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Applied Surface Science Advances ; 9:100236-100236, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755824


Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19), a viral infection pandemic, arises due to easy human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory disorders and other life-threatening diseases (during/post-infection) such as black mold disease, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders/diseases. COVID-19 infection emerged challenging to control as SARS-CoV-2 transmits through respiratory droplets (> 10 µm size range), aerosols (< 5 µm), airborne, and particulate matter (PM1.0 PM2.5 and PM10.0). SARS-CoV-2 is more infective in indoor premises due to aerodynamics where droplets, aerosols, and PM1.0/2.5/10.0 float for a longer time and distance leading to a higher probability of it entering upper and lower respiratory tracts. To avoid human-to-human transmission, it is essential to trap and destroy SARS-CoV-2 from the air and provide virus-free air that will significantly reduce indoor viral exposure concerns. In this process, an efficient nano-enable photoelectrochemical oxidation (PECO, a destructive approach to neutralize bio-organism) assisted air purification is undoubtedly a good technological choice. This technical perspective explores the role of PECO-assisted Air-Purifiers (i.e., Molekule as a focus example for proof-of-concept) to trap and destroy indoor microorganisms (bacteria and viruses including Coronaviruses), molds, and allergens, and other indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM1.0/2.5/10.0. It is observed through various standard and non-standard tests that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials coated filter technology traps and destroys microbial particles. Due to technological advancements according to premises requirements and high-performance desired outcomes, Molekule air purifiers, Air Pro Air -Rx, Air Mini, and Air Mini+, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance as a Class II medical device for the destruction of bacteria and viruses. Graphical Image, graphical

ACS Sens ; 6(9): 3468-3476, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392782


This research reveals the promising functionalization of graphene oxide (GrO)-glazed double-interdigitated capacitive (DIDC) biosensing platform to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S1) proteins with enhanced selectivity and rapid response. The DIDC bioactive surface consisting of Pt/Ti featured SiO2 substrate was fabricated using GrO/EDC-NHS/anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Abs) which is having layer-by-layer interface self-assembly chemistry method. This electroactive immune-sensing platform exhibits reproducibility and sensitivity with reference to the S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2. The outcomes of analytical studies confirm that GrO provided a desired engineered surface for Abs immobilization and amplified capacitance to achieve a wide detection range (1.0 mg/mL to 1.0 fg/mL), low limit of detection (1 fg/mL) within 3 s of response time, good linearity (18.56 nF/g), and a high sensitivity of 1.0 fg/mL. Importantly, the unique biochip was selective against blood-borne antigens and standby for 10 days at 5 °C. Our developed DIDC-based SARS-CoV-2 biosensor is suitable for point-of-care (POC) diagnostic applications due to portability and scaling-up ability. In addition, this sensing platform can be modified for the early diagnosis of severe viral infections using real samples.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Graphite , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Silicon Dioxide , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 3(11): 7306-7325, 2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889126


To manage the COVID-19 pandemic, development of rapid, selective, sensitive diagnostic systems for early stage ß-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) virus protein detection is emerging as a necessary response to generate the bioinformatics needed for efficient smart diagnostics, optimization of therapy, and investigation of therapies of higher efficacy. The urgent need for such diagnostic systems is recommended by experts in order to achieve the mass and targeted SARS-CoV-2 detection required to manage the COVID-19 pandemic through the understanding of infection progression and timely therapy decisions. To achieve these tasks, there is a scope for developing smart sensors to rapidly and selectively detect SARS-CoV-2 protein at the picomolar level. COVID-19 infection, due to human-to-human transmission, demands diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) without the need of experienced labor and sophisticated laboratories. Keeping the above-mentioned considerations, we propose to explore the compartmentalization approach by designing and developing nanoenabled miniaturized electrochemical biosensors to detect SARS-CoV-2 virus at the site of the epidemic as the best way to manage the pandemic. Such COVID-19 diagnostics approach based on a POC sensing technology can be interfaced with the Internet of things and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques (such as machine learning and deep learning for diagnostics) for investigating useful informatics via data storage, sharing, and analytics. Keeping COVID-19 management related challenges and aspects under consideration, our work in this review presents a collective approach involving electrochemical SARS-CoV-2 biosensing supported by AI to generate the bioinformatics needed for early stage COVID-19 diagnosis, correlation of viral load with pathogenesis, understanding of pandemic progression, therapy optimization, POC diagnostics, and diseases management in a personalized manner.

Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/therapy , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification