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2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 342, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777746

ABSTRACT

The present study tracked the city-wide dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus 2 ribonucleic acids (SARS-CoV-2 RNA) in the wastewater from nine different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jaipur during the second wave of COVID-19 out-break in India. A total of 164 samples were collected weekly between February 19th and June 8th, 2021. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 47.2% (52/110) influent samples and 37% (20/54) effluent samples. The increasing percentage of positive influent samples correlated with the city's increasing active clinical cases during the second wave of COVID-19 in Jaipur. Furthermore, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) evidence clearly showed early detection of about 20 days (9/9 samples reported positive on April 20th, 2021) before the maximum cases and maximum deaths reported in the city on May 8th, 2021. The present study further observed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in treated effluents at the time window of maximum active cases in the city even after tertiary disinfection treatments of ultraviolet (UV) and chlorine (Cl2) disinfection. The average genome concentration in the effluents and removal efficacy of six commonly used treatments, activated sludge process + chlorine disinfection (ASP + Cl2), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with ultraviolet radiations disinfection (MBBR + UV), MBBR + chlorine (Cl2), sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and SBR + Cl2, were compared with removal efficacy of SBR + Cl2 (81.2%) > MBBR + UV (68.8%) > SBR (57.1%) > ASP (50%) > MBBR + Cl2 (36.4%). The study observed the trends and prevalence of four genes (E, RdRp, N, and ORF1ab gene) based on two different kits and found that prevalence of N > ORF1ab > RdRp > E gene suggested that the effective genome concentration should be calculated based on the presence/absence of multiple genes. Hence, it is imperative to say that using a combination of different detection genes (E, N, RdRp, & ORF1ab genes) increases the sensitivity in WBE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Biofilms , Bioreactors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlorine , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
3.
Australas Psychiatry ; 30(3): 410-411, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765351
4.
Cureus ; 14(2): e22641, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761157

ABSTRACT

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is one of the most commonly used devices for oxygen therapy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in different hospital settings. Multiple alternative options include non-invasive and invasive ventilation. But non-invasive ventilation is very uncomfortable for patients, and weaning from invasive ventilation in a patient with lung pathology is challenging. Hence, HFNC has come up as a safe alternative that averts invasive ventilation. However, its widespread application is difficult in patients with nasal deformities. We discuss two patients, one with caudal dislocation of the nasal septum with a crooked nose and the other patient with septal hypertrophy. In both cases, invasive ventilation was deferred, and target oxygen saturation was achieved after a simple dispositive modification.

5.
Baltic Journal of Management ; 17(2):174-191, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1758986

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The study aims to present an in-depth review of previous research on relational demography (individual–team dissimilarity) over the past 30 years. In doing so, the authors highlighted the main theoretical underpinnings, teased out the common methodological approaches and identified the major mediating processes and contingency factors that influence relational demography's effect on individual outcomes in teams.Design/methodology/approach>The authors searched and examined eight databases (ABI/INFORM Complete, ProQuest, EBSCO, Web of Science, JSTOR, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO and Science Direct) and distilled 106 studies from 34 journals. The authors synthesized and analyzed this body of work to identify extant patterns and themes in relational demography.Findings>The findings reveal that the majority of theories used are categorized into three segments. The antecedents used are mainly surface- and deep-level variables, while the outcomes are classified into personal- and work-related constructs. For research testing, Euclidean distance and Blau's index are primarily utilized as heterogeneity measures, while various forms of regression are used as the analytical tool for hypotheses testing.Originality/value>Extant literature reviews on relational demography are scant. This study provides an extensive synthesis and analysis of the studies in the area over the past 30 years and offers an agenda that can motivate future research.

6.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) ; 64(4): 227-231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743012

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infectious disease-19 caused by Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-coronavirus-2 has emerged to be an emergency global health crisis for more than a year. And, as the disease has spread, a number of new clinical features have been observed in these patients. Immunosuppression caused by this disease results in an exacerbation of pre-existing infections. While corticosteroids are considered a life-saving therapeutic intervention for this pandemic, they have proved to be a double-edged sword and their indiscriminate use has produced some deleterious results. Recently, in the backdrop of this expression, a notable rise in invasive fungal infections has been identified even in the post-remission phase. Mucormycosis, Aspergillosis, and Candidiasis are the three most common opportunistic fungal infections among those observed. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus are already at a higher risk of developing such secondary infections due to impaired immunity. Here we present a rare case report of a 50-year old male diabetic mellitus patient diagnosed with dual fungal infections (Aspergillosis along with Mucormycosis) leading to maxillary sinusitis as a post-COVID manifestation. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported till date.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Maxillary Sinusitis , Mucormycosis , Mycoses , Aspergillosis/complications , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Maxillary Sinusitis/complications , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/therapy , Mycoses/complications , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723593

ABSTRACT

A man aged 26 years presented with complaints of diminution of vision in his right eye for 1 year following a fist injury. He had a history of laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis in both eyes 5 years earlier. On examination, his uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) in the right eye was 1.0 logMAR. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed a superotemporal dislocation of the flap with coexisting epithelial ingrowth encroaching the pupillary area. Due to the presence of long-standing fixed flap folds, a flap amputation was performed along with removal of the epithelial ingrowth using 0.02% mitomycin C as adjunct. Postoperatively, the UDVA was 0.3 logMAR on day 1, which improved to 0.2 logMAR at 1 week. At 1 year, the UDVA was 0.2 logMAR improving to 0.1 logMAR with refraction, with minimal paracentral corneal haze and no signs of corneal ectasia.


Subject(s)
Epithelium, Corneal , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ , Adult , Amputation , Epithelium, Corneal/surgery , Humans , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Male , Postoperative Complications , Refraction, Ocular , Surgical Flaps
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321650

ABSTRACT

It is a widely accepted view that COVID 19 is either transmitted via surface contamination or via close contact of an un-infected person with an infected person. Surface contamination usually happens when infected water droplets from exhalation/sneeze/cough of COVID sick person settle on nearby surfaces. To curb this, social distancing and good hand hygiene advise is advocated by World health Organization (WHO). We argue that COVID 19 coronovirus can also be airborne in a puff cloud loaded with infected droplets generated by COVID sick person. An elementary calculation shows that a $5~μm$ respiratory infected droplet can remain suspended for about 9.0 minutes and a $2~μm$ droplet can remain suspended for about an hour! And social distancing advise of 3 feet by WHO and 6 feet by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) may not be sufficient in some circumstances as discussed in the text.

9.
Research Journal of Textile and Apparel ; 25(3):209-225, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1627865

ABSTRACT

[...]the pattern of unlocking the economy after 68 days of total lockdown was aimed at saving both lives and livelihoods. [...]specific aim of the paper is to highlight the difficulties that the woolen knitwear industry faces, specifically during the time of total lockdown and partial unlocking of the economy to decipher the impact of COVID-19. Smith and Keogh-Brown (2013) assessed the macroeconomic impact of Swine Flu (H1N1/09) pandemic in 2009 on South Africa, Uganda and Thailand and found that Uganda's economy suffered greater than Thailand and South Africa. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the focus of researchers and policymakers has been upon assessing and documenting the impact of pandemic on different firms, industries, sectors and countries for finding appropriate policies for revival. According to Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) (2020) first confirmed case of COVID-19 was recorded in India on January 30,2020. Henceforth, the confirmed cases started increasing in these regions (Figure 1), especially after unlocking of the nation. [...]June 26,2020, India recorded 4,90,401 confirmed COVID-19 positive cases and death toll reached to 15,301.

10.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 238: 128-133, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of taping the upper mask edge on ocular surface stability, dry eye symptomology, and tear osmolarity in N95 mask users. DESIGN: Prospective interventional before-and-after study. METHODS: Fifty eyes of 50 health care workers regularly using N95 masks were included. Preintervention, ocular surface parameters, subjective dry eye score, and visual acuity were assessed at the end of an 8-hour shift when the subjects used an N95 face mask without taping the upper edge. Next day, the upper edge of the N95 mask was taped to the nasal bridge in all subjects at the beginning of the 8-hour shift, and postintervention assessment was performed after the shift. The primary outcome measure was change in noninvasive tear break-up time (NIBUT). Secondary outcome measures were change in the symptom score, tear lipid layer thickness (LLT), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I test, tear meniscus height (TMH), osmolarity, and visual acuity. RESULTS: Mean age of the cohort was 26.7 ± 3.67 years. Post-taping, significantly better ocular surface stability was observed in terms of NIBUT (P < .001), TBUT (P < .001), LLT (P < .001), TMH (P = .01), corneal staining score (P = .001), and tear osmolarity (P = .04). There was no significant change in visual acuity, Schirmer I, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score (P > .05). Symptom improvement was reported by 68% patients (SANDE version 2), which correlated well with change in NIBUT (r = 0.38; P = .005), TMH (r = 0.37; P = .007), LLT (r = 0.35; P = .01), and TBUT (r = 0.28; P = .04). CONCLUSION: Taping of the upper mask edge resulted in significantly better ocular surface stability, which correlated well with decrease in dry eye symptoms.


Subject(s)
Dry Eye Syndromes , Adult , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/therapy , Humans , Osmolar Concentration , Prospective Studies , Tears , Visual Acuity , Young Adult
11.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(12): 1382-1386, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561040

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obesity has been considered as one of the independent risk factors for a severe form of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and relationship between obesity, critical illness, and infection is still poorly understood. We herein discuss clinical course and outcome of critically ill obese patients with COVID-19 admitted to critical care unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of critically ill obese patients hospitalized with COVID-19 over a span of 6 months. Management was guided according to the institutional protocol. Collected data included demographic parameters (age, sex, comorbidities, and body mass index (BMI)), complications, inflammatory markers (interleukin (IL)-6, Ferritin), length of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and inhospital death. RESULTS: There was no appreciable difference in terms of demographics, inflammatory markers, predictors of mortality scores, and comorbidity indices between the survivors and nonsurvivors. Among outcome analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between ventilator days between survivors and nonsurvivors (p = 0.003**). CONCLUSION: Obesity itself is a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection; however, if efficiently managed and in a protocol-determined manner, it can have a favorable outcome. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Kaur M, Aggarwal R, Ganesh V, Kumar R, Patel N, Ayub A, et al. Clinical Course and Outcome of Critically Ill Obese Patients with COVID-19 Admitted in Intensive Care Unit of a Single Center: Our Experience and Review. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(12):1382-1386.

12.
J Crit Care ; 67: 172-181, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521256

ABSTRACT

Ferritin is a known inflammatory biomarker in COVID-19. However, many factors and co-morbidities can confound the level of serum ferritin. This current metaanalysis evaluates serum ferritin level in different severity levels in COVID-19. Studies evaluating serum ferritin level in different clinical contexts (COVID-19 vs. control, mild to moderate vs. severe to critical, non-survivor vs. survivor, organ involvement, ICU and mechanical ventilation requirement) were included (total 9 literature databases searched). Metaanalysis and metaregression was carried out using metaphor "R" package. Compared to control (COVID-19 negative), higher ferritin levels were found among the COVID-19 patients [SMD -0.889 (95% C.I. -1.201, -0.577), I2 = 85%]. Severe to critical COVID-19 patients showed higher ferritin levels compared to mild to moderate COVID-19 patients [SMD 0.882 (0.738, 1.026), I2 = 85%]. In meta-regression, high heterogeneity was observed could be attributed to difference in "mean age", and "percentage of population with concomitant co-morbidities". Non-survivors had higher serum ferritin level compared to survivors [SMD 0.992 (0.672, 1.172), I2 = 92.33%]. In meta-regression, high heterogeneity observed could be attributed to difference in "mean age" and "percentage of male sex". Patients requiring ICU [SMD 0.674 (0.515 to 0.833), I2 = 80%] and mechanical ventilation [SMD 0.430 (0.258, 0.602), I2 = 32%] had higher serum ferritin levels compared to those who didn't. To conclude, serum ferritin level may serve as an important biomarker which can aid in COVID-19 management. However, presence of other co-morbid conditions/confounders warrants cautious interpretation.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Ferritins/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Regression Analysis
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(10): 2559-2562, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441287
14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(6): 1598-1599, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389642
15.
Urol J ; 2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342092

ABSTRACT

As world is going through the COVID-19 pandemic, the mass vaccination of newly approved vaccines for COVID-19 has begun around the world. There has been some concern among the vaccine recipients regarding the potential effect of vaccine on male fertility. Does COVID-19 affect the male reproductive health? Does COVID-19 vaccine impair the sperm parameters?

17.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(1): 63-72, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225882

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented collaborative effort among industry, academia, regulatory bodies, and governments with huge financial investments. Scientists and researchers from India also left no stone unturned to find therapeutic and preventive measures against COVID-19. Indian pharmaceutical companies are one of the leading manufacturers of vaccine in the world, are utilizing its capacity to its maximum, and are one among the forerunners in vaccine research against COVID-19 across the globe. In this systematic review, the information regarding contribution of Indian scientists toward COVID-19 research has been gathered from various news articles across Google platform apart from searching PubMed, WHO site, COVID-19 vaccine tracker, CTRI, clinicaltrials.gov, and websites of pharmaceutical companies. The article summarizes and highlights the various therapeutic and vaccine candidates, diagnostic kits, treatment agents, and technology being developed and tested by Indian researcher community against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computer-Aided Design , Diffusion of Innovation , Drug Repositioning , Humans , India , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
18.
Environ Res ; 197: 111142, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184965

ABSTRACT

Pollution of water linked to microbial decontamination and extensive use of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) as a disinfectant, especially in the face of the current COVID-19 situation, is a serious water pollution issue that needs to be addressed. In this context, an environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed for the biomimetic synthesis of Ag nanospheres (Ag NSs) using aqueous extract of Piper nigrum for the detection of chlorite (ClO2-) and mercury (Hg2+) ions. The strong antioxidant properties of the biomolecules present in the Piper nigrum extract reduce silver ions (Ag+) to Ag0. After optimization of the formulation parameters, it was observed that 1 mL of piper nigrum extract was sufficient to reduce and stabilize 100 mL of 1.5 mM of Ag+ in 2.5 h at 30 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NSs revealed their crystalline nature and the characteristic Bragg's diffraction peaks confirmed their face cubic crystal (FCC) lattice. The characteristic reddish-brown color and absorption surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 435 nm confirmed the successful fabrication of Ag NSs. Kinetic analysis revealed a three-phase growth pattern involving nucleation, growth and stabilization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrograms, showed spherical NSs with narrow polydispersity with particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The synthesized NSs were exposed to various metal ions and anions. The absorption intensity of Ag NSs quenched in the presence of mercury ions (Hg2+) among the cations and Chlorite ions (ClO2-) among the anions. The limit of detection (LOD) of 7.47 µM and 1.11 µM was evaluated from the calibration curve for Hg2+ and ClO2-, respectively. Based on these promising results, it is suggested that the method reported is a low-cost and one step biogenic protocol for the synthesis of Ag NSs and their employment for the detection of Hg2+ and ClO2-ions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mercury , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanospheres , Chlorides , Humans , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver , Water
20.
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1091340
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