major classes of chemical compounds found in H. officinalis essential oil are bicyclic monoter-penes, monoterpenoids, acyclic monoterpenes, phenolic monoterpenoids, monocyclic monoterpenes, monocyclic sesquiterpenes, tricyclic sesquiterpenes, bicyclic sesquiterpenes, tricyclic sesquiterpe-noids, straight chain saturated hydrocarbons. Some of the major chemical constituents present in the H. officinalis are beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, 1, 8-cineole, apigenin, diosmin, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, cis-pinocamphone, trans-pinocamphone, iso-pinocamphone, pinocarvone, which are responsible for its various pharmacological activity. Various studies have been performed on the pharmacological activity of its extract, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-leishmanial, anthelmintic, anti-protozoal, and anti-anxiety. Recently, it is used as an anticancer agent and has been demonstrated by studying its cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on breast cancer and colon cancer cells. It is used as a potent antibacterial and antifungal agent being studied on the antibiotic-resistant bacterial and fungal strains recently, which can be further useful in developing herbal medicine against AMR. It is an excellent natural antioxidant due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, and H. officinalis is used in various food industries as a source of natural antioxidants, which has minimum side effects as compared to artificial antioxi-dants. Furthermore, the pharmacological activity of these individual chemical constituents in H. officinalis extract still needs to be investigated for identifying the effectiveness of this plant in the natural treatment of various diseases. This review aims to collect various data regarding the traditional herbal plant hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), including its photochemistry, chemical structures of the phyto-constituents and pharmacological profile, along with all the pharmacological models. This plant has significant importance in the health industry, so further studies are required on its effective usage against various emerging health problems, including COVID-19, cancer, diabetes, AMR.Copyright © 2023 Bentham Science Publishers.

7.
Annals of International Medical and Dental Research ; 8(5):73-78, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2297599

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection poses tremendous challenge to the healthcare system of nations across the globe. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are crucial to the ongoing response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. During the course of their work, they are exposed to hazards that place them at the risk of infection. Serological testing for SARS-CoV2 among healthcare workers, which form a high risk group helps in identifying the burden of hidden infection in an institutional setting. The present study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs during 1st and 2nd wave. Material & Methods: A prospective study was conducted at Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Government Medical College, Amritsar during June July 2020 (1st wave)and April May 2021(2nd wave). During this period, 184 blood samples were collected from healthcare workers from Government Medical College and Hospital, Amritsar. Serum was separated and used for detection of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies by ELISA technique. Results: Out of the 184 samples, 79 (42.9%) were found to be seropositive. Higher seropositivity was seen i.e 60.8% during the 2nd wave (April-May 2021) as compared to 25% during 1st wave. The increase in seroprevalence was observed in almost all categories of HCWs, Doctors 44.4% vz 13.04%, nurses 54.8% vz 34.7%, lab technicians 72% vz 30.4% and housekeeping staff 72.2% vz 21.7%. Also the unvaccinated HCWs showed higher seroprevalence during the second wave and 87.5% of vaccinated HCWs had demonstrable IgG antibodies. Conclusions: High seropositivity was observed among healthcare workers due to their nature of work. Rise of seropositivity among unvaccinated HCWs during 2nd wave concludes that increase in seroprevalence was attributable to natural infection. The vaccine's immunological response was also highlighted in the study.

8.
Coronaviruses ; 3(1):42-48, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2270332

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 was the most challenging period due to the havoc caused by the outbreak of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Scientists and researchers all around the world have endeav-ored every possible approach to find solutions in context to therapeutics and vaccines to control the spread of this life-threatening virus. The acceleration instigated by the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutated strains has leveraged the use of numerous platform technologies for the development of vaccines against this unfathomable disease. Vaccines could play an important role in miti-gating the effects of COVID-19 and reducing the ongoing health crisis. Various innovative plat-forms like proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and viral vectors have been exploited to fabricate vaccines depicting almost 90% of efficacy like BNT162b2, AZD1222, Ad5-nCoV, etc. Some of these vaccines are multipotent and have shown potent activity against newly emerged malicious strains of SARS-CoV-2 like B.1.351 and B.1.1.7. In this review article, we have gathered key findings from various sources of recently popularized vaccine candidates, which will provide an overview of potential vaccine candidates against this virus and will help the researchers to investi-gate possible ways to annihilate this menace and design new moieties.Copyright © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

9.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 14(2):2565-2576, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2285369

ABSTRACT

Success in school depends on pupils having strong emotional intelligence. In the battle against aberrant conduct, improving a person's emotional and social control is essential. Blended learning settings were the subject of this study, which assessed students' emotional intelligence and learning styles. Blended learning is a new educational approach that arose as a result of the blending of classroom instruction with internet resources. However, this study also examined the impact that cognitive engagement plays in the association between learning styles and emotional intelligence. To measure emotional intelligence, cognitive engagement, and learning styles, 340 students in Hunan Province, China, completed a 26-item paper-based questionnaire. Personality traits and self-consciousness were also included in the evaluation of emotional intelligence. Structural equation modeling was performed using SmartPLS software to uncover the connections between the variables. According to the research, self-consciousness and self-disciplined have a clear, significant, and favorable relationship with learning styles. Cognitive engagement was also found to have significant and favorable indirect correlations with learning styles for the four components of emotional intelligence (selfconsciousness/self-disciplined/emotional management/learning styles). COVID-19 showed students had more difficulty developing learning styles in mixed learning contexts, but emotional intelligence helped them to achieve When students are actively engaged in their learning through cognitively challenging assignments, learning styles and emotional intelligence are more closely linked. To improve students' emotional and cognitive engagement, institutions might use a number of different assessments. The study also examined the consequences for academics, practitioners, and the management of the institution. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results is the property of ResearchTrentz and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

10.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 17(Supplement 1):i643-i644, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2253532

ABSTRACT

Background: Ozanimod, an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator, is approved in the European Union and United States for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) and relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). A previous analysis of data from UC and multiple sclerosis (MS) open-label extension (OLE) studies showed that most patients with confirmed coronavirus infection (COVID-19) had nonserious infections, recovered, and did not require ozanimod discontinuation. Some immunomodulators and biologics may attenuate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine response;therefore, this analysis evaluated humoral immune responses and predictors of response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with RMS treated with ozanimod. Method(s): RMS participants who completed a phase 1-3 ozanimod trial could enter an OLE trial (DAYBREAK;NCT02576717) of ozanimod 0.92 mg/d. This analysis (January 2020-October 2021) included DAYBREAK participants receiving mRNA or non-mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (1-2 doses, vaccine-dependent) with no evidence of recent infection (ie, nucleocapsid antibody negative). Receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody titers were analysed (Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay;Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) prevaccination, after 1 dose, and <4, 4-8, 8-12, and >12 weeks after full vaccination. Fisher's exact tests and regression models determined association with seroconversion and log2 antibody levels. Result(s): Demographics were similar between the mRNA and nonmRNA vaccine recipients (Table). Seroconversion (>=0.8 U/mL spike RBD antibody) occurred in 100% (80/80) of fully vaccinated mRNA recipients and 62% (18/29) of fully vaccinated non-mRNA vaccine recipients. Higher spike RBD antibody levels were seen with mRNA (grand mean: 512.6 U/mL, range: 1.3-4572.0) vs non-mRNA (grand mean: 39.3 U/mL, range: 0.4-368.5) vaccines at all time points studied. Vaccination with a non-mRNA vaccine predicted lower antibody levels (beta: -5.90 [95% CI: -6.99 to -4.82];P<0.0001) and less seroconversion (Fisher's exact: P<0.0001), whereas age, sex, body mass index, and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) did not. Conclusion(s): Participants receiving ozanimod developed humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, with 100% seroconversion after mRNA vaccination;this was independent of demographic characteristics and ALC levels at time of vaccination. However, some participants developed lower antibody concentrations and may benefit from booster doses. These findings provide important information for physicians managing ozanimod-treated patients with UC or MS.

11.
International Journal of Social Economics ; 50(1):128-147, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2242048

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19 pandemic has shattered the economic systems all around the world while creating numerous problems which were faced by all, especially international migrants. The present study offers a qualitative and quantitative perspective on the distress of international migrants and their repatriation intention during the pandemic period. Design/methodology/approach: In-depth semi-structured interviews of 30 respondents belonging to five host nations, Australia, the USA, the UK, New Zealand and Canada, revealed diverse issues. Based on qualitative study findings and past literature, 22 purposeful statements about six constructs – financial issues, social issues, mobility constraints, psychological problems, healthcare issues, and repatriation intentions – were developed. These statements were measured on a seven-point Likert scale and shared online with international migrants from India residing in the host nations. Data collected from 496 international migrants from October 2020 to July 2021 were used to analyze the influence of various determinants on the repatriation intentions by partial least square-structural equation modeling using SmartPLS software. Findings: The analysis results revealed that the role of financial, social, mobility, psychological and healthcare issues was significant in strengthening the repatriation intentions of the migrants. There is a need to create job opportunities, retrain laid-off workers and formulate migrant inclusive policies. Originality/value: Although some studies have highlighted a few problems faced by international migrants, their impact on repatriation intentions has not been studied yet. The present study fills this gap and analyzes the repatriation intention of international migrants in light of different problems they faced during the pandemic. Peer review: The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-04-2022-0233. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

12.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117:S11-S12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2239481
13.
Social Issues and Policy Review ; 17(1):34-61, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2228378

ABSTRACT

Structural racism encompasses the effects of racial bias across all systems of society. A growing body of data indicates that structural racism contributes to racial inequities in health across the lifespan. Investigators have documented associations of different dimensions of structural racism, including cultural and institutional discrimination, to health. To clarify and integrate the scope of these data, we examine a broad array of manifestations of both cultural and institutional racism and review their associations to specific health effects outcomes. We examine effects on COVID-19 prevalence and mortality, but also investigate data on birth outcomes and premature mortality to gain insight into health effects at each end of the lifespan. Given the pervasive and well-documented history of racism facing Black Americans, we focus this review on the effects of structural racism on the health of Black populations in the United States. To examine the association of cultural discrimination to health, we review studies of prejudicial communications assessed with measures of area-level prejudice, leader communications of prejudice, and reactions to race-related cultural events. To examine the association of institutional discrimination to health, we examine laws and institutional policies that discriminated against Black Americans and shaped social and physical environments characterized by residential racial segregation and disadvantage, occupational segregation, and restricted voting rights, among other manifestations of inequity. As we document, research has demonstrated associations of cultural racism to birth outcomes and mortality, data are lacking on direct relations to COVID-19 mortality. Institutional discrimination has been consistently linked to the increased prevalence of and mortality from COVID-19, and some aspects are associated with birth outcomes and mortality. Understanding the interrelations among cultural and institutional aspects of discrimination and their historical roots have important implications for the development of policies and interventions to reduce structural racism and mitigate its effects on health. © 2023 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.

14.
Circulation Conference: American Heart Association's ; 146(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2194379

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is becoming increasingly important for rapid assessment and diagnosis in a variety of clinical situations. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the aim of this study is to determine whether a virtual POCUS session can improve learner competency in assessing left ventricular (LV) systolic function. METHOD(S): An hour long session, involving a short lecture and fourteen practice questions was created. The questions consisted of cardiac ultrasound clips from real patients, evaluated by three POCUS experts. For each clip, LV systolic function was classified as hyperdynamic, normal, reduced, or severely reduced. The session was given separately to a group of interns (n1=30) and a group of senior residents (n2=39) virtually via Zoom. Series of clips were shown as the lecture progressed and participants recorded their answers as either hyperdynamic, normal, reduced, or severely reduced using the polling feature within the Zoom platform. Effect size as the percent of correct responses was calculated. Data was analyzed using SPSS software with independent t-test and paired t-test analysis with a level of statistical significance as p <=0.05. Result(s): The intern group had a mean score of 69.9% [SD 21.8%] and the resident group had a mean score of 74.2% [SD 21.5%]. All participants achieved a mean score of 66.6% [SD 26.0%] during the first half of the lecture, which then improved to 77.6% [SD 14.2%] in the second half [p value 0.547]. Both groups showed similar overall trends, although these were not statistically significant. When combined, extremes of LV function (hyperdynamic and severely reduced) were better recognized than more subtle differences (reduced and normal) [81.4%+/-18.1 vs 55.2+/-15.9;p = 0.001] overall. Conclusion(s): Compared to the conventional in-person approach, this study highlights the potential for virtual didactic sessions in POCUS training with impressive results when recognizing extreme cardiac findings.

15.
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology ; 15(12):5467-5472, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207046

ABSTRACT

World is facing a new pandemic called covid-19SARS-CoV-2) since a year ago. Unfortunately there is no treatment for Covid 19 nowadays as well as no potential therapies has been developed to overcome from coronavirus pandemic. Some potential drug molecules with combination have ability to respond for covid19 virus. From the research it was found that the reduction of viral load can be treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination. We evaluate the mode of interactions of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin with the dynamic site of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus main protease. Molecular Structure-based computational approach viz. molecular docking simulations were performed to scale up their affinity and binding fitness of the docked complex of novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus protease and hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. The natural inhibitor N3 of novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus protease were exhibited highest affinity in terms of MolDock score (-167.203Kcal/mol), and hydroxychloroquine was found with lowest target affinity (-55.917 Kcal/mol).The amino acid residue cysteine 145 and histidine 41 is bound covalently and formed hydrogen bond interaction with SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor known as inhibitor N3 as such, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin also formed hydrogen bond interaction. The binding patterns of the inhibitor N3 of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus main protease could be used as a guideline for medicinal chemist to explore their SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory potential. Copyright © RJPT All right reserved.

16.
Cardiometry ; - (24):283-290, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2204490

ABSTRACT

Many efforts have been undertaken to develop a successful vaccine to contain the catastrophe since the COVID-19 outbreak. Early in December 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine program was initiated, and it significantly reduced transmission and mortality. However, there are cases of cardiac complications like myocarditis that have been encountered in several individuals after administrating the COVID-19 vaccine. Therefore, this present work aims to describe four cases of Myocarditis in the existing literature review. A literature search was carried out using Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, and other renowned databases for high-quality recent individualized case reports of individuals having myocarditis after receiving the vaccine, research papers, case series, and review articles with no language restriction. The findings from the four cases and rigorous literature review revealed that myocarditis is one of the adverse reactions after COVID-19 vaccination which comes with initial symptoms of chest pain and fever which can further execrate if ignored. However, the use of symptomatic relief and anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs have4 been noted to be effective in managing myocarditis induced by COVID-19 Vaccinations.

17.
Patient Experience Journal ; 9(1):19-21, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2156205

ABSTRACT

It is not uncommon in the American medical community that a personal narrative sparks a conversation about a controversial topic. In 1988 the Journal of American Medical Association published a narrative by a medical doctor which provoked a debate on euthanasia within the readership of the journal and the greater public. The testimony that I am presenting aims to invite a public dialogue on the harmful effects of restrictive visitation policies brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. The story of my family’s experience during the end-of-life care for my mother, a COVID patient, illustrates how urgent is the need to rethink the restrictive visitation policies so as to protect patients from unnecessary suffering. In order to battle pandemic-related stress and fatigue medical staff and families must work together to improve patient care. © The Author(s), 2022.

18.
Journal of Information & Optimization Sciences ; 43(6):1431-1441, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2160516

ABSTRACT

Leadership is a journey that never stops and has power to evoke the minds of the people in the organisation. Outbreak of COVID-19 left individuals and organizations with many shocks due to unprecedented change. Transformational leadership style evokes the behaviour of employees towards better task. This study aims to establish the relationship between the transformational leadership and its impact on the employee performance in COVID-19 era. An empirical study was conducted by a survey, administered on employees of IT sector. Hypotheses were tested on a sample of 300. Statistical tools such as excel and SPSS were used for analysis. Multiple Regression was applied to study the influence of transformational leadership on employee performance. The results showed there is a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance and the predictive variable traits of transformational leadership contributed significantly.

19.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 28(3 Supplement):973-974, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2138921

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis disease-modifying therapies, including sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators, may attenuate the response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or vaccination. Objective(s): To describe the serological response and clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in ozanimodtreated participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) in an open-label extension (OLE) trial. Method(s): Participants with RMS who completed a phase 1-3 ozanimod trial could enter an OLE trial (DAYBREAK-NCT02576717) of ozanimod 0.92 mg/d. This analysis (January 2020-October 2021 [serology] and January 2022 [clinical outcomes]) included DAYBREAK participants who received SARSCoV-2 vaccines (fully vaccinated) and/or had COVID-19 adverse events. Receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody levels and nucleocapsid antibody positivity were analysed using Roche Elecsys assays. Log2 RBD antibody levels were compared between groups using t-tests. Result(s): Among the 148 vaccinated participants with serological data, 39 participants had serologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 exposure. After full vaccination, RBD seroconversion occurred in 100% (n=39/39) of nucleocapsid antibody positive and most (n=98/109) nucleocapsid antibody negative participants (with 100% seroconversion in nucleocapsid antibody negative participants receiving mRNA vaccines [n=80/80]). Significantly higher RBD antibody levels were observed in the vaccinated nucleocapsid antibody positive vs negative vaccinated participants (median [range], U/mL: 2259 [12.4-44260.0] vs 138 [0.4-4572.0], respectively, P<0.0001). COVID-19 adverse events were reported in 15/148 participants, all nonserious events (confirmed=12, suspected= 3). Ozanimod treatment was continued in 9 participants and interrupted in 5 (1 unknown). Eleven participants recovered by the time of data cut off, and one recovered with sequelae (cough and loss of sense of smell). Conclusion(s): Participants with RMS receiving ozanimod mount a serologic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. COVID-19 events in these fully vaccinated participants were nonserious. A limitation of this research is its retrospective nature and the potential for selection bias towards higher-risk individuals.

20.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results ; 13:456-459, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121384

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The recent pandemic outbreak Covid-19 has led to substantial illness and ultimate mortality across the globe and children are highly are in the verge of being in a critical role as vectors in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the community. There are quite a few studies which have observed that the vaccinated individuals who become infected again are on the side fewer side to transmit the virus due to reduced viral load and the duration of virus shedding and as a result, transmission from vaccinated individual to household contacts is significantly lower. This systemic review was thus undertaken with the objective of analysing the literature that were available on the safety, immunogenicity, efficacy and if any adverse effects of covid vaccination in children.Material and Methods: We conducted both a systematic review. This review was solely based on the predefined protocol and it was conducted in concordance with PRISMA guidelines.Conclusion: The available data reports similar efficacy and safety in children as of adults. Therefore, more clinical trials are needed to be conducted and published for evaluation of safety and if any long-term effects of Covid vaccines.

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