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2.
Cureus ; 14(7): e26741, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934587

ABSTRACT

Despite the lack of direct evidence that hypertension increases the likelihood of new infections, hypertension is known to be the most common comorbid condition in COVID-19 patients and also a major risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection. The literature review suggests that data is heterogeneous in terms of the association of hypertension with mortality. Hence, it remains a topic of interest whether hypertension is associated with COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. Herein, we perform a multicenter retrospective analysis to study hypertension as an independent risk for in-hospital mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This multicenter retrospective analysis included 515 COVID-19 patients hospitalized from March 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020. Patients were divided into two groups: hypertensive and normotensive. Demographic characteristics and laboratory data were collected, and in-hospital mortality was calculated in both groups. The overall mortality of the study population was 25.3% (130 of 514 patients) with 96 (73.8%) being hypertensive and 34 (26.2%) being normotensive (p-value of 0.01, statistically non-significant association). The mortality rate among the hypertensive was higher as compared to non-hypertensive; however, hypertensive patients were more likely to be old and have underlying comorbidities including obesity, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. Therefore, multivariable logistic regression failed to show any significant association between hypertension and COVID-19 mortality. To our knowledge, few studies have shown an association between hypertension and COVID-19 mortality after adjusting confounding variables. Our study provides further evidence that hypertension is not an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality when adjusted for other comorbidities in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

3.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 775-789, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730419

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colchicine, because of its anti-inflammatory and possible anti-viral properties, has been proposed as potential therapeutic option for COVID-19. The role of colchicine to mitigate "cytokine storm" and to decrease the severity and mortality associated with COVID-19 has been evaluated in many studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of colchicine on morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA recommendations. The literature search was conducted in 6 medical databases from inception to February 17, 2021 to identify studies evaluating colchicine as a therapeutic agent in COVID-19. All included studies were evaluated for risk of bias (ROB) using the Revised Cochrane ROB tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for case-control and cohort studies. RESULTS: Four RCTs and four observational studies were included in the final analysis. One study evaluated colchicine in outpatients, while all others evaluated inpatient use of colchicine. There was significant variability in treatment protocols for colchicine and standard of care in all studies. A statistically significant decrease in all-cause mortality was observed in three observational studies. The risk of mechanical ventilation was significantly reduced only in one observational study. Length of hospitalisation was significantly reduced in two RCTs. Risk for hospitalisation was not significantly decreased in the study evaluating colchicine in outpatients. Very few studies had low risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Based on the available data, colchicine shall not be recommended to treat COVID-19. Further high-quality and multi-center RCTs are required to assess the meaningful impact of this drug in COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESColchicine, an anti-inflammatory agent has demonstrated anti-viral properties in in-vitro studies by degrading the microtubules, as well as by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Colchicine has been studied as a potential therapeutic option for COVID-19, with variable results.Until further research can establish the efficacy of colchicine in COVID-19, the use of colchicine in COVID-19 shall be restricted to clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Morbidity , Observational Studies as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Investig Med ; 69(8): 1479-1482, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406668

ABSTRACT

As of February 2, 2021, the USA has 26,431,799 reported COVID-19 cases with 446,744 deaths. A high mortality rate (15%-40%) was reported among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic. However, data regarding variation in COVID-19-related mortality and severity of illness among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are heterogeneous. In this retrospective single-center study, we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, disease severity, clinical outcomes, and in-hospital mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic. Adults with reverse transcription-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In-hospital mortality due to COVID-19 was the primary outcome, and intensive care unit admission, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure requiring intubation, and septic shock were the secondary outcomes. A total of 101 adult patients were hospitalized with COVID-19 during the second wave study period. Of 101 patients, 8 were intubated and 6 died. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days. Patients in the second wave were more likely to receive dexamethasone and remdesivir and less likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation. In-hospital mortality during the second wave was lower (5.9%) compared with the first wave (15.5%). At the last follow-up date, 86.1% were discharged alive from the hospital, 5.9% died and 7.9% were still in the hospital. Multivariate logistic regression showed higher odds of mortality were associated with higher age and elevated lactate dehydrogenase peak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
5.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):11-12, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1339063

ABSTRACT

Introduction:The underlying pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 involves cytokine storm syndrome that is associated with an elevation of immunoinflammatory cytokines [1]. This hyper-inflammatory state has been implicated with coagulopathy among severely sick patients with COVID-19. Inflammation and coagulopathy are interlinked processes [2]. Coagulopathy has been associated with high mortality in COVID-19 patients [3]. LMWH is traditionally used for its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties, however, its anti-inflammatory effect has not been fully elucidated. A study done by Shastri et al. suggested that LMWH can inhibit the release of different cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α) [4]. Recent retrospective studies on COVID-19 illustrated that the LMWH (40-60 mg, subcutaneously every day) was associated with better prognosis as measured by (28 days of survival) in severely sick patients meeting sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC≥4) criteria compared to nonusers [5]. The potential role of escalated/therapeutic LMWH (1mg/kg/subcutaneously every 12 hours) remains unclear. This study involves a retrospective analysis of the potential role of an escalated dose of LMWH to alter the hyper-inflammatory state in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compared outcomes to those patients who received a low dose (40-60 mg, subcutaneously every day) of LMWH.Methods:Adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by nasopharyngeal (NP) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) who were hospitalized from March 1st to April 20, 2020, were included. They were divided into two cohorts based on the dose of LMWH;cohort 1 (40-60 mg, subcutaneously every day) and cohort 2 (1mg/kg/subcutaneously every 12 hours). Categorical variables were compared by conducting a chi-square test or Fisher's exact test while continuous ones were compared by conducting a median two-sample test.Results:The median values of PT, PTT, INR, CRPmax, LDHmax, ferritinmax, D-dimermax, are mentioned in table 1. Incidence of thrombotic events (deep venous thrombosis, ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism) was higher in cohort 1 (n=3, 4.8%) compared to cohort 2 (n=1, 2.6%). Cohort 2 had a higher number of patients who received ICU level of care (n=24) compared to the 6 patients in cohort 1. Out of 24 patients in cohort 2, 18 patients received invasive mechanical ventilation. The median value of length of stay in the hospital (10.0 days) and all-cause mortality (31.6 %) were higher in cohort 2 as compared to cohort 1 (p<0.05).Discussion:Infections have the ability to trigger systemic inflammation [6]. The interplay between the host system and its response to foreign pathogens can lead to the activation of coagulation pathways. SARS-CoV-2 entry via ACE-2 receptors on endothelial cells is likely associated with endothelial dysfunction. This endotheliopathy plays a significant role in COVID-19 related microcirculatory changes [7]. Severe COVID-19, a hyperinflammatory state, is marked by elevated inflammatory markers including D-dimer, ferritin, IL-6, LDH, and CRP levels. Elevated D-dimer levels have been correlated with disease severity and poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 [8]. The incidence of VTE and pulmonary embolism among COVID-19 ICU patients was higher in a study from France [9]. The patient population who received the escalated dose of LMWH in our study either had SIC score ≥ 4 or D-dimer ≥ 2.2 (FEU). This data indicated that the median value of peak inflammatory markers in cohort 1 was lower (p<0.05) when compared to cohort 2. Patients in cohort 2 were sicker than cohort 1, as evidenced by a statistically significant longer length of hospital stay and a higher rate of ICU admission. However, the potential dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect of LMWH was not observed. Additional studies evaluating comorbidities and disease severity in both cohorts may yield different results.Conclusion:Aside from the known anticoagulant benefit of LMWH, there was no additional anti-inflammatory role with higher doses (1mg/kg/subcutaneously every 12 hours) of LMWH.

6.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 11(2): 289-291, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149883
7.
Respir Med ; 172: 106130, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733632

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe COVID-19 can develop ventilator-dependent acute hypoxic respiratory failure (VDAHRF), which is associated with a higher mortality rate. We evaluated the clinical course of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and compared them with the patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation. Characteristics of intubated patients who were successfully weaned from the ventilator were compared with the patients who failed to be extubated or died in the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical course of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and assess the possible predictors of the disease severity leading to VDAHRF. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective study. The first 129 patients (18 years or older) with COVID-19 admitted to Monmouth Medical Center from March 1st to April 25th, 2020 were included. RESULTS: Out of 129 patients, 23.25% (n = 30) required invasive mechanical ventilation, and of those, six patients were successfully weaned from the ventilator. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed increased odds of intubation associated with hypoxemia (odds ratio 17.23, 95% CI 5.206-57.088; p < 0.0001), elevated d-dimer by one unit mg/L of FEU (odds ratio 1.515, 95% CI 5.206-57.088; p = 0.0430) and elevated ferritin by one unit ng/ml (odds ratio 1.001, 95% CI 1.000-1.001, p = 0.0051) on admission, adjusted for other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation were more likely to have older age, male gender, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and obesity. The patients who were successfully weaned from the ventilator were more likely to be younger in age, and none of them had heart failure or CAD.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Assessment/methods , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
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