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1.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 775-789, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730419

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colchicine, because of its anti-inflammatory and possible anti-viral properties, has been proposed as potential therapeutic option for COVID-19. The role of colchicine to mitigate "cytokine storm" and to decrease the severity and mortality associated with COVID-19 has been evaluated in many studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of colchicine on morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA recommendations. The literature search was conducted in 6 medical databases from inception to February 17, 2021 to identify studies evaluating colchicine as a therapeutic agent in COVID-19. All included studies were evaluated for risk of bias (ROB) using the Revised Cochrane ROB tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for case-control and cohort studies. RESULTS: Four RCTs and four observational studies were included in the final analysis. One study evaluated colchicine in outpatients, while all others evaluated inpatient use of colchicine. There was significant variability in treatment protocols for colchicine and standard of care in all studies. A statistically significant decrease in all-cause mortality was observed in three observational studies. The risk of mechanical ventilation was significantly reduced only in one observational study. Length of hospitalisation was significantly reduced in two RCTs. Risk for hospitalisation was not significantly decreased in the study evaluating colchicine in outpatients. Very few studies had low risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Based on the available data, colchicine shall not be recommended to treat COVID-19. Further high-quality and multi-center RCTs are required to assess the meaningful impact of this drug in COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESColchicine, an anti-inflammatory agent has demonstrated anti-viral properties in in-vitro studies by degrading the microtubules, as well as by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Colchicine has been studied as a potential therapeutic option for COVID-19, with variable results.Until further research can establish the efficacy of colchicine in COVID-19, the use of colchicine in COVID-19 shall be restricted to clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Morbidity , Observational Studies as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(3): 1124-1133, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218670

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus that has infected millions of people across the world. Given the compelling need to develop a therapeutic strategy, hydroxychloroquine has been advocated as an effective drug for the infection. However, multiple clinical trials conducted using hydroxychloroquine have yielded contrasting results. An electronic search using the primary databases from WHO, PubMed and Google Scholar was performed that yielded 21 studies eligible for inclusion. Among a total of 1,350 patients who received hydroxychloroquine, 689 (51.04%) were females. The most commonly reported comorbidities include hypertension (15.18%), diabetes mellitus (8.44%) and pulmonary disease (8.96%). Of the hydroxychloroquine-treated patients, 70% were virologically cured compared to 12.5% of the control group (p = 0.001). A good clinical outcome with virological cure was reported in 973 patients (91%) within 10 days out of 1,061 hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. A total of 29 (65%) renal transplant recipients achieved complete recovery following hydroxychloroquine administration. A total of 37 (2.7%) patients reported QT prolongation. Hydroxychloroquine was found to reduce mortality in healthy, SARS-Cov-2 positive patients and improve clinical recovery in renal transplant recipients. However, a definitive conclusion regarding its effect on viral clearance can only be reached by conducting more clinical trials involving bigger and diverse samples.

4.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13420, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143806

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has multiorgan involvement and its severity varies with the presence of pre-existing risk factors like cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension (HTN). Therefore, it is important to evaluate their effect on outcomes of COVID-19 patients. The objective of this meta-analysis and meta-regression is to evaluate outcomes of COVID-19 amongst patients with CVD and HTN. METHODS: English full-text observational studies having data on epidemiological characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were identified searching PubMed from December 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, following Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) protocol. Studies having pre-existing CVD and HTN data that described outcomes including mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) utilization were selected. Using random-effects models, risk of composite poor outcomes (meta-analysis) and isolated mortality and IMV utilization (meta-regression) were evaluated. Pooled prevalence of CVD and HTN, correlation coefficient (r) and odds ratio (OR) were estimated. The forest plots and correlation plots were created using random-effects models. RESULTS: Out of 29 studies (n=27,950) that met the criteria, 28 and 27 studies had data on CVD and HTN, respectively. Pooled prevalence of CVD was 18.2% and HTN was 32.7%. In meta-analysis, CVD (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 2.29-4.94) and HTN (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.57-2.40) were associated with composite poor outcome. In age-adjusted meta-regression, pre-existing CVD was having significantly higher correlation of IMV utilization (r: 0.28; OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) without having any association with mortality (r: -0.01; OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1) among COVID-19 hospitalizations. HTN was neither correlated with higher IMV utilization (r: 0.01; OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1) nor correlated with higher mortality (r: 0.001; OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1). CONCLUSION: In age-adjusted analysis, though we identified pre-existing CVD as a risk factor for higher utilization of mechanical ventilation, pre-existing CVD and HTN had no independent role in increasing mortality.

5.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(8): 1048-1052, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635330

ABSTRACT

An unidentified pneumonia outbreak was first observed in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. WHO officially named the disease, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and declared it as pandemic on Mar 11, 2020. Globally, there are more than 3 million confirmed cases with nearly 200,000 deaths. Hence, we aimed to perform a systematic review and pooled analysis of the current published literature on COVID-19 to provide an insight on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients. A systematic search of published peer-reviewed articles that reported cases with demographical and clinical features of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection using MOOSE guidelines was conducted from December 1, 2019, to April 27, 2020, and 50 eligible articles were included for the final analysis. Review articles, opinion articles, and letters not presenting original data as well as studies with incomplete information were excluded. We included a total of 6635 patients from 50 articles, with 54.5 % being male. The predominant symptoms were fever (80.3%), cough (64.2%), and fatigue/myalgia (36.5%) and other symptoms including dyspnea, chest pain, and sore throat. We also found patients with GI symptoms like diarrhea (9.2%) and nausea/vomiting (5.2%). Comorbidities were found in 3,435 (51.7%) patients with the most common being hypertension (22.67%) followed by diabetes mellitus (12.78%). COVID-19 pandemic is not only leading a huge burden on health care facilities but significant disruption in the world society. Patients with coexisting comorbidities are at higher risk and need more utilization of health care resources. As this virus is spreading globally, all countries have to join hands and prepare at all levels of human resources, infrastructure, and facilities to combat the COVID-19 disease.

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