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Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7225, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890252


Tear fluid cytokine levels may serve as biomarkers of innate immune system response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, our aim was to analyze panel of selected inflammatory cytokines in tears of COVID-19 patients in relation to presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in conjunctival secretions. In this study concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p70, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ were determined by a magnetic bead assay in tear film collected from 232 symptomatic COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 ocular infection was confirmed based on positive conjunctival swab-based RT-PCR testing. Viral RNA in conjunctival sac was detected in 21 patients (9%). No relation between presence and the duration of ophthalmic symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 infection detected in conjunctival secretions was found. The tear film concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-8 and GM-CSF were found to be significantly greater among patients with positive conjunctival swab results as compared to the group negative for SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival sac. Our current data depict a group of inflammatory mediators in human tears, which may play a significant role in ocular pathology of SARS-CoV-2 conjunctival infection.

COVID-19 , Conjunctiva , Cytokines , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-8 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tears , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847361


BACKGROUND: This study investigated the presence and duration of ophthalmic symptoms in the early phase of COVID-19 to assess the corresponding local immune response on the ocular surface. METHODS: The study included data from 180 COVID-19 patients and 160 age-matched healthy controls. The main finding was the occurrence of ophthalmological manifestations at the time of admission to the hospital and during the preceding 7 days. Tear film concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p70, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ were determined by a magnetic bead assay. RESULTS: Among the COVID-19 patients, 12.64% had at least one ocular symptom at the time of admission, and 24.14% had symptoms within the preceding 7 days (p < 0.001 vs. controls). We found that the COVID-19 patients complained more frequently about eye tearing (p = 0.04) and eye pain (p = 0.01) than controls. A multivariate analysis of the patients and controls adjusted for age and sex revealed that COVID-19 was an independent factor associated with higher VEGF and IL-10 tear film concentrations (ß = +0.13, p = 0.047 and ß = +0.34, p < 0.001, respectively) and lower IL-1ß, IL-8, and GM-CSF levels (ß = -0.25, p < 0.001; ß = -0.18, p = 0.004; and ß = -0.82, p = 0.0 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 does not attract a strong local response of the conjunctival immune system; therefore, ophthalmic symptoms may not constitute a substantial element in the clinical picture of novel COVID-19 infection.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(2)2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690192


In December 2019 the SARS-CoV-2 virus appeared in the world, mainly presenting as an acute infection of the lower respiratory tract, namely pneumonia. Nearly 10% of all patients show significant pulmonary fibrotic changes after the infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of potassium canrenoate in the treatment of COVID-19-associated pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. We performed a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of potassium canrenoate vs placebo. A total of 55 patients were randomized and 49 were included in the final analysis (24 allocated to the intervention group and 25 allocated to the control group). Patients were assessed by physical examination, lung ultrasound, CT imaging and blood samples that underwent biochemical analysis. This RCT has shown that the administration of potassium canrenoate to patients with COVID-19 induced pneumonia was not associated with shorter mechanical ventilation time, shorter passive oxygenation, shorter length of hospitalization or less fibrotic changes on CT imaging. The overall mortality rate was not significantly different between the two groups. Adverse events recorded in this study were not significantly increased by the administration of potassium canrenoate. The negative outcome of the study may be associated with the relatively small number of patients included. Any possible benefits from the use of potassium canrenoate as an antifibrotic drug in COVID-19 patients require further investigation.