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1.
Frontiers in Nanotechnology ; 4, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20230882

ABSTRACT

Despite ongoing public health measures and increasing vaccination rates, deaths and disease severity caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its new emergent variants continue to threaten the health of people around the world. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies for research, diagnosis, treatment, and government policies to combat the variant strains of SARS-CoV-2. Since the state-of-the-art COVID-19 pandemic, the role of selenium in dealing with COVID-19 disease has been widely discussed due to its importance as an essential micronutrient. This review aims at providing all antiviral activities of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) ever explored using different methods in the literature. We systematically summarize the studied antiviral activities of Nano-Se required to project it as an efficient antiviral system as a function of shape, size, and synthesis method. The outcomes of this article not only introduce Nano-Se to the scientific community but also motivate scholars to adopt Nano-Se to tackle any serious virus such as mutated SARS-CoV-2 to achieve an effective antiviral activity in a desired manner.

2.
3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Science and Technology 2021, ICFST 2021 ; 2597, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2230321

ABSTRACT

December 2019 was marked by the arrival of the novel coronavirus, which has now reportedly resulted in 4,200,412 deaths (as ofJuly 30, 2021) world-wide. Although the casualty rate of SARS-CoV-2 is lower than other viral infections, yet its uncertainty poses a global threat. The virus that causes Covid-19 diseases is spreading among people, and more people are becoming infected. According to clinical studies, SARS-CoV-2 develops and migrates through the respiratory tract along the conducting airways, eliciting a robust innate immune response that leads to severe clinical manifestations such as cytokine storms, the release of chemical mediators including IL-2 and IL-6 at vital organs, and worsens in patients with co-morbidities. The treatment is largely focused on the assessment of patients since the studies are evaluating a wide array of medications for possible outcomes during this emergency period of the Covid 19 epidemic. On the contrary, few conventional drugs have been disapproved, such as hydroxychloroquine while others like ribavirin and lopinavir, are effective in combination therapies as per the studies. Monoclonal antibodies, kinase inhibitors, and basic febrifuges, along with anti-tussive syrups, have become a growing therapy for coronavirus patients. Although this virus seems to have a specific treatment due to the effects of viral variation and mutation, it's causing a leading global challenge for researchers. This article aggregates the conventional and new breakthrough therapeutics for tackling Covid 19 and its emerging therapeutic rationale reviewed by WHO, ICMR, FDA, PubMed, Google scholar, and the Covid update newsletter. © 2022 Author(s).

3.
3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Science and Technology 2021, ICFST 2021 ; 2597, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2222107

ABSTRACT

December 2019 was marked by the arrival of the novel coronavirus, which has now reportedly resulted in 4,200,412 deaths (as ofJuly 30, 2021) world-wide. Although the casualty rate of SARS-CoV-2 is lower than other viral infections, yet its uncertainty poses a global threat. The virus that causes Covid-19 diseases is spreading among people, and more people are becoming infected. According to clinical studies, SARS-CoV-2 develops and migrates through the respiratory tract along the conducting airways, eliciting a robust innate immune response that leads to severe clinical manifestations such as cytokine storms, the release of chemical mediators including IL-2 and IL-6 at vital organs, and worsens in patients with co-morbidities. The treatment is largely focused on the assessment of patients since the studies are evaluating a wide array of medications for possible outcomes during this emergency period of the Covid 19 epidemic. On the contrary, few conventional drugs have been disapproved, such as hydroxychloroquine while others like ribavirin and lopinavir, are effective in combination therapies as per the studies. Monoclonal antibodies, kinase inhibitors, and basic febrifuges, along with anti-tussive syrups, have become a growing therapy for coronavirus patients. Although this virus seems to have a specific treatment due to the effects of viral variation and mutation, it's causing a leading global challenge for researchers. This article aggregates the conventional and new breakthrough therapeutics for tackling Covid 19 and its emerging therapeutic rationale reviewed by WHO, ICMR, FDA, PubMed, Google scholar, and the Covid update newsletter. © 2022 Author(s).

4.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India ; 70(10):35-38, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2168828

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical studies have correlated severe deterioration of COVID-19 patients due to excessive and uncontrolled production of cytokines. There is a pressing need to explore therapies, which could prevent the cytokine storm rather than terminating it. Aims and objectives: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of itolizumab on clinical outcomes of patients with moderate-severe COVID-19 disease admitted to ICU. The primary aim of the current study is to find out any mortality benefit in 14 days. The secondary aim is to assess the morbidity outcomes in terms of reduction in inflammatory markers and also the duration of hospital stays to assess the prognostication. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective case-control study in which laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU were taken. A total of 62 patients were recruited, 31 patients received itolizumab (cases/treatment group) and 31 patients didn't receive itolizumab (designated as controls). Results: Among the total patients recruited, 68% of the study population was male and 32% were female. A total of 12 patients expired among cases and 13 expired among controls. Overall mortality in both groups was noted to be almost similar. The control group showed mortality at lower computed tomography (CT) scores compared to the cases. There is a significant reduction in inflammatory markers, like interleukins-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer in cases compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, treating patients with cytokine storms before they require intubation/mechanical ventilation is crucial to preventing deaths. Itolizumab has shown no clinical benefit in critically ill COVID-19 patients, however, timely initiation of itolizumab therapy may serve as a key therapeutic option in preventing the mortality and morbidity outcomes in moderate-severe COVID-19 patients. © The Author(s). 2022Open Access This article is distributedunder the terms ofthe Creative Commons Attribution 4.0InternationalLicense (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)

5.
Medical Journal of Dr DY Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(8):163-175, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2202078

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 presents severely in persons with immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus. Steroids are used in the management of COVID-19. The use of steroids in immunocompromised persons increases the chances of opportunistic infections. Mucormycosis infects immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this systemic review was to study the clinico-epidemiological features of mucormycosis in patients of COVID-19. PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched for 'mucormycosis', 'COVID-19', and 'SARS-Cov 2'. A total of 30 studies were included in this study, which included 22 case reports and 8 original articles. The median age of patients was 54.80 years;79.56% (74/93) were diabetic. Steroid administration history was present in 74.19% (69/93) of patients. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis constituted 46.98% (39/83) of the cases, rhino-orbital-cerebral type in 37.35% (31/83) cases, pulmonary mucormycosis in 10.84% (9/83) cases, 1 case of gastric mucormycosis, 1 case of cutaneous mucormycosis, 1 case of palatal mucormycosis, and 1 case of disseminated mucormycosis. The median duration of presentation of mucormycosis was 14 days after hospital admission. The total number of deaths was reported in 32.26% (30/93) of the cases. The most common species found was Rhizopus, and amphotericin B was the most common antifungal administered. The COVID-19 pandemic is creating a massive pool of susceptible patients having poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and receiving steroids for COVID-19 management, thus creating an unholy alliance with mucormycosis. Mucormycosis started as a new epidemic in India, which is an otherwise rare opportunistic fungal infection. © 2022 Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

6.
Computational Approaches for Novel Therapeutic and Diagnostic Designing to Mitigate SARS-CoV2 Infection: Revolutionary Strategies to Combat Pandemics ; : 1-594, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149171

ABSTRACT

Computational Approaches for Novel Therapeutic and Diagnostic Designing to Mitigate SARS-CoV2 Infection: Revolutionary Strategies to Combat Pandemics compiles information about various computational bioinformatic approaches that can help combat viral infection. The book includes working knowledge of various molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation approaches that have been exploited for drug repurposing and drug designing purpose. In addition, it sheds light on reverse vaccinomics and immunoinformatic approaches for vaccine designing against SARS-CoV2 infection. This book is an essential resource for researchers, bioinformaticians, computational biologists, computational chemists and pharmaceutical companies who are working on the development of effective and specific therapeutic interventions and point-of-care diagnostic devices using various computational approaches. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

7.
Cloud IoT: Concepts, Paradigms, and Applications ; : 125-142, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2140250
8.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 34(3):341-347, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081595

ABSTRACT

Introduction: For curbing Covid-19 disease, adequate knowledge, attitude, and practices of both rural and urban population for Covid-19 disease prevention is required along with busting of the associated myths. Objectives: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of urban and rural residents of Lucknow district regarding covid-19 preventive behaviour and associated myths. Methodology: A community-based study was conducted among 420 rural and 421 urban residents of Lucknow. Multistage random sampling was done to select the study subjects. A pre-designed pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information regarding the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the residents for covid-19 disease causes, prevention, and treatment. Further, KAP scoring was done to compare the two groups. Results: The mean age of the rural and urban residents was 31.48 ± 12.05 and 30.93 ± 11.96 years respectively. Only 40.4 % urban and 25.5 % rural people had correct knowledge about social distancing (p<0.0001). Knowledge regarding quarantine for covid-19 disease prevention was less among the urban residents (64.6%) as compared to rural (70.5%) (p=0.035). More than one-third (37.6%) of the rural resident believed in the myth that alcohol can prevent the covid-19 disease (p=0.003). 68.8 and 70.5 percent rural and urban residents had positive attitude towards the Indian government’ efforts in curbing the disease. Majority of the urban (90%) and rural (87.6%) residents wore mask when they went out. Only one-fourth of the urban (24.7%) and rural (22.9%) had correct practices for the duration of hand washing. Conclusion: The knowledge was more among the urban people, attitude and practices were almost similar among both the rural and urban residents while myths were more observed among the rural residents. © 2022, Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine. All rights reserved.

9.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:7679-7687, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874813

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study is to understand and analyze the impact of COVID-19 on female academicians working in Private Universities of Rajasthan State and to explore the changes, transformations and trends which have developed in the education industry as a result of remote working. Further the study has been conducted using a mixed approach of quantitative and qualitative methodology, this study drew a sample of 127 female academicians working in private universities of Rajasthan. A structured questionnaire was employed to gather required data for further analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The key findings indicated there is significant difference in the personal and professional life of teachers when they are working from home. The study also bring forward various changes, transformations and trends which have developed in education industry as a result of remote working. © The Electrochemical Society

10.
Applied Surface Science Advances ; 9:11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1850652

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19), a viral infection pandemic, arises due to easy human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory disorders and other life-threatening diseases (during/post-infection) such as black mold disease, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders/diseases. COVID-19 infection emerged challenging to control as SARS-CoV-2 transmits through respiratory droplets (> 10 mu m size range), aerosols (< 5 mu m), airborne, and particulate matter (PM1.0 PM2.5 and PM10.0). SARS-CoV-2 is more infective in indoor premises due to aerodynamics where droplets, aerosols, and PM1.0/2.5/10.0 float for a longer time and distance leading to a higher probability of it entering upper and lower respiratory tracts. To avoid human-to-human transmission, it is essential to trap and destroy SARS-CoV-2 from the air and provide virus-free air that will significantly reduce indoor viral exposure concerns. In this process, an efficient nano-enable photoelectrochemical oxidation (PECO, a destructive approach to neutralize bio-organism) assisted air purification is undoubtedly a good technological choice. This technical perspective explores the role of PECO-assisted Air-Purifiers (i.e., Molekule as a focus example for proof-of-concept) to trap and destroy indoor microorganisms (bacteria and viruses including Coronaviruses), molds, and allergens, and other indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM1.0/2.5/10.0. It is observed through various standard and non-standard tests that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials coated filter technology traps and destroys microbial particles. Due to technological advancements according to premises requirements and high-performance desired outcomes, Molekule air purifiers, Air Pro Air -Rx, Air Mini, and Air Mini+, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance as a Class II medical device for the destruction of bacteria and viruses.

11.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(3):319-325, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835273

ABSTRACT

As the Medical Council of India (MCI) implemented a new undergraduate curriculum from this academic session onward, the aim was to replace knowledge-centric traditional educational model to a more holistic community-based curriculum based on the domains such as knowledge, skills with emphasis on attitude, communication, and ethics. This implementation requires major reforms in the form of faculty development and resource generation for successful implementation of new course. However, COVID-19 pandemic possesses serious challenges to the implementation of curriculum and its success. This review discusses the possible challenges for the implementation of the new MCI curriculum in face of the coronavirus pandemic and possible strategies to counter it. © 2021 Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

12.
J. Clin. Diagn. Res. ; 16(3):TC5-TC11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1791830

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection, also known as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is the global pandemic, first described in Wuhan city of China in December of 2019. Its diagnosis depends upon real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). On chest Computerised Tomography (CT), it is almost similar to other viral pneumonia with extensive parenchymal involvement. Semiquantitative scores depicting this extensiveness of involvement could correlate with disease severity, laboratory parameters, mortality, like Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, requirements of ventilatory support and longer hospital stay. Aim: To define role of chest CT score in determining disease severity, predicting poor prognosis and mortality of COVID-19 pneumonia in short-term follow-up. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled all admitted real-time RT-PCR positive patients for COVID-19 at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India between 15th April and 31st May 2021. All patients were assigned semiquantitative CT scores based on the extent of lung parenchymal involvement of 20 lung regions in chest CT. Clinical severity was matched with chest CT scoring and laboratory findings. Survival curves along with univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to define the role of CT scoring in predicting short term prognosis. Results: Total 547 subjects were included in the study, of which the chest CT score showed a significant association with clinical seventies (p-value <0.001). CT score were correlating significantly with increased serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP) (p-value=0.001) and D-dimer (p-value=0.01), and decreased lymphocyte count (p-value=0.003). A CT score >= 31 was found to be associated with an increased risk of mortality in both univariate and multivariate analysis {Odd Ratio (OR)=276.8;95% Confidence Interval (CI). 45.21-1695.43;p-value <0.001}. Conclusion: Chest CT score can be imaging measure of disease severity and predict a higher probability of mortality in score >= 31. It can also predict other defined variables of short-term prognosis. So, it has an advantage in speedy diagnostic workflow of symptomatic cases, timely referral of patients to higher centre, and better management of critical care resources.

13.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S357, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746487

ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19 has been an unprecedented pandemic resulting in high mortality. We report our experience of using a treatment protocol in the intensive care unit (ICU) during the first peak of the pandemic. Methods. All patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the ICU between April 14-June 14, 2020 were included. Remdesivir was made available for use in our institution on May 14th 2020, and thereafter, a treatment protocol combining remdesivir, corticosteroids and tocilizumab was implemented in the ICU, with doses as follows: Remdesivir 200mg intravenously (I.V.) on day 1, then 100 mg for 4 days;tocilizumab 400 mg I.V. once a day for 2 days;dexamethasone 6 mg I.V. daily for 10 days followed by taper. During pre-protocol period, patients were receiving hydroxychloroquine (400 mg once on day 1 followed by 200 mg twice daily orally for 4 days). We compared the pre-protocol period (labeled as P1: April 14, 2020- May 13, 2020) with protocol period (P2: May 14, 2020 -June 14, 2020) for clinical outcomes. Results. A total of 32 and 48 patients were included during P1 and P2 respectively. Both groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristics, mean (±SD) age [55(±10) and 54 (±12) years] and mean Charlson-Deyo risk score at admission [2.4(±0.8) and 2.5 (±0.9) respectively]. During both periods, a comparable number of patients needed mechanical ventilation (65% and 66% respectively), anticoagulation (74% and 76% respectively) and inotropes (41% and 40%). The mean duration of ICU stay during P1 was significantly longer than P2 [15.4 (±2.8) days versus 9.3 ± (3.8) days, p< 0.0001)]. During P1, mean duration of mechanical ventilation [10 (±1.6) days] was also significantly longer than P2 [7.1 (±2.7) days] (p= 0.0004). There was a significant reduction in mortality rate from 68% (22/32) during P1 to 10.4% (5/48) in P2 (p< 0.0001). Patients were 4.3 times more likely to die during P1 than P2 (95% CI= 2.47-7.86). Conclusion. Our results showed a decrease in ICU mortality rate by 57.6% with the implementation of a treatment protocol combining remdesivir, tocilizumab and corticosteroids during the first months of the initial surge of the pandemic, with a significant decline in length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation;and support the therapeutic data endorsed by IDSA/NIH guidelines.

14.
Frontiers in Nanotechnology ; 2, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1715017

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19, a human beta coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) virus infection, has severely affected the world. The pandemic is not yet in full control due to a lack of rapid diagnostics and therapeutics. This viral infection continues to result in a steadily increasing loss of life, and it has also emerged as a significant global socio-economic burden. As result, it has united many countries for the purposes of exploring molecular biology, biomedical science, and the nanotechnology to manage COVID-19 successfully. As of today, the current priority is to investigate novel therapies of high efficacy and smart diagnostics tools for early-stage disease diagnostics along with monitoring. Keeping these advancement and challenges in mind, this perspective article mainly highlights the contribution and possibilities of bio-nanotechnology to manage the COVID-19 pandemic, even in a personalized manner. Authors also pinpoint barriers to the utilization of current bio-nanotechnology to facilitate a more accurate understanding of COVID-19 and to lead the way toward personalized health and wellness. Furthermore, we follow the discussion of the features and challenges in upcoming bio-nanotechnology approaches for COVID-19 management. In this progressive option report, bio-nanotechnologies that have been enriched with the power of artificial intelligence and optimized at the personalized level have been found to lead to a sustainable treatment and cure strategy at a global population scale. Copyright © 2020 Paliwal, Sargolzaei, Bhardwaj, Bhardwaj, Dixit and Kaushik.

15.
Journal of Cellular Biotechnology ; 7(2):85-98, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1633902

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease transformed to a pandemic and affected people's lives all over the world. It caused death to millions of people all over the world. In this project we focused on finding out the correlation of SARS-CoV2 with other respiratory diseases causing viruses like MERS and H1N1 influenza viruses. We further investigated to understand the mutations that occur in the sequences of the SARS-CoV2 during the spread of the disease and correlated it with the functional domains of proteins. The resulted phylogenetic tree indicated that SARS-CoV2 is closely related to the MERS and H1N1 viruses are distantly related. The mutation analysis of 10 different proteins of the SARS-CoV2 shows that there were more than 50 point-mutations among 34 countries sequences for six proteins. Interestingly, four proteins did not any mutation during the analysis. Therefore, these four proteins may be taken into consideration during the development of the diagnostics or therapeutics against this disease. © 2021 - IOS Press. All rights reserved.

16.
Studies in Computational Intelligence ; 998:159-176, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1620221

ABSTRACT

An UAV is a small hovering machine that can be remotely guided or flown autonomously through software-controlled flight plans in its embedded systems, operating in combination with onboard sensors and GPS. UAVs have demonstrated their versatility during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medicines and personal protection equipment were airlifted to the remote locations using UAVs. In future, transportation of drugs using UAV will be cost-effective and efficient. However, using human resources to operate these UAVs need a lot of time and investment in training. Most UAVs use GPS technology to travel to their destination from the start point. Many UAVs in the airspace generate a need for a drone traffic management system to mitigate collision risk. The drone traffic management system again demands human experts and massive expenditures. To overlook this challenge, we propose to model UAVs’ autonomous navigation using the already available infrastructures present in highways like bike lanes and walking lanes. This research suggests a framework by using reinforcement learning and GPS way-points to allow the UAV to operate successfully from the origin location to the end location by following the bike lanes present on the roads. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

17.
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine ; 22(3-4):147-150, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1576798

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is being recognised as a syndrome related to COVD-19 infection – more commonly in children, but occasionally in adults also. A 28-year-old male with no co-morbidities presented with fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, chest and shoulder pains, and redness of eyes. He developed these symptoms 14 days post-COVID-19 vaccination. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in September 2020. After excluding other causes for his clinical features, the diagnosis of MIS-A was made and IV immunoglobulin along with methylprednisolone was given. Patient responded to the therapy and remained symptom free on regular follow-up for 3 months. We suggest that in a patient who presents with fever post-COVID-19 and/or post-immunisation with COVID-19 vaccination, the possibility of MIS-A should also be considered.

18.
6th International Conference on Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications, ERCICA 2020 ; 789:439-450, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1565314

ABSTRACT

Health care has been a major concern for everyone right from the inception of mankind. There is no doubt that medical science has done remarkable headway in this arena too. Here, the detection of disease a person is suffering from is a key aspect and hence, in this project we proposed a model which primarily focuses on having easy diagnosis and prediction of the disease. Moreover, the primary objective of this project is to provide remote diagnosis to the patients. In this suggested system the user can provide the input either by speech or entering directly into the UI. The proposed model once detecting the disease also displays the description of the same and a more info link for further elucidation. Along with it the user is also provided with important health tips, a balanced diet plan and required exercises which will help the user to make the required changes in their diet and daily routine which would lead to a potential healthy lifestyle. Apart from this, as per the current situation of the ongoing pandemic we also added few other features other than the above mentioned like a COVID-19 tracker which helps the user to stay updated with the state wise count which gives us the total confirmed,active, recovered and deceased cases according to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare department and it is purely dynamic in nature. Also, we are providing the potential causes of the disease and the preventive measures to be taken by the user as per the government guidelines. By this, we are trying to achieve better health care in a technological aspect. Using the latest technologies will make it much efficient to know about various symptoms and predict the cause at an early stage which will help in taking necessary steps to minimize the damage. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

19.
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports ; 8(3):242-253, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1498357

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronaviruses are significant pathogens of both human and animals and are globally distributed. Out of seven CoVs strains, the most lethal coronavirus strains being portrayed is SARS-CoV-2. It can cause bronchial asthma, and severe pneumonia and acute respiratory disease. Due to its contagion in infants, adults, and immunocompromised patients which further results in making this a deadly disease, thus there is an urgent need to develop effective and safe therapeutics against it. Materials and Methods: Meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets belonging to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and HCoV-229E were carried out to identify the potential differentially expressed genes exclusively associated with SARS-CoV-2 and then a network model was developed to decipher significant drug targets, associated pathways and drug candidates which can be repurposed for this infection. Results: The COVID-19 infection mainly targets immune responses and regulatory processes. A novel role of Relaxin signaling pathway was identified in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, nutraceutical and anthelmintic agents were found to be good prospective candidates for repurposing against COVID-19. Conclusions: This theoretical study resulted in the identification of approved drug targets that may have the potential to be repurposed for COVID 19 treatment. © 2021 The Author(s).

20.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 33(2):319-324, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1485814

ABSTRACT

Background: Immediately after the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, with an unprecedented cooperation between biomedical, pharmaceutical, technological, and political sectors, new vaccines were developed and approved in record times. However, doubts were raised on their efficacy and adverse effects. Globally, it was agreed that the first recipients for vaccines would be the health care workers (HCWs). Logically, it was bound to raise some concerns and result in hesitancy among the HCWs. Aims: The current study was planned to study the proportion of HCWs having hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination and factors effecting it. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study conducted among HCWs of Uttar Pradesh. Methods and Material: The survey was conducted both in online and offline mode and attempted by 254 HCWs eligible for receiving COVID-19 vaccine. Statistical analysis used: t-test, chi-square test, proportion, mean, SD Results: Vaccine hesitancy was present in 35.8% HCWs. Only social factors like caste (p=0.023) and religion (p<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy. Gender, type of health worker, fear of COVID-19 infection, fear of lethality or pre-existing diseases did not affect vaccine hesitancy. The maximum number of HCWs (71.4%) were hesitant because they were unsure of the side-effects followed by the reason of being unsure about its effect on their own health (53.8%). When asked about their attitude towards compulsory COVID-19 vaccination for HCWs, should it be made mandatory by the government, 42.9% were in favour and 40.6% were against any such mandate. Conclusions: The study concluded that social factors like religion and caste are more deterministic for vaccine hesitancy.

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