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1.
J Vis Exp ; (195)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326239

ABSTRACT

This sensing prototype model involves the development of a reusable, twofold graphene oxide (GrO)-glazed double inter-digitated capacitive (DIDC) detecting chip for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) specifically and rapidly. The fabricated DIDC comprises a Ti/Pt-containing glass substrate glazed with graphene oxide (GrO), which is further chemically modified with EDC-NHS to immobilize antibodies (Abs) hostile to SARS-CoV-2 based on the spike (S1) protein of the virus. The results of insightful investigations showed that GrO gave an ideal engineered surface for Ab immobilization and enhanced the capacitance to allow higher sensitivity and low sensing limits. These tunable elements helped accomplish a wide sensing range (1.0 mg/mL to 1.0 fg/mL), a minimum sensing limit of 1 fg/mL, high responsiveness and good linearity of 18.56 nF/g, and a fast reaction time of 3 s. Besides, in terms of developing financially viable point-of-care (POC) testing frameworks, the reusability of the GrO-DIDC biochip in this study is good. Significantly, the biochip is specific against blood-borne antigens and is stable for up to 10 days at 5 °C. Due to its compactness, this scaled-down biosensor has the potential for POC diagnostics of COVID-19 infection. This system can also detect other severe viral diseases, although an approval step utilizing other virus examples is under development.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Biosci Rep ; 2023 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325439

ABSTRACT

The present severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) mediated Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) and post-COVID-19 complications affect human life drastically. Patients who have been cured of COVID-19 infection are now experiencing post-COVID-19 associated comorbidities, which have increased mortality rates.  The SARS-CoV-2 infection distresses the lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and various endocrine glands, including the thyroid. The emergence of variants which includes Omicron (B.1.1.529) and its lineages threaten the world severely. Among different therapeutic approaches, phytochemical-based therapeutics are not only cost-effective but also have lesser side effects. Recently a plethora of studies have shown the therapeutic efficacy of various phytochemicals for the treatment of COVID-19. Besides this, various phytochemicals have been found efficacious in treating several inflammatory diseases, including thyroid-related anomalies. The method of the phytochemical formulation is quick and facile and the raw materials for such herbal preparations are approved worldwide for human use against certain disease conditions. Owing to the advantages of phytochemicals, this review primarily discusses the COVID-19-related thyroid dysfunction and the role of key phytochemicals to deal with thyroid anomaly and post-COVID-19 complications. Further, this review shed light on the mechanism via which COVID-19 and its related complication affect organ function of the body, along with the mechanistic insight into the way by which phytochemicals could help to cure post-COVID-19 complications in thyroid patients. Considering the advantages offered by phytochemicals as a safer and cost-effective medication they can be potentially used to combat COVID-19-associated comorbidities.

3.
J Neurosci Res ; 101(6): 952-975, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315263

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The hallmarks are the presence of Lewy bodies composed mainly of aggregated α-synuclein and immune activation and inflammation in the brain. The neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 with induction of cytokine storm and neuroinflammation can contribute to the development of PD. Interestingly, overexpression of α-synuclein in PD patients may limit SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons; however, on the other hand, this virus can speed up the α-synuclein aggregation. The review aims to discuss the potential link between COVID-19 and the risk of PD, highlighting the need for further studies to authenticate the potential association. We have also overviewed the influence of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the PD course and management. In this context, we presented the prospects for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and related PD cases that, beyond global vaccination and novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, may include the development of graphene-based nanoscale platforms offering antiviral and anti-amyloid strategies against PD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Humans , alpha-Synuclein/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Dopaminergic Neurons
4.
EJIFCC ; 34(1):42-56, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2293449

ABSTRACT

Background Inflammatory and hematological markers are used extensively for early prognostication and monitoring in COVID-19. We aimed to determine whether routinely prescribed laboratory markers can predict adverse outcome at presentation in COVID-19. Methods This retrospective observational study was performed on 401 samples collected between July to December 2020 from COVID-19 positive subjects, admitted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India. Clinical details and laboratory investigations within 3 days of COVID-19 positivity were obtained. Clinical outcomes were noted from patient medical records, till discharge or death. Laboratory parameters, with individually defined cut-offs, were used, either singly or in combination to distinguish survival and death for those having severe and non-severe disease at initial presentation. Findings Total Leukocyte count, Absolute neutrophil count, Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Lactate Dehydrogenase, Ferritin and Lymphocyte to CRP ratio (LCR) were significantly altered at presentation in severe COVID-19 as compared to non-severe cases;and, also in those who died due to COVID-19 compared to those who survived. A combination of four markers, CRP (≥3.9mg/dL);IL-6 (≥45.37pg/ml);Ferritin (≥373ng/mL);1/LCR ≥0.405 was found to strongly predict mortality in cases with non-severe presentation as also in severe cases. Conclusion and Interpretation The combination of routinely used markers, CRP, IL-6, Ferritin and 1/LCR can be used to predict adverse outcomes, even in those presenting with mild to moderate disease. This would identify subset of patients who would benefit from closer monitoring than usual for non-severe disease.

5.
Ann Hematol ; 101(9): 1887-1895, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248675

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic triggered by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 entry point involves the interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, CD147, and erythrocyte Band3 protein. Hemolytic anemia has been linked to COVID-19 through induction of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) caused by the formation of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) or directly through CD147 or erythrocyte Band3 protein-mediated erythrocyte injury. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive view of the potential mechanisms contributing to hemolytic anemia during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Taken together, data discussed here highlight that SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to hemolytic anemia directly through cytopathic injury or indirectly through induction of auto-Abs. Thus, as SARS-CoV-2-induced hemolytic anemia is increasingly associated with COVID-19, early detection and management of this condition may prevent the poor prognostic outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, since hemolytic exacerbations may occur upon medicines for COVID-19 treatment and anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, continued monitoring for complications is also required. Given that, intelligent nanosystems offer tools for broad-spectrum testing and early diagnosis of the infection, even at point-of-care sites.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Anemia, Hemolytic/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(2)2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276869

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus, a causative agent of the common cold to a much more complicated disease such as "severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV-2), and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)", is a member of the coronaviridae family and contains a positive-sense single-stranded RNA of 26-32 kilobase pairs. COVID-19 has shown very high mortality and morbidity and imparted a significantly impacted socioeconomic status. There are many variants of SARS-CoV-2 that have originated from the mutation of the genetic material of the original coronavirus. This has raised the demand for efficient treatment/therapy to manage newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 infections successfully. However, different types of vaccines have been developed and administered to patients but need more attention because COVID-19 is not under complete control. In this article, currently developed nanotechnology-based vaccines are explored, such as inactivated virus vaccines, mRNA-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, S-protein-based vaccines, virus-vectored vaccines, etc. One of the important aspects of vaccines is their administration inside the host body wherein nanotechnology can play a very crucial role. Currently, more than 26 nanotechnology-based COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in various phases of clinical trials. Nanotechnology is one of the growing fields in drug discovery and drug delivery that can also be used for the tackling of coronavirus. Nanotechnology can be used in various ways to design and develop tools and strategies for detection, diagnosis, and therapeutic and vaccine development to protect against COVID-19. The design of instruments for speedy, precise, and sensitive diagnosis, the fabrication of potent sanitizers, the delivery of extracellular antigenic components or mRNA-based vaccines into human tissues, and the administration of antiretroviral medicines into the organism are nanotechnology-based strategies for COVID-19 management. Herein, we discuss the application of nanotechnology in COVID-19 vaccine development and the challenges and opportunities in this approach.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239678

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) breakout had an unimaginable worldwide effect in the 21st century, claiming millions of lives and putting a huge burden on the global economy. The potential developments in vaccine technologies following the determination of the genetic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 and the increasing global efforts to bring potential vaccines and therapeutics into the market for emergency use have provided a small bright spot to this tragic event. Several intriguing vaccine candidates have been developed using recombinant technology, genetic engineering, and other vaccine development technologies. In the last decade, a vast amount of the vaccine development process has diversified towards the usage of viral vector-based vaccines. The immune response elicited by such vaccines is comparatively higher than other approved vaccine candidates that require a booster dose to provide sufficient immune protection. The non-replicating adenoviral vectors are promising vaccine carriers for infectious diseases due to better yield, cGMP-friendly manufacturing processes, safety, better efficacy, manageable shipping, and storage procedures. As of April 2022, the WHO has approved a total of 10 vaccines around the world for COVID-19 (33 vaccines approved by at least one country), among which three candidates are adenoviral vector-based vaccines. This review sheds light on the developmental summary of all the adenoviral vector-based vaccines that are under emergency use authorization (EUA) or in the different stages of development for COVID-19 management.

8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 220: 114847, 2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239673

ABSTRACT

Existing public health emergencies due to fatal/infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and monkeypox have raised the paradigm of 5th generation portable intelligent and multifunctional biosensors embedded on a single chip. The state-of-the-art 5th generation biosensors are concerned with integrating advanced functional materials with controllable physicochemical attributes and optimal machine processability. In this direction, 2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), owing to their enhanced effective surface area, tunable physicochemical properties, and rich surface functionalities, have shown promising performances in biosensing flatlands. Moreover, their hybridization with diversified nanomaterials caters to their associated challenges for the commercialization of stability due to restacking and oxidation. MXenes and its hybrid biosensors have demonstrated intelligent and lab-on-chip prospects for determining diverse biomarkers/pathogens related to fatal and infectious diseases. Recently, on-site detection has been clubbed with solution-on-chip MXenes by interfacing biosensors with modern-age technologies, including 5G communication, internet-of-medical-things (IoMT), artificial intelligence (AI), and data clouding to progress toward hospital-on-chip (HOC) modules. This review comprehensively summarizes the state-of-the-art MXene fabrication, advancements in physicochemical properties to architect biosensors, and the progress of MXene-based lab-on-chip biosensors toward HOC solutions. Besides, it discusses sustainable aspects, practical challenges and alternative solutions associated with these modules to develop personalized and remote healthcare solutions for every individual in the world.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Internet of Things , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals
9.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231862

ABSTRACT

Long COVID consequences have changed the perception towards disease management, and it is moving towards personal healthcare monitoring. In this regard, wearable devices have revolutionized the personal healthcare sector to track and monitor physiological parameters of the human body continuously. This would be largely beneficial for early detection (asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic cases of COVID-19), live patient conditions, and long COVID monitoring (COVID recovered patients and healthy individuals) for better COVID-19 management. There are multitude of wearable devices that can observe various human body parameters for remotely monitoring patients and self-monitoring mode for individuals. Smart watches, smart tattoos, rings, smart facemasks, nano-patches, etc., have emerged as the monitoring devices for key physiological parameters, such as body temperature, respiration rate, heart rate, oxygen level, etc. This review includes long COVID challenges for frequent monitoring of biometrics and its possible solution with wearable device technologies for diagnosis and post-therapy of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Body Temperature , Technology
10.
Biosens Bioelectron X ; 12: 100284, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122340

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 infection outbreak has raised the demand for rapid, highly sensitive POC biosensing technology for intelligent health and wellness. In this direction, efforts are being made to explore high-performance nano-systems for developing novel sensing technologies capable of functioning at point-of-care (POC) applications for quick diagnosis, data acquisition, and disease management. A combination of nanostructures [i.e., 0D (nanoparticles & quantum dots), 1D (nanorods, nanofibers, nanopillars, & nanowires), 2D (nanosheets, nanoplates, nanopores) & 3D nanomaterials (nanocomposites and complex hierarchical structures)], biosensing prototype, and micro-electronics makes biosensing suitable for early diagnosis, detection & prevention of life-threatening diseases. However, a knowledge gap associated with the potential of 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D nanostructures for the design and development of efficient POC sensing is yet to be explored carefully and critically. With this focus, this review highlights the latest engineered 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D nanomaterials for developing next-generation miniaturized, portable POC biosensors development to achieve high sensitivity with potential integration with the internet of medical things (IoMT, for miniaturization and data collection, security, and sharing), artificial intelligence (AI, for desired analytics), etc. for better diagnosis and disease management at the personalized level.

11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081896

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a "wicked evil" in this century due to its extended progression and huge human mortalities. Although the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection is made simple and practical by employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) investigation, the process is costly, complex, time-consuming, and requires experts for testing and the constraints of a laboratory. Therefore, these challenges have raised the paradigm of on-site portable biosensors on a single chip, which reduces human resources and enables remote access to minimize the overwhelming burden on the existing global healthcare sector. This article reviews the recent advancements in biosensors for long coronavirus disease (COVID) management using a multitude of devices, such as point-of-care biosensors and lab-on-chip biosensors. Furthermore, it details the shift in the paradigm of SARS-CoV-2-on-chip biosensors from the laboratory to on-site detection with intelligent and economical operation, representing near-future diagnostic technologies for public health emergency management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Point-of-Care Systems
12.
Materials Today ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061637

ABSTRACT

Face masks have been used as the most effective and economically viable preventive tool, which also creates a sense of social solidarity in collectively combatting the airborne health hazards. In spite of enormous research literature, massive production, and a competitive market, the use of modern age face masks-respirators (FMR) is restricted for specific purposes or during public health emergencies. It is attributed to lack of awareness, prominent myths, architect and manufacturing limitations, health concerns, and probable solid waste management. However, enormous efforts have been dedicated to address these issues through using modern age materials and textiles such as nanomaterials during mask fabrication. Conventional FMRs possess bottlenecks of breathing issues, skin problems, single use, fungal infections, communication barrier for differently abled, inefficiency to filter minute contaminants, sourcing secondary contamination and issue of solid-waste management upon usage. Contrary, FMR engineered with functional nanomaterials owing to the high specific surface area, unique physicochemical properties, and enriched surface chemistries address these challenges due to smart features like self-cleaning ability, biocompatibility, transparency, multiple usages, anti-contaminant, good breathability, excellent filtration capacity, and pathogen detecting and scavenging capabilities. This review highlights the state-of-the-art smart FMR engineered with different dimensional nanomaterials and nanocomposites to combat airborne health hazards, especially due to infectious outbreaks and air contamination. Besides, the myths and facts about smart FMR, associated challenges, potential sustainable solutions, and prospects for “point-of-action” intelligent operation of smart FMRs with the integration of internet-of-nano-things, 5G wireless communications, and artificial intelligence are discussed.

13.
OpenNano ; 8:100078-100078, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2026957

ABSTRACT

The emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants made emerging novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) pandemic/endemic/or both more severe and difficult to manage due to increased worry about the efficacy and efficiency of present preventative, therapeutic, and sensing measures. To deal with these unexpected circumstances, the development of novel nano-systems with tuneable optical, electrical, magnetic, and morphological properties can lead to novel research needed for (1) COVID-19 infection (anti-microbial systems against SARS-CoV-2), (2) early detection of mutated SARS-CoV-2, and (3) targeted delivery of therapeutics using nano-systems, i.e., nanomedicine. However, there is a knowledge gap in understanding all these nano-biotechnology potentials for managing mutated SARS-CoV-2 on a single platform. To bring up the aspects of nanotechnology to tackle SARS-CoV-2 variants related COVID-19 pandemic, this article emphasizes improvements in the high-performance of nano-systems to combat SARS-CoV-2 strains/variants with a goal of managing COVID-19 infection via trapping, eradication, detection/sensing, and treatment of virus. The potential of state-of-the-art nano-assisted approaches has been demonstrated as an efficient drug delivery systems, viral disinfectants, vaccine productive cargos, anti-viral activity, and biosensors suitable for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Furthermore, the process linked with the efficacy of nanosystems to neutralize and eliminate SARS-CoV-2 is extensively highligthed in this report. The challenges and opportunities associated with managing COVID-19 using nanotechnology as part of regulations are also well-covered. The outcomes of this review will help researchers to design, investigate, and develop an appropriate nano system to manage COVID-19 infection, with a focus on the detection and eradication of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. This article is unique in that it discusses every aspect of high-performance nanotechnology for ideal COVID pandemic management. Graphical Image, graphical

15.
Innovation (Camb) ; 3(5): 100303, 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984243
16.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-26, 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978094

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. Though the virus primarily damages the respiratory and cardiovascular systems after binding to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, it has the potential to affect all major organ systems, including the human nervous system. There are multiple clinical reports of anosmia, dizziness, headache, nausea, ageusia, encephalitis, demyelination, neuropathy, memory loss, and neurological complications in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Though the molecular mechanism of these brain dysfunctions during SARS-CoV-2 infection is elusive, the mitochondria seem to be an integral part of this pathogenesis. Emerging research findings suggest that the dysfunctional mitochondria and associated altered bioenergetics in the infected host cells lead to altered energy metabolism in the brain of Covid-19 patients. The interactome between viral proteins and mitochondrial proteins during Covid-19 pathogenesis also provides evidence for the involvement of mitochondria in SARS-CoV-2-induced brain dysfunctions. The present review discusses the possible role of mitochondria in disturbing the SARS-CoV-2 mediated brain functions, with the potential to use this information to prevent and treat these impairments.

17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12949, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960499

ABSTRACT

Amid ongoing devastation due to Serve-Acute-Respiratory-Coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2), the global spatial and temporal variation in the pandemic spread has strongly anticipated the requirement of designing area-specific preventive strategies based on geographic and meteorological state-of-affairs. Epidemiological and regression models have strongly projected particulate matter (PM) as leading environmental-risk factor for the COVID-19 outbreak. Understanding the role of secondary environmental-factors like ammonia (NH3) and relative humidity (RH), latency of missing data structuring, monotonous correlation remains obstacles to scheme conclusive outcomes. We mapped hotspots of airborne PM2.5, PM10, NH3, and RH concentrations, and COVID-19 cases and mortalities for January, 2021-July,2021 from combined data of 17 ground-monitoring stations across Delhi. Spearmen and Pearson coefficient correlation show strong association (p-value < 0.001) of COVID-19 cases and mortalities with PM2.5 (r > 0.60) and PM10 (r > 0.40), respectively. Interestingly, the COVID-19 spread shows significant dependence on RH (r > 0.5) and NH3 (r = 0.4), anticipating their potential role in SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. We found systematic lockdown as a successful measure in combatting SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. These outcomes strongly demonstrate regional and temporal differences in COVID-19 severity with environmental-risk factors. The study lays the groundwork for designing and implementing regulatory strategies, and proper urban and transportation planning based on area-specific environmental conditions to control future infectious public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11431, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921707

ABSTRACT

Emergent application of antimicrobial strategies as symptomatic treatment in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and linkage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 with microbial infections, has created colossal demand for antimicrobials. For the first time, this communication explore the physicochemical, antifungal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic properties of biogenic magnesium nanoparticles (MgNPs), synthesized using essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus's as an efficient multifunctional reducing and stabilizing/capping reagent. It is observed that MgNPs (ranging in size: 8-16 nm) of varying phytochemical compositions (MgS1, MgS2, MgS3) exhibited various useful physicochemical, antimicrobial, and photocatalytic properties. FTIR outcomes highlight the functional biomolecules-assisted reduction of Mg from Mg+ to Mg0. Among all, MgS3-Nps owing to the smallest particle size exhibited superior photocatalytic efficacy (91.2%) for the methylene blue degradation upon direct exposure to the sunlight for 3 h without using any reducing agents. Fabricated MgNPs also exhibited excellent antifungal (against Fusarium oxysporum) and antibacterial (versus Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) efficacies compared to state-of-the-art antimicrobial agents deployed for the treatment of infectious diseases. Based on this investigated greener approach, imperative from economic and environmental viewpoint, such essential oil based-MgNPs can be a potential nanosystem for various industrial applications where photocatalytic, and biomedical attributes are the key requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nanoparticles , Oils, Volatile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Magnesium , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
19.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 355(10): e2200188, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877557

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is linked with inflammatory disorders and the development of oxidative stress in extreme cases. Therefore, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drugs may alleviate these complications. Ginkgo biloba L. folium extract (EGb) is a herbal medicine containing various active constituents. This review aims to provide a critical discussion on the potential role of EGb in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The antiviral effect of EGb is mediated by different mechanisms, including blocking SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease that provides trans-variant effectiveness. Moreover, EGb impedes the development of pulmonary inflammatory disorders through the diminution of neutrophil elastase activity, the release of proinflammatory cytokines, platelet aggregation, and thrombosis. Thus, EGb can attenuate the acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19. In conclusion, EGb offers the potential of being used as adjuvant antiviral and symptomatic therapy. Nanosystems enabling targeted delivery, personalization, and booster of effects provide the opportunity for the use of EGb in modern phytotherapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Ginkgo biloba , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chymases , Cytokines , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
20.
Applied Surface Science Advances ; 9:100236-100236, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755824

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19), a viral infection pandemic, arises due to easy human-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory disorders and other life-threatening diseases (during/post-infection) such as black mold disease, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders/diseases. COVID-19 infection emerged challenging to control as SARS-CoV-2 transmits through respiratory droplets (> 10 µm size range), aerosols (< 5 µm), airborne, and particulate matter (PM1.0 PM2.5 and PM10.0). SARS-CoV-2 is more infective in indoor premises due to aerodynamics where droplets, aerosols, and PM1.0/2.5/10.0 float for a longer time and distance leading to a higher probability of it entering upper and lower respiratory tracts. To avoid human-to-human transmission, it is essential to trap and destroy SARS-CoV-2 from the air and provide virus-free air that will significantly reduce indoor viral exposure concerns. In this process, an efficient nano-enable photoelectrochemical oxidation (PECO, a destructive approach to neutralize bio-organism) assisted air purification is undoubtedly a good technological choice. This technical perspective explores the role of PECO-assisted Air-Purifiers (i.e., Molekule as a focus example for proof-of-concept) to trap and destroy indoor microorganisms (bacteria and viruses including Coronaviruses), molds, and allergens, and other indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM1.0/2.5/10.0. It is observed through various standard and non-standard tests that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials coated filter technology traps and destroys microbial particles. Due to technological advancements according to premises requirements and high-performance desired outcomes, Molekule air purifiers, Air Pro Air -Rx, Air Mini, and Air Mini+, have received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance as a Class II medical device for the destruction of bacteria and viruses. Graphical Image, graphical

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