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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337041

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have investigated post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) using real-world patient data such as electronic health records (EHR). Prior studies have typically been conducted on patient cohorts with small sample sizes 1 or specific patient populations 2,3 limiting generalizability. This study aims to characterize PASC using the EHR data warehouses from two large national patient-centered clinical research networks (PCORnet), INSIGHT and OneFlorida+, which include 11 million patients in New York City (NYC) and 16.8 million patients in Florida respectively. With a high-throughput causal inference pipeline using high-dimensional inverse propensity score adjustment, we identified a broad list of diagnoses and medications with significantly higher incidence 30-180 days after the laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to non-infected patients. We found more PASC diagnoses and a higher risk of PASC in NYC than in Florida, which highlights the heterogeneity of PASC in different populations.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337039

ABSTRACT

The post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) refers to a broad spectrum of symptoms and signs that are persistent, exacerbated, or newly incident in the post-acute SARS-CoV-2 infection period of COVID-19 patients. Most studies have examined these conditions individually without providing concluding evidence on co-occurring conditions. To answer this question, this study leveraged electronic health records (EHRs) from two large clinical research networks from the national Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) and investigated patients' newly incident diagnoses that appeared within 30 to 180 days after a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Through machine learning, we identified four reproducible subphenotypes of PASC dominated by blood and circulatory system, respiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous system, and digestive system problems, respectively. We also demonstrated that these subphenotypes were associated with distinct patterns of patient demographics, underlying conditions present prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, acute infection phase severity, and use of new medications in the post-acute period. Our study provides novel insights into the heterogeneity of PASC and can inform stratified decision-making in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with PASC conditions.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is limited evidence on how clinical outcomes differ by socioeconomic conditions among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most studies focused on COVID-19 patients from a single hospital. Results based on patients from multiple health systems have not been reported. The objective of this study is to examine variation in patient characteristics, outcomes, and healthcare utilization by neighborhood social conditions among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We extracted electronic health record data for 23,300 community dwelling COVID-19 patients in New York City between March 1st and June 11th, 2020 from all care settings, including hospitalized patients, patients who presented to the emergency department without hospitalization, and patients with ambulatory visits only. Zip Code Tabulation Area-level social conditions were measured by the Social Deprivation Index (SDI). Using logistic regressions and Cox proportional-hazards models, we examined the association between SDI quintiles and hospitalization and death, controlling for race, ethnicity, and other patient characteristics. RESULTS: Among 23,300 community dwelling COVID-19 patients, 60.7% were from neighborhoods with disadvantaged social conditions (top SDI quintile), although these neighborhoods only account for 34% of overall population. Compared to socially advantaged patients (bottom SDI quintile), socially disadvantaged patients (top SDI quintile) were older (median age 55 vs. 53, P<0.001), more likely to be black (23.1% vs. 6.4%, P<0.001) or Hispanic (25.4% vs. 8.5%, P<0.001), and more likely to have chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes: 21.9% vs. 10.5%, P<0.001). Logistic and Cox regressions showed that patients with disadvantaged social conditions had higher risk for hospitalization (odds ratio: 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.46, 1.94]; P<0.001) and mortality (hazard ratio: 1.91; 95% CI: [1.35, 2.70]; P<0.001), adjusting for other patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: Substantial socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes exist among COVID-19 patients in NYC. Disadvantaged neighborhood social conditions were associated with higher risk for hospitalization, severity of disease, and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 110, 2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310816

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is heterogeneous and our understanding of the biological mechanisms of host response to the viral infection remains limited. Identification of meaningful clinical subphenotypes may benefit pathophysiological study, clinical practice, and clinical trials. Here, our aim was to derive and validate COVID-19 subphenotypes using machine learning and routinely collected clinical data, assess temporal patterns of these subphenotypes during the pandemic course, and examine their interaction with social determinants of health (SDoH). We retrospectively analyzed 14418 COVID-19 patients in five major medical centers in New York City (NYC), between March 1 and June 12, 2020. Using clustering analysis, 4 biologically distinct subphenotypes were derived in the development cohort (N = 8199). Importantly, the identified subphenotypes were highly predictive of clinical outcomes (especially 60-day mortality). Sensitivity analyses in the development cohort, and rederivation and prediction in the internal (N = 3519) and external (N = 3519) validation cohorts confirmed the reproducibility and usability of the subphenotypes. Further analyses showed varying subphenotype prevalence across the peak of the outbreak in NYC. We also found that SDoH specifically influenced mortality outcome in Subphenotype IV, which is associated with older age, worse clinical manifestation, and high comorbidity burden. Our findings may lead to a better understanding of how COVID-19 causes disease in different populations and potentially benefit clinical trial development. The temporal patterns and SDoH implications of the subphenotypes may add insights to health policy to reduce social disparity in the pandemic.

5.
J Biomed Inform ; 118: 103794, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209791

ABSTRACT

From early March through mid-May 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed hospitals in New York City. In anticipation of ventilator shortages and limited ICU bed capacity, hospital operations prioritized the development of prognostic tools to predict clinical deterioration. However, early experience from frontline physicians observed that some patients developed unanticipated deterioration after having relatively stable periods, attesting to the uncertainty of clinical trajectories among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Prediction tools that incorporate clinical variables at one time-point, usually on hospital presentation, are suboptimal for patients with dynamic changes and evolving clinical trajectories. Therefore, our study team developed a machine-learning algorithm to predict clinical deterioration among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by extracting clinically meaningful features from complex longitudinal laboratory and vital sign values during the early period of hospitalization with an emphasis on informative missing-ness. To incorporate the evolution of the disease and clinical practice over the course of the pandemic, we utilized a time-dependent cross-validation strategy for model development. Finally, we validated our prediction model on an external validation cohort of COVID-19 patients served in a demographically distinct population from the training cohort. The main finding of our study is the identification of risk profiles of early, late and no clinical deterioration during the course of hospitalization. While risk prediction models that include simple predictors at ED presentation and clinical judgement are able to identify any deterioration vs. no deterioration, our methodology is able to isolate a particular risk group that remain stable initially but deteriorate at a later stage of the course of hospitalization. We demonstrate the superior predictive performance with the utilization of laboratory and vital sign data during the early period of hospitalization compared to the utilization of data at presentation alone. Our results will allow efficient hospital resource allocation and will motivate research in understanding the late deterioration risk group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Computer Simulation , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , New York City , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(5): 1319-1326, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The HERO registry was established to support research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on US healthcare workers. OBJECTIVE: Describe the COVID-19 pandemic experiences of and effects on individuals participating in the HERO registry. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, self-administered registry enrollment survey conducted from April 10 to July 31, 2020. SETTING: Participants worked in hospitals (74.4%), outpatient clinics (7.4%), and other settings (18.2%) located throughout the nation. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 14,600 healthcare workers. MAIN MEASURES: COVID-19 exposure, viral and antibody testing, diagnosis of COVID-19, job burnout, and physical and emotional distress. KEY RESULTS: Mean age was 42.0 years, 76.4% were female, 78.9% were White, 33.2% were nurses, 18.4% were physicians, and 30.3% worked in settings at high risk for COVID-19 exposure (e.g., ICUs, EDs, COVID-19 units). Overall, 43.7% reported a COVID-19 exposure and 91.3% were exposed at work. Just 3.8% in both high- and low-risk settings experienced COVID-19 illness. In regression analyses controlling for demographics, professional role, and work setting, the risk of COVID-19 illness was higher for Black/African-Americans (aOR 2.32, 99% CI 1.45, 3.70, p < 0.01) and Hispanic/Latinos (aOR 2.19, 99% CI 1.55, 3.08, p < 0.01) compared with Whites. Overall, 41% responded that they were experiencing job burnout. Responding about the day before they completed the survey, 53% of participants reported feeling tired a lot of the day, 51% stress, 41% trouble sleeping, 38% worry, 21% sadness, 19% physical pain, and 15% anger. On average, healthcare workers reported experiencing 2.4 of these 7 distress feelings a lot of the day. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers are at high risk for COVID-19 exposure, but rates of COVID-19 illness were low. The greater risk of COVID-19 infection among race/ethnicity minorities reported in the general population is also seen in healthcare workers. The HERO registry will continue to monitor changes in healthcare worker well-being during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04342806.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Chem ; 66(11): 1396-1404, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnostic strategies to identify SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals rapidly for management of patient care and protection of health care personnel are urgently needed. The predominant diagnostic test is viral RNA detection by RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs specimens, however the results are not promptly obtainable in all patient care locations. Routine laboratory testing, in contrast, is readily available with a turn-around time (TAT) usually within 1-2 hours. METHOD: We developed a machine learning model incorporating patient demographic features (age, sex, race) with 27 routine laboratory tests to predict an individual's SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Laboratory testing results obtained within 2 days before the release of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result were used to train a gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT) model from 3,356 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tested patients (1,402 positive and 1,954 negative) evaluated at a metropolitan hospital. RESULTS: The model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.854 (95% CI: 0.829-0.878). Application of this model to an independent patient dataset from a separate hospital resulted in a comparable AUC (0.838), validating the generalization of its use. Moreover, our model predicted initial SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity in 66% individuals whose RT-PCR result changed from negative to positive within 2 days. CONCLUSION: This model employing routine laboratory test results offers opportunities for early and rapid identification of high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infected patients before their RT-PCR results are available. It may play an important role in assisting the identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in areas where RT-PCR testing is not accessible due to financial or supply constraints.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hematologic Tests , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
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